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OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



PRINTED BY 

SrOTTISWOODE AND CO., NEW-STREET SQUARE 

LONDON 



OLD 
CORNISH CROSSES 



BY 



ARTHUR G. LANGDON 



WITH AN ARTICLE ON THEIR ORNAMENT 

BY 



J. ROMILLY ALLEN, F.S.A. (Scot.) 




TRURO 
JOSEPH POLLARD, 5 ST NICHOLAS STREET 

1896 



PREFACE 



When, with ever-increasing interest, I was led, some twelve years 
ago, to commence making measured drawings of the Ancient Crosses 
of my native county, I had no intention of producing a book on the 
subject. 

I was already well acquainted with Mr. J. T. Blight's ' Ancient 
Crosses and Antiquities of Cornwall,' and my original idea was to 
draw only those which he had omitted. My difficulties, however, 
soon commenced. In the first place, it was necessary to re-draw 
all the ornate examples, since, practically, none of the ornament upon 
them had been shown. Then there were the numerous districts 
unexplored by Mr. Blight ; and, lastly, many crosses had been dis- 
covered subsequent to the publication of his book. 

An entirely new work, therefore, seemed necessary, and one 
which should be systematically arranged, with the specimens classi- 
fied and the whole of the ornament accurately delineated. 

I have endeavoured to complete this work by making and classi- 
fying a series of drawings of all the different examples in Cornwall, 
in such a manner as to enable a comparison to be made with similar 
examples in other localities ; feeling that, unless this were done, no 
satisfactory conclusion could be formed regarding them. 

My object also has been to place on record trustworthy descrip- 



vi OLD CORNISH CROSSES 

tions of the different monuments thus illustrated, with as much 
information respecting their local history and vicissitudes as was 
procurable. 

With the exception of examples which have from time to time 
appeared in papers on the subject contributed by me to the journals 
of various archaeological societies, no detailed representations have 
until now been made of the ornamentation of the Cornish crosses. 
It does not seem to have occurred previously to anyone to make 
rubbings of the crosses, a process without which it is absolutely im- 
possible to ascertain what ornament exists. Frequently a stone 
appears to bear only a few unintelligible marks ; but on a rubbing 
being taken with the proper materials, the ornament clearly reveals 
itself, and can be carefully sketched in on the spot. The rubbing is 
then ready to be photographed to the required scale. By adopting 
this system I am now able to present, for the first time, a 
complete series of the variously ornamented crosses in Cornwall. 

The most pleasant part of my work is to render my sincere 
thanks to those friends who have afforded me their very valuable 
assistance. Foremost amongst these is Mr. J. Romilly Allen, F.S.A. 
(Scot), to whose inspiring aid and unfailing sympathy I owe more 
than I can express. But for his assistance my work would not be 
what I trust it is ; and I have especially appreciated his help in 
regard to information on Hiberno-Saxon Ornament, of which his 
great and unique knowledge is too well known in the archaeological 
world to need further comment here. 

The late Mr. S. J. Wills, formerly head-master of the Wheal Ruby 
Board Schools, St. Wendron, has supj)lied me, as will be seen, with 
much interesting matter in connection with what I may call the 
local history of many of the crosses. In his company, and guided 
by his knowledge of the neighbourhood, I was able to visit the 
crosses in the parishes of St. Breage, Constantine, Crowan, and St. 
Wendron. These localities had not, to my knowledc^e, been pre- 



PREFACE vii 

viously explored, and our investigations resulted in the acquisition of 
many valuable examples hitherto unillustrated. Mr. Wills was a 
keen antiquary and a fine draughtsman. His loss will long be felt 
in Cornwall, where his name will live in the memory of all who 
value these old crosses, which he studied so earnestly and loved 
so well. 

From the Cornish clergy I have received great assistance, espe- 
cially from the Rev. W. lago, of Bodmin, whose work on the 
Inscribed Stones of Cornwall is, I believe, shortly to appear. We 
have spent many a day together, working at the ornamented and 
inscribed stones, in which we possessed a common interest. 

The Rev. R. Basset Rogers, vicar of Sancreed, and the Rev. 
Canon Hockin, rector of Phillack, are both the happy possessors of 
fine collections of crosses in their churchyards, information regarding 
which they have spared no pains to obtain for me, and they are 
therefore especially entitled to receive my best thanks. 

I have also to thank the Rev. Paul D'O. Silvester, vicar of St. 
Levan, and the Rev. S. Rundle, vicar of Godolphin, who have 
favoured me with particulars of the crosses in their neighbourhoods. 

I am much indebted to Mr. John D. Enys, of Enys, Penryn, for 
the numerous valuable facts he has contributed from the vast stores 
of knowledge he possesses of Cornish antiquities generally. 

Photography has proved a great help, and I have to thank my 
old friend. Dr. S. G. Litteljohn, of Hanwell, who has very kindly 
photographed many of my rubbings to scale. 

I have received assistance in the revision of my manuscript from 
my friends A. Silley, G. Cheney, F.S.A., A. E. Dowling, B.A., and 
my brother, the Rev. Father Langdon, of Launceston. 

With regard to the publication of this book, there is one whose 
name I am not permitted to mention, though but for his generosity 
it could not have appeared. Nevertheless, I cannot forbear this 
inadequate expression of gratitude for the sympathetic appreciation 



viii OLD CORNISH CROSSES 

of my efforts to do justice to a subject which possesses such a deep 
interest for both of us. 

In conclusion, I wish to point out that I have endeavoured to 
avoid fanciful theories, and to substantiate statements by reference 
to authorities. Critical readers will, of course, bear in mind that there 
is no precedent to which I could have referred for the classification 
and arrangement of the materials of my book. 

In bidding farewell to a subject which has engaged my attention 
for many years, I trust I have been enabled, to some extent, to do 
justice to the beauty and grand simplicity of the art which still sur- 
vives, after so many centuries, in the old Cornish crosses. 

A. G. LANGDON. 

Westminster, S.W. 



CONTENTS 



PAGE 

Index of Crosses xv 

List of Crosses arranged in Parishes xxi 

INTRODUCTORY REMARKS 

Number of Monuments ............. i 

Early Christianity in Cornwall 2 

Relation of the Earlier Inscribed Stones to the Crosses 4 

Probable Object of the Erection of the Crosses 7 

Geographical Distribution of the Different Types of Crosses in Cornwall . . . . 9 
Method of Classification . . . . . . . . • • • • .11 

Method Employed in Dealing with each Cross 13 

Material 15 

The Forms of the Crosses on the Monuments i''> 

Probable Age of some of the Crosses 17 

The Different Purposes for which the Cornish Crosses have been Re-used . . . 20 

The Supposed Symbolism of the Ornament on the Crosses 25 

Bibliography of the Monuments ............ 29 

CLASS A 

UNORNAMENTED CROSSES 

Upright Slabs and Pillars with Crosses in Relief 35 

Wheel Crosses 40 

Wheel Crosses with Equal-limbed Crosses in Relief on the Head . . . -4' 

Wheel Crosses with the Addition of Sundry Architectural Features . . ■ • 95 
Wheel Crosses with a Latin Cross or Crosses in Relief upon them, the Upper Limbs 

Contained in the Head 99 

Wheel Crosses with the Figure of Our Lord in Relief on the Front 

AND a Cross on the Back 119 

The Figure (Notes on) 120 

Transitional Monuments of Semi-Gothic Character 151 



X OLD CORNISH CROSSES 

PAGB 

Wheel Crosses with Projections at the Neck or on the Head . . . 155 

Wheel Crosses with Projections at the Neck I55 

Similar to those last described, but with a Rectangular Projection on Top of 

the Head 170 

Wheel Crosses with Crucial Projections 171 

Miscellaneous Forms of Unornamented Crosses 175 

Holed Crosses 17S 

Three-holed Crosses i79 

Four-holed Crosses . ... ........ 1S2 

having no Beads on the Head . . . . . • • • . . 182 

with Beads on the Head and Projections at the Neck 185 

with an Abacus 185 

having Five Bosses on both Front and Back of the Head .... 188 

with the Figure of Our Lord on the Front and Five Bosses on the Back . . i8g 

with Cusps in the Openings 193 

Latin Crosses i97 

Miscellaneous Mutilated and other Examples, not Illustrated . .216 

Defaced or Mutilated Crosses 217 

Partly buried Crosses 222 

Parts of Cross-shafts in Bases 224 

Cross-shafts 225 

Missing Crosses 226 



CLASS B 

ORNAMENTED CROSSES 

Monuments with Incised Crosses or with Incised Ornament . . . 233 

Incised Crosses 237 

Incised Equal-limbed Crosses or Latin Crosses on Wheel Crosses . . . 237 
Incised Equal-limbed or Latin Crosses on Latin Crosses . . . -251 

Incised Crosses in Outline 260 

Incised Crosses partially in Outline 272 

Incised Crosses of different kinds appearing in Combination witl) Sini|)]c Forms 

of Incised Enrichment, consisting of Lines or Rectangular Figures . . 2S0 

With the Figure of Our Lord incised on the Front , . . 286 

Incised Ornament 290 

On Wheel Crosses 290 

On Wheel Crosses with Projections at the Neck 301 

On a Wheel Cross with Projections at the Neck, ant! with the Figure of Our 

Lord in Relief on the PVont . . . 310 

On a Holed Cross 311 

On a Latin Cross 313 

Monuments with .Sl'nk Crosses ok wtiii Siixk Ornament . . . 314 

.Sunk Crosses 315 

On a I'illar-stone 315 



CONTENTS xi 



PAGE 



Sunk Crosses {contini/cci) — 

On Wheel Crosses 318 

Partly Sunk and Partly in Relief 325 

Sunk Ornament ............. 326 

The Double Chevron Pattern 326 

On Wheel Crosses 328 

On a Wheel Cross with Projections at the Neck . 332 

Monuments with Miscellaneous Ornament different in Character to 
THAT on the Crosses already Described, and consisting chiefly 

OF Beadwork or Emblems in Relief 334 

With Human Heads 335 

With a Fleur-de-Lis ............. 337 

With a Heart 338 

With a Cross and Ring ............ 340 

With Beadwork 342 

Monuments with Celtic or Hiberno-Saxon Ornament 348 

Article on above by J. Romilly Allen, F.S.A. (Scot.) .... 348 

Crosses with Inscriptions and Ornament ......... 353 

Ornamented Crosses complete, with Inscriptions in the Panels on the Shafts . 353 

Ornamented Cross-shafts with Inscribed Panels 368 

Ornamented Cross-base with an Inscribed Panel ...... 377 

Crosses with Ornament Only ........... 380 

Ornamented Crosses Complete 380 

Ornamented Holed Crosses without Cusps in the Openings . . . 380 

Ornamented Holed Crosses with Cusps in the Openings .... 394 

Ornamented Cross-shafts . . . . . . . . . . . 401 

Part of Ornamented Cross-shaft in its Base 407 

CLASS C 

M ISC ELLA NE O US MONUMENTS 

Coped Stones 411 

Early Cross-slabs 419 

Cross-bases 422 

Gothic Crosses 427 

Index 427 

List of Subscribers 435 



Errata 

P. 50. Line ^,for Sancreed, No. 2, r^"*^^ Sancreed, No. 4. 

P. 175. 7^9r Blisland, No. I, ;Yf?c/ Blisland. 

P. iSS. For Si. Wendron, No. i, read Sit. Wendron. 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



All the Crosses mentioned in the following ' Index of Crosses' are 
illustrated, except those marked 'defaced,' 'partly buried,' 'part of 
cross-shaft in base,' or * missing.' 

In addition to the 256 block illustrations of the Crosses in the 
text there are also the following Sketches and Plates : — 

SKETCHES AND DIAGRAMS 

PAGE 

Diagram showing Construction of Double Chevron Pattern . . . 327 

Sketch of East End of Chancel, Cardynham Church, showing Crosses 

built into the wall 354 

Sketch showing Present Use of the Biscovey Cross-shaft .... 369 

Sketch showing Waterpit Down Cross-shaft as used in Trekeek Farmyard 374 

Diagram of Plaitwork, showing Formation of Figure-of-Eight Knots 388, 389 

PLA TES 

St, Burvan, No. i. In the Churchtown Tofacep. 125 

St. Burvan, No. 2. In the Churchyard „ 190 

BocoNNOC, No. 3. In Boconnoc Park „ 292 

St. Dennis. In the Churchyard „ 294 

Lanivet, No. i. In the Churchyard „ 296 

St. Levan, No. 2. In the Churchyard „ 299 

Eastbourne, Sussex. In the Manor-house Grounds ... „ 304 

Scorrier No. 2, St. Day „ izi 

Mylor. In the Churchyard ,, 343 

Roche, No. 2. In the Churchyard „ 344 



xiv OLD CORNISH CROSSES 

In Merther Unv Old Churchyard, St. Wendron . 
Cardvnham, No. 3. In the Churchyard 

Lanherne, Ma\vgan-in-Pvder 

Sancreed, No. 3. In the Churchyard 

Sancreed, No. 4. In the Churchyard . . . . 

BiscovEY, St. Blazey 

Gulval. In the Churchyard 

Waterpit Do\yn, Minster 

Redgate No. I, St. Cleer 

Lanhydrock. In the Churchyard 

Lanivet, No. 2. In the Churchyard 

The 'Four-holed Cross,' St. Neot 

Phillack, No. 6. In the Churchyard .... 

St. Teath. In the Cemetery 

Padstow, No. 3. Prideaux Place 

Quethiock. In Churchyard 

Rkdgate No. 2, St. Cleer 

St. Neot, No. 5. In the Churchyard .... 

Padstow, No. 4. In the Churchyard 

Lanivet. In Churchyard (Coped Stone) 
St. Tudy. In Churchyard (Coped Stone). 



To face p. 347 
356 
358 
36 r 
364 
371 
373 
376 
378 
382 
384 
388 
391 
393 
397 
399 
401 
407 
409 
413 
415 



INDEX OF CROSSES 

Including Coped Stones, Early Cross-slabs, and Cross-bases 



PLACE PARISH 

Agnes, St St. Agnes . 

Altarnon, No. i . . Altarnon . 
„ No. 2 . . „ 

Anjarden Sancreed . 

Austell, St St. Austell 



Badash (cross-base) St. Mary 
dalen, 



PAGE 

n 
42 
84 
91 
253 



parish 



Mag- 
Laun- 



ceston . 
St. Erth . 
St. Clether 



Bodmin . . 
St. Blazey . . 
St. Columb Major 



Battery Mill . . 
Basil, on Barton of 
No. I . . . 
No. 2 . . . 
No. 3 . . . 
No. 4 . . , 
Berry Tower . . 
Biscovey .... 
Black Cross . . 

„ Rock (defaced) „ 

„ „ (missing) Crowan . . 

Blisland Blisland . , 

Boconnoc, No. i . . Boconnoc . 
„ No. 2 . . 

No. 3 . . 
Boderwennack . . St. Wendron 
„ (cross-base) „ 

Bodilly „ 

Bodmin, No. i . . Bodmin . 
No. 2 . . . 
No. 3 . . 
„ No. 4 (missing) „ 
Bodriggy (defaced) . Phi Hack 
Bodwannick . . . Lanivet 
Boscathnoe .... Madron . 
Bosent Cross . . .St. Pinnock 
Boskenna, No. i . . St. Buryan 



423 
133 

157 
158 
158 

159 

46 

368 

206 

219 

228 

175 

51 

167 

291 

247 

423 

315 

46 

57 

74 

227 

221 

62 

214 
59 



,, ... 

Tintagel .... 
Constantine . . 


Madron .... 


Sancreed . . . 


St. Breage . . . 
St. Breward . . 


Lelant 


Budock . . . . 


,, . . . . 

St. Buryan . . . 



PLACE 

Boskenna Cross 

„ Gate Cross 

Bossiney Cross . 
Bosvathick . . . 
Boswarthen . . 
Brane .... 
Breage, St. . . 
Breward, St. . . 
Brunian Cairn . 
Budock, No. I 

No. 2 . 
Buryan, St., No. i 
No. 2 

„ (coped stone) 



Callywith .... Bodmin . 
Camborne, No. i . . Camborne . 
No. 2 . . 

„ (cross-base) „ 

Canada (missing) 

Cardynham, No x . Cardynham 

,, No. 2 (cross-shaft) „ 

„ No. 3 . . . 

„ near Holy Well 

(cross-base) „ 
Cargelly (cross-base). St. Breward 
Carlankan . . 



Carminnow 
Carnmenellis 
Carracawn 
Cattebedron 



St. Paul . . 
Bodmin . . 
Carnmenellis 
St. Germans 



PAGE 
126 
I 10 

98 
261 

269 

380 

394 
102 
245 
246 
125 
189 
416 

74 

46 

310 

422 

230 

173 
, 226 

■ 354 

, 422 

, 422 
. 202 



Cross 

(missing) Gwinear . . 
„ (cross-base) „ . . 

Chapel Rock (cross- St. Michael's 
base) Mount . . 

Chigwidden (missing) St. Levan . , 

Chywoone Cross . . St. Buryan . 



311 

2S0 



22S 
423 

423 

210 



XVI 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



PLACE PARISH 

Cleer Common, St. . St. Cleer . . 
deer's Well, St. . . „ 

Clement's, St. . . . St. Clement's . 
Clether, St. (see Basil) St. Clether . 
Clowance, No. i . . Crowan . . . 

„ No. 2 . . „ 

» No. 3 

Colquite 

Columb Major, St. . 
Columb Minor, St. 
(cross-base) . . . 
Connor Down . . . 
Constantine . . . 
Coombe, North . . . 

„ „ (cross- 

Copperhouse . . . 
Corran . . . 
Crafthole . . 
Cross Close. . 



301 

208 

6 

157 
130 

131 



St. Mabyn ... 66 
St. Columb Major 395 

St. Columb Minor 422 



„ Gates 

„ and Hand 

„ Hill . . 

„ Park . . 

„ Street . 
Crow] as . . . 
Crowz-an-wra . 
Cubert, St. . . 
Cury .... 



Gwinear 
Constantine 
Linkinhorne 
base) „ 
Phillack . . 
St. Ewe . 
Sheviocke . 
St. Columb Minor 
Madron . 
St. Clether 
St. Wenn . 
St. Mabyn 
Blisland . 
Helston . 
Ludgvan . 
St. Buryan 
St. Cubert 
Cury . . 



Deaconstow . . . St. Breward . 
„ (cross-base) „ 

Dennis, St St. Dennis . 

Deviock, Higher . . Cardynham 
Drift, Lower .... Sancreed . . 
Druids' Hill . . . Boconnoc . 

Eastbourne, Sussex from Kenwyn 
Eastcot (partly 

buried) . . . .St. Dominick 
Egloshayle, No. i . . Egloshayle 
„ No. 2 . 

Enodoc, St .St. Minver 

Enys St. Gluvias 

Erth, SL, No. i . . . St. Erth . 
No. 2 . . „ 
„ No. 3 . . „ 
Escalls Sennen . 



Fknton Tits. 
Feock, St. . 



Lanivet . 
St. Feock 



306 
47 
89 

422 

242 
80 

204 
39 

tS9 
94 
48 
215 
261 
269 

96 

267 

243 
423 
293 
293 
36 
167 

303 

223 
60 
86 

75 

47 

15' 

191 

402 

39 

52 
'53 



PLACE PARISH 

Flushing Flushing . 

Forrabury .... Forrabury . 
' Four-holed Cross' . St. Neot . 
Fraddon (partly 

buried) St. Enodor . 



Gamm Bridge (mis- 
sing) . . . . . 
Gamm Bridge (cross- 
base) 

Gerrans 

Godolphin . . . . 

Gulval 

Gunwalloe . . . . 

,, (cross-base) 

Gwennap, No, i . . 

No. 2 . . 

Gwinear, No. i . . 

No. 2 . . 

Gwythian 

Halsetown . . . 

Halwyn 

Hea Moor .... 

Helland 

Helston, No. i . . 

No. 2 . . . 

No. 3 . . 
Higher Deviock . . 
Highertown . . . 

Hilary, St 

Hilltown 

Hollo way Cross . . 

Holy Well, near 

(cross-base) . . . 

Illooan 

Ingonger, St. . . . 



St. Breward 



Gerrans . 
Godolphin 
Gulval . 
Gunwalloe 

Gwennap . 

Gwinear 

Gwythian 

Halsetown 
St. Paul . 
Madron . 
Mabe . . 
Helston . 



Cardynham 
Lansallos 
St. Hilary 
St. Neot 
Lewannick 



Cardynham 



I'AC-.E 

287 

60 

386 

223 



229 

422 
263 
252 
372 
69 

423 
148 

403 

48 

134 

168 

III 
203 

66 

323 
104 
261 
331 
293 
257 
275 
255 
166 

422 



Illogan .... 96 
Lanivet .... 52 



JULIOT, St., No. I . . St. Juliot .... 86 

„ No. 2 . „ ... 162 
Jusl-in-Pcnuilh, .St. . St. Just-in-Pen- 
vvith 

No. I „ . . 241 

No. 2 „ . . 270 

No. 3 „ . . 404 

Kea (shaft and Ijasc) Kea 225 

Kcnidjack, No. I . St. Just-in Pcn- 

with. loi 



INDEX OF CROSSES 



xvu 



PLACE PARISH page 

Kenidjack, No. 2 . . St. Just-in-Pen- 

with . . . .Ill 

Keyne, St St. Keyne . . . 213 

Kill-Boy Cross (mis- 
sing) Broadoak . . . 228 



Lambrenny 
Laneast Down 
Lanherne . . 
Lanhydrock . 
Lanivet, No. i 
„ No. 2 



Davidstow 
Laneast . 



Mawgan-in-Pyder 357 



Lanhydrock 
Lanivet . . 



206 
163 



„ No. 3 (coped- 

stone) . . „ ... 
„ No. 4 (early 

cross-slab) ,, . . 

Lanke, No. i . . .St. Breward 
„ No. 2 . . . 
„ near (cross-base) „ 
Lanteglos-by-Camel- Lanteglos-by- 
ford Camelford 

No. I . 
No. 2 . . 
No. 3 . 
Lavethan, No. i 
„ No. 2 
„ No. 3 
„ No. 4 
Lelant, No. i . 
„ No. 2 . 
„ No. 3 . 
„ No. 4 (defaced) 
„ No. 5 partly 

buried) „ .... 

„ Lane. ... „ 

Lesnewth .... Lesnewth . . . 
Leswidden (shaft and St. Just-in-Pen- 
base) with 

Levan, St., No. i . .St. Levan . . . 

„ No. 2 . . „ .... 

Liskeard (cross-shaft) Liskeard . . . 

Lizard Town .... Landewednack . . 



382 
295 
383 

412 

419 

58 

75 
422 



,, . . . 
» 


„ . . . 


Blisland. . . . 


11 . . . . 


» . . . . 


)> . . . . 


Lelant . . . . 


» 


» . . . . 

i) ,, 



63 

163 

169 
205 

238 

239 
254 

97 

143 
144 
220 

223 
213 

165 

225 



226 
276 



London 230 

Long Stone . . . . St. Cleer . . 
Lower Drift . . . Sancreed . 
Lower Town (partly 

buried) St. Allen . . 

Lower Youlton . . Warbstow . 
Ludgvan, No. i . . Ludgvan . . 

„ No. 2 . . „ 
Luxulyan Luxulyan 



301 
36 

222 

51 
114 
207 

64 



PLACE 
Mabe . . . 
Mabyn, St. . 
Madron . . . 
Manhay-vean 
Market-place . 
Mawgan Cross 



(cross- 



Mawnan . . 
Menabilly. 
Merryn, St. 

base) 

Merthen 

Merther Uny . . . 

„ „ Cross . 

Methrose . . . . 

Michael, St 

Michael's Mount, St. 
Michaelstow . . . 
Middle Moor . . . 
Minver, St. . 
Moor Lane 

base . . 
My lor . . 



PARISH 

Mabe . . 
St. Mabyn . 
Madron . . 
St. Wendron 
Penzance . 
Mawgan-in- 
Pyder . . 
Mawnan 
Tywardreath 

St. Merryn . 
Constantino . 
St. Wendron 

Luxulyan . 
St. Minver . 



(cross- 



Michaelstow 
St. Breward 
St. Minver . 

St. Breward 
Mylor . . 



Nangitha .... Budock 
„ (cross-base) „ 



Constantine . 
St. Just-in-Pen 

with ... 
St. Neot . . 



Nanjarrow . . 
Nanquidno . . 

Neot, St., No. I 

No. 2 . . 

„ No. 3 . . 

„ No. 4 . . 

No. 5 . . 

„ (cross-base) 

Newlyn Newlyn (Penzance) 

New Park . . . . St. Clether . 
Newtown . . . .St. Neot . 
North Coombe . . . Linkinhome 
„ (cross- 
base) „ 

Nun-Careg . . . . St. Bur)an . 



Padstow, No. I . . Padstow 
„ No. 2 (missing) „ 
„ No. 3 • • • 
„ No. 4 . . . 

Parc-an-growze (de- 
faced) MadroA 



106 

65 
278 
250 
308 

211 

90 

300 

423 
262 
346 
264 

65 
385 
150 

186 

239 
201 

422 
342 



84 
422 
321 

112 
201 
254 

255 
258 
405 

423 
212 
170 

247 



422 
319 



196 
229 
396 
407 



XVlll 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



PLACE PARISH 

Paul Down, St. . . St. Paul . 
Paul, St., No. I . . . „ 

„ No. 2 . . 

„ (cross-base) „ 
Penbeagle . . . . St. Ives . 
Pencarrow .... Egloshayle 
Pendan'es, No. i . . Camborne 
„ No. 2 . 

Pendeen Pendeen 

Pendr)' (cross-base) . St. Buryan . 
Penhallow (cross- 
base) St. Columb Mi 

Penrose (cross-base) . „ „ 

„ „ . Gunwalloe . 

Penryn St. Gluvias . 

Penvorder (defaced) . St. Breward 

Penwine St. Mabyn . 

Penzance (Market- 
place) Penzance . 

Perran Sands . . . Perranzabuloe 
Perranzabuloe ... „ 

Peverell's Cross . . Blisland . . 
Phillack, No. I . . Phillack . . 

„ No. 2 . . . „ 

„ No. 3 (defaced) „ . . 

„ No. 4 (defaced) „ . . 

„ No. 5 ... . 

„ No. 6 . . . „ 

„ Coped stone „ 

T'inchla Cardynham . 

Piran's Well, St. (de- 
faced) Perranzabuloe 

Polrode Mill . . . St. Kew . . 

Porthilly St. Minver . 

I'radannack Cross . Mullyon . . 
Pratt's Well, St. . . Blisland . . 
Prazc-an-beeble . . Crovvan . . 
I'rideaux Place . . Padstow. . 



QUETHIOCK .... Quethiock 



Redgate No. I . . St. Cleer . 

No. 2 . . 
Re- Perry Cross (mis- 
sing) Lanhydrock 
„ „ (cross-base) „ 
Rcpper's Mill . . . Stythians . 
Roche, No. I . . . Roche . . 
« No. 2 



PAGE 
203 
103 
192 

423 
248 
194 
136 
244 
116 
422 



nor 422 
422 

423 
177 
219 
338 

308 
180 
180 
172 

135 
161 
221 

222 

242 

389 
418 
200 



77 
385 
283 
171 
129 
396 



398 



2,77 
401 

227 
423 
145 
78 
344 



PLACE 

Rosemorran . . 

Rosepletha .... 
Rose Farm, West 
(cross-base) . . . 
Row (cross-base) . . 
Rumon's Cross, St. . 



Sancreed, No. I 

No. 2 

No. 3 

„ No. 4 

Sawah .... 

Scorrier, No. i . 

„ No. 2 
Sea Lane . . . 
Sellan (cross-base) 
Sennen, No. i 
„ No. 2 . 
„ Green 
Sheviocke . . 
Southill (missing) 
South Trekeive . 
Spemon Cross . 
Stephen's-in-Brannell 

St. 
' Stump Cross ' 
Sturt's Corner (cross 
base) .... 
Stythians . . . 
Sussex (Eastbourne) 



PARISH 

Gulval , . . 
St. Levan . 

St. Breward . 

Ruan Minor . 



Sancreed 



Tarret Bridge 
Teath, St. . . . 

„ (cross-base) 
Temple, No. i . . 
No. 2 . 
No. 3 . . 
No. 4 . 
No. 5 . . 
No. 6 . 
„ (early cross 
slabs — 2) . . . 
Thomas-the- Apostle, 

St 

Three-hole Cross 
Tintagel (shaft and 

base) .... 
Tolcarn (cross-base) 
„ (defaced) 



St. Levan 
St. Day 

)) 
Lelant . 
Sancreed 
Sennen 



Sheviocke 
Southill 
St. Cleer 
Godolphin 
, St. Stephen's 
Brannell . 



Linkinhorne 
Stythians 



St. Clether 
St. Teath 



36, 



Temple 



St. Thomas 
Egloshayle 

Tintagel. . 
St. Columb Mi 
St. Allen 



PAGE 
142 

43 

422 

422 

91 



49 

70 

360 

362 

81 

141 

332 
114 

423 
92 
107 
105 
214 
229 
260 
207 

82 
215 

423 
117 

303 



159 
391 
423 
205 
256 
256 

257 
320 
321 

420 

93 
180 

225 
nor 422 

2l8 



INDEX OF CROSSES 



PLACE PARISH 

Towednack (early 

cross-slab) .... Towednack 
Trebartha .... Northill . . 

Trebehor St. Levan . 

Tredinnick Cross 

(cross-base) . . . Lanhydrock . 
Tredorwin .... Towednack 
Trefifry Cross (de- 
faced) Lanhydrock . 

Trefronick . . . .St. Allen . 
Tregaddick .... Rlisland . . 
Tregaminion, No i . Tywardreath 

„ No. 2 . „ 
Treganhoe (cross- 
base) Sancreed . 

Tregawn Gate (cross- 
base) Michaelstow 

Tregenhorne (de- 
faced) St. Erth . 

Tregoodwell .... Lanteglos-by 
Camelford 
Tregullow, No. i . .St. Day . . 

No '> 
Tregurnow Down . St. Buryan . 
Trekennick .... Altarnon . 
Trelanvean .... St. Keverne 

Trelaske Lewannick . 

Trelissick . . . .St. Feock . 
Trelowarren (de- Mawgan-in- 

faced) M encage . 

Tremathick .... Madron . . 
Trematon . . . .St. Stephen's 

Saltash 
Trembath Cross . . Madron . . 
Tremoor Cross . . . Lanivet . , 
Trenethick . . . .St. Wendron 
Trengwainton Cairn . Madron 

Treniffle Lawhitton . 

Trenuggo Hill . . . Sancreed. , 
„ „ (cross-base) ,, . . 

Trereiffe Madron . . 

Trescowe ( cross- 
shaft) Egloshayle , 

Tresillian Merther . . 

Tresinney .... Advent 
Treslea Cross . . . Cardynham 

Down Cross . „ 

Treslothan (missing) Treslothan . 
Tresmeake .... Altarnon 

Tresmeer Tresmeer 

Trevalga Trevalga 

Trevalis, No. i . . . Stythians . 



421 
259 
139 

423 
118 

183 
218 
252 
83 
273 

423 

423 

219 

104 
176 
272 

V 
156 
112 

185 
277 

220 
, 207 
-by- 
. . 214 

• 325 

• . 71 
. 285 

• • 49 
. 186 

. . 241 

• 423 
207, 212 



PLACE 

Trevalis, No. 2 . 
Trevalsa (defaced) 
Trevane . . . , 





226 




82 




55 




174 




79 


138 


229 




290 




209 




50 




339 1 



Trevean . . 
Trevease . . 
Trevellan . . 
,, Lane 
(cross-base) . 
Trevemper, near 

(cross-base) . 
Trevena . . . . 

„ Cross . 

Trevenning, No. i 

„ No. 2 

No. 3 

,, (cross 

„ Cross 

Trevia, No. i . . 

No. 2 . 



End 



PARISH 

Stythians . . . 
St. Allen . . 
St. Stephen's-by 
Saltash . . . 
St. Erth . . . 
Constantine . . 
Luxulyan . . 



Crantock . 
Tintagel . . 
St. Breage . 
Michaelstow 



base) ,, 
. . St. Tudy 
. Lanteglos-by- 
Camelford 



Trevilley .... 
Trevivian .... 
Trevorgans .... 
Trevorgy (missing) 
Trevorrian ... 

,, (cross-base) . 

Trevu, No. i . . . 

„ No. 2 ... 

Trewalder Cross . . 

Trewardale, No. i . 

„ No. 2 . 
Trewardreva .... 
Trewhela Lane . . 
Trewint (cross-base) 
Truthall (cross-base) 
Tudy, St 

„ (coped stone) 
Two Gates .... 



Sennen . . 
Davidstow . 
St. Buryan . 
St. Cleer . . 
St. Buryan . 

« 
Camborne . 

j> 
Lanteglos-by 
Camelford 
Blisland . 

)) 
Constantine 
St. Hilary . 
Altarnon . 
Sithney . . 
St. Tudy . 

)) 
Altarnon . 



Veep, St. (cross-base) St. Veep . 
Vellansajer . . . . St. Buryan . 
Vincent's Mine, St., 

near Altarnon 



Warleggon . 
Washaway . . 
Waterlake Cross 
Waterpit Down 



PAGE 
340 
218 

214 

335 

147 

81 

423 

422 
366 
100 
67 
243 
249 
423 
184 

63 
297 
289 
160 
128 
228 

38 
422 

lOI 

286 

53 

45 

56 

281 

61 

422 

423 

184 

414 

43 



• • 423 
. 266 



Warleggon . 


. . 108 


Egloshayle . . 


• 337 


St. Winnow . 


. . 68 


Minster . . . 


■ 374 



XX 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



PLACE 

Wendron, St. . . . 
„ (early cross-slab) 

Wenmouth (cross- 
base) 

Westcot (shaft and 
base) 

Westminster Bridge 
Road, London (2, 
missing) .... 

West Rose Farm 
(cross-base) . . . 

White Cross .... 



PARISH 

St. Wendron 



St. Neot . . 
St. Dominick 



St. B reward 
St. Breock . 
Ludgvan . 



PAGE 
188 
421 

224 

230 

422 

57 
139 



PLACE PARISH 

Wiccas, near (cross- 
base) Zennor 

Withiel, No. i . . . Withiel . . 
No. 2 . . . „ 
„ (cross-base) „ . . 
Woodley Cross . . Lanivet . 

YOULTON, Lower . . Warbstow . 



Zennor, No. i . 
No. 2 . 
No. 3 . 



. Zennor 



423 
54 

72 

423 
87 

51 

los 

135 
146 



LIST OF CROSSES ARRANGED IN PARISHES 
Including Coped Stones, Early Cross-slabs, and Cross-bases 



Note i. — Parishes and Churchtowns. — Some explanation is 
necessary regarding the names of parishes and churchtowns in Corn- 
wall. With scarcely an exception, the chief village or town of a parish 
bears the same name as the parish itself, the former being called in 
distinction the ' churchtown ' because it contains the church. When 
a parish is spoken of, it is simply called by its name, as Altarnon 
or St. Buryan ; whereas the village in which the church stands would 
be called Altarnon churchtown or St. Buryan churchtown. 

Thus, for example, a person may be in Altarnon parish, and yet 
be three or four miles from Altarnon churchtown. Here is a case 
which happened to myself on the way to this place. Meeting a man, 
I inquired, * How far is it to Altarnon ? ' ' Youm ' (you are) ' in 
Altarnon.' ' Yes, but to the churchtown } ' ' Oh ! iss ; well, I s'pose 
'tis about a dree mile ! ' It will be seen from this that a knowledore 
of this distinction is somewhat necessary. 

Note 2. — Ancient a7id Modern Parishes. — It should be briefly 
explained what is meant by a ' modern parish.' In the year 1848 
there were 209 ^ parishes in Cornwall ; but some time afterwards it was 
found necessary, for better administration, to create others, by taking 
portions from one or more of the original or ' mother parishes,' 
as they are called, and forming a new parish, variously called 
'an ecclesiastical parish,' ' ecclesiastical district,' or ' modern parish.' 
The last of these three names has been adopted in this work. The 
names of the mother parish or parishes out of which the modern 
parishes have been formed are in each case added in parentheses. 

^ The Cortiwall Register^ 1848, p. 5. 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



Note 3. — Coped stones, early cross-slabs, and cross-bases are 
given in parentheses, to distinguish them from the crosses. 

Note 4. — The number following the name of a place indicates 
the number of crosses at that place. 

Note 5. — The names of the saints to whom the old, or * mother ' 
parish churches are dedicated are added after the name of the parish, 
and are taken from Dr. G. Oliver's ' Monasticon Exoniensis.' He 
does not, however, give them all, as many are unknown. 

Note 6. — To make this list complete, all the parishes in Cornwall 
are included, whether there are crosses in them or not. 



Advent (St. Adwen). 

Tressiney. 
Agnes, St. (St. Agnes). 

In churchyard. 
Allen, St. (St. Alunus, or St. Elwinus). 

Lower Town (partly buried). 

Tolcarn (defaced). 

Trefronick „ 

Trevalsa „ 
Altarnon (St. Nonna). 

In churchyard. 

In vicarage garden. 

Trekennick. 

Tresmeake Bridge. 

Two Gates. 

St. Vincent's Mine, near. 
Anthony (St. James). 
Anthony-in-Meneage, St. (often called St. 

Antoninus the Martyr). 
Anthony-in-Roseland, St. (St. Anthony). 
Austell, St. (St. Austolus). 

In churchyard. 

Baldhu (out of Kea and Kenwyn). 
Blazey, St. (St. Blaze). 

Biscovey. 
Blisland rSt. Protasius, M.). 

Cross Park. 

In village. 

St. Pratt's Well. 

Lavethan (4). 

Peverell's Cross. 

Tregaddick. 

Trewardale (2). 
Boconnoc (unknown). 

In churchyard. 

On Hruids" Hill. 



Boconnoc {continued) — 

Boconnoc Park. 
Bodmin (St. Petrock). 

Berry Tower. 

Outside gaol. 

In a field. 

Callywith. 

Carminnow. 

By roadside (missing). 
Bolventor (out of Altarnon, St. Neot, and 

Cardynham). 
Botus Fleming. 
Boyton. 
Breage, St. (St. Breaca). 

In churchyard. 

Trevena Cross. 
Breock-in-Pyder, St. (St. Briocus). 

White Cross. 
Breward, St. (St. Bruerdus). 

In cemetery. 

Deaconstow. 

Middlemoor. 

Lanke. In Mr. Collins's garden (2). 

Penvorder (defaced). 

Cargelly (cross-base). 

Gamm Bridge ,, 

Lanke, near ,, 

Moor Lane, near „ 

Row „ 

West Rose Farm „ 

Gamm Bridge (missing). 
Broadoak, or Bradock (St. Mary). 

' Killboy Cross ' (missing). 
Bude (out of Stratton). 
Budock (St. Budocus). 

In churchyard (2). 

Nangilha. 



LIST OF CROSSES ARRANGED IN PARISHES xxiii 



Buryan, St. (St. Buriana). 
In churchyard. 

In churchyard (portion of coped stone). 
In churchtown. 
Boskenna 
Boskenna Cross. 
Boskenna Gate Cross. 
Chyoone Cross. 
Crowz-an-wra. 
NCm Careg. 
Tregumow Down. 
Trevorgans. 
Trevorrian. 

Trevorrian, near (cross-base). 
Vellansajer. 
Pendry (cross-base). 



Callington (St. Mary). 
Calstock (St. Andrew). 
Camborne (St. Meriadocus). 

In church wall. 

Institute (outside). 

Pendarves (2). 

Treslothan (missing). 

Trevu (2). 

In churchyard (cross-base). 
Cardynham (St. Meubredus). 

In churchyard (2). 

By churchyard wall (cross-shaft). 

Higher Deviock. 

Pinchla. 

Treslea Cross. 

Treslea Down Cross. 

Holy Well (cross-base). 
Carnmenellis (out of St. Wendron). 

In churchyard. 
Chacewater (out of Kea and Kenwyn). 
Charlestown (out of St. Austell). 
Cleer, St. (St. Clarus). 

St. deer's Common. 

St. Cleer' s Well. 

Redgate (2). 

Trevorgy, near (missing). 
Clement's, St. (St. Clement). 

In vicarage garden. 
Clether, St. (St. Clederus). 

On Basil Barton, 4, viz. : 

No. I. By the Inney Bank. 
No. 2. Near Basil Farmhouse. 
No. 3. Cross Gates. 
No. 4. Tarret Bridge. 

New Park. 



Colan (St. Colanus). 

Columb Major, St. (St. Columba). 

In churchyard. 

In churchyard. 

Black Cross. 

Black Rock (defaced). 
Columb Minor, St. (St. Columba). 

Cross Close. 

In village (cross-base). 

Penhallow „ 

Penrose „ 

Tolcarn „ 

Constantine (St. Constantinus). 

In churchyard. 

Bosvathick. 

Merthen. 

Nanjarrow. 

Trevease. 

Trewardreva. 
Comelly (St. Cornelius). 
Crantock (St. Carantocus), 

Trevemper (cross-base). 
Creed (St. Crida). 
Crowan (St. Crewena). 

Clowance (3). 

Praze-an-beeble. 

Black Rock (missing). 
Cubert, St. (St. Cuthbert). 

Against church wall. 
Cuby (St. Keby). 
Cury (St. Corentinus). 

In churchyard. 



Davidstow (St. David de Treglast). 

Lambrenny Farm. 

Trevivian. 
Day or Dye, St. (out of Gwennap). 

Scorrier (2). 

Tregullow (2). 
Dennis, St. (St. Dennis). 

In churchyard. 
Devoran (out of St. Feock). 
Dominick, St. (St. Dominica). 

Eastcot (partly buried). 

Westcot (part of shaft in base). 
Duloe (St. Keby). 

Bosent Cross. 



Ea s tbo urne, Sussex. 

Manor-house grounds (from Kenwyn) 



XXIV 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



Egloshayle. 

In churchyard (2). 

Pencarrow. 

Trescowe (cross-shaft). 

Three-hole-Cross. 

Washaway. 
Egloskerry (St. Ide and St. Lydy). 
Elwyn, St. (out of Phillack). 
Endehon, St. (St. EndeHenta). 
Enodor, St. (St. Ennodorus). 

Fraddon, near (partly buried). 
Erme, St. (St. Hermes). 
Erth, St. (St. Ercus). 

Battery Mill. 

In churchyard (2). 

In churchtown. 

Tregenhorne (defaced). 

Trevean. 
Ervan, St. (St. Hermes). 
Eval, St. (St. Uvelus). 
Ewe, St. (St. Ewa or St. Eustachius). 

Corran. 

Falmouth (per nomen Caroli regii et 

Martyris). 
Feock, St. (St. Feoca). 

In churchyard. 

Trelissick. 
Flushing (out of Mylor). 

In churchyard. 
Forrabury (St. Symphorianus). 

Outside churchyard. 
Fowey (St. Nicholas). 

Gennys, St. (St. Genesius). 
Germans, St. (St. Germanus). 

Carracawn. 
Germoe (St. Germocus). 
Gerrans (St. Gerendus). 

In churchyard. 
Gluvias, St. (St. Gluviacus, M.). 

Enys. 

Penryn. 
Godolphin fout of St. Breage). 

In churchyard. 

Spernon Cross. 
GoJant (see St. Sampson). 
Gorran (St. Goronus). 
Grade (The Holy Cross and St. Gradus). 
Gulval (St. Gudwal). 

In churchyard. 

Rosemorran. 



Gunwalloe (St. Winwolaus). 

In churchyard. 

In churchyard (cross-base). 

Penrose „ 

Gwennap (St. Weneppa). 

In vicarage garden. 
Gwinear (St. Winnierus). 

In churchyard (2). 

On Connor Down. 

Cattebedron (missing). 
Gwythian (St. Gothianus). 

In churchyard. 



Halsetown (out of St. Ives). 

In village. 
Helland (St. Helena). 
Helston (St. Michael). 

Cross Street. 

In Mr. Baddeley's garden (2). 
Herodsfoot (out of Duloe, Lanreath, and St 

Pinnock). 
Hessingford (out of St. Germans). 
Hilary, St. (St. Hilary). 

In churchyard. 

Trewhela Lane. 



Illogan (St. Ylloganus, St. Euluganus). 

In churchyard. 
Issey, St. (St. Filius). 
Ive, St. (St. Ivo). 
Ives, St. (St. Hya, la, or Ya). 

Penbeagle. 



Jacobstow (St. James). 
John's, St. (St. John the Baptist). 
Juliot, St. (St. Julitta). 

In churchyard (2). 
Just-in-Penwith, St. (St. Justus). 

In church. 

In rectory garden (2). 

Kenidjack (2). 

Leswidden. 

Nanquidno. 
Just-in-Roseland, St. (St. Justus). 



Kea. 

In churchyard (shaft and base). 
Kcnwyn. 



LIST OF CROSSES ARRANGED IN PARISHES xxv 



Keverne, St. (St. Keveran or Kieran). 

Trelanvean. 
Kew, St. 

Polrode Mill. 
Keyne, St. (St. Keyna). 

In churchyard. 
Kilkhampton (St. James). 



Ladock (St. Ladoca). 

Lamorran. 

Landewednack (St. Winwolaus). 

Lizard Town. 
Landrake (St. Peter). 
Landulph 
Laneast (SS. Welvela and Sativola). 

Laneast Down. 
Lanhydrock. 

In churchyard. 

Treffry Cross. 

Tredinnick Cross (cross-base). 

Re-Perry ,, 

Re-Perry (missing). 
Lanivet. 

In churchyard (2). 

In churchyard (coped stone). 

In churchyard (early cross-slab). 

Bodwannick. 

Fenton Pits. 

St. Ingonger. 

Tremoor Cross. 

Woodley Cross. 
Lanlivery (SS. Manaccus and Dunstan). 
Lannarth (out of Gwennap). 
Lanreath (St. Sancredus ; also SS. Manaccus 

and Dunstan). 
Lansallos (St. Ildierna). 

Highertown. 
Lanteglos-by-Camelford (St. Julitta). 

In rectory grounds (3). 

Tregoodwell. 

Trevia (2). 

Trewalder. 
Lanteglos-by-Fowey. 
Launcells (St. Andrew). 
Lavvhitton. 

Treniffle. 
Lelant (St. Ewinas). 

In churchyard. 

In cemetery (2). 

In churchtown (defaced). 

Near church (partly buried). 

Brunian Cairn. 



Lelant (conlifiued) — 

Lelant Lane. 

Sea Lane. 
Lesnewth (St. Michael). 

In churchyard. 
Levan, St. (St. Livinus). 

In churchyard. 

On churchyard wall. 

Rosepletha. 

Sawah. 

Trebehor. 

Chigwidden (missing). 
Lewannick (St. Martin). 

Holloway Cross. 

Trelaske. 
Lezant (St. Briocus). 
Linkinhorne (St. Milorus). 

North Coombe. 

Sturt's Corner (cross-base). 
Liskeard (St. Martin). 

Near Cricket-field (cross-shaft). 
Looe, West (St. Mary). 
Looe (out of Talland). 
Lostwithiel (St. Bartholomew). 
Ludgvan (St. Ludowanus). 

In churchyard (2). 

Crowlas. 

White Cross. 
Luxulyan (St. Cyricusand St. JuUtta). 

In churchyard. 

Methrose. 

Trevellan. 

Trevellan Lane end (cross-base). 



Mabe. 

In vicarage garden. 

Helland. 
Mabyn, St. (St. Mabena). 

In churchyard. 

Colquite. 

Cross Hill. 

Penwine. 
Madron (St. Madernus or St. Paternus). 

In churchyard. 

Boscathnoe. 

Boswarthen. 

Hea Moor. 

Parc-an-Growze (defaced). 

Trembath Cross. 

Tremethick, or Trereiffe. 

Trengwainton Cam. 
Maker (St. Julien). 

b 



XXVI 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



Manaccan (St. Antoninus). 
Marhamchurch (St. Morvvenna). 
Martin-by-Looe, St. (St. Martin). 
Martin-in-Meneage, St. (St. Martin). 
IMar>' Magdalene, St. (Launceston). 

Badash (cross-base). 
Mawgan-in-Meneage (St. Mauganus). 

Trelowarren (defaced). 
Mawgan-in-Pyder (St. Mauganus). 

Lanherne. 

Mawgan Cross. 
Mawnan (SS. Maunanus and Stephen). 

In church wall. 
Mellion, St. (St. Melanus). 
Menheniot (St. Antoninus). 
Merryn, St. 

In churchyard (cross-base). 
Merther (St. Coanus). 

Tresillian. 
Mevagissey (St. Mewa, St. Ida). 
Mewan, St. (St. Mewanus). 
Michael Carhayes, St. (St. Michael). 
Michael's Mount, St. 

West side. 

Chapel Rock (cross-base). 
Michael Penkivel, St. (St. Michael). 
Michaelstow (St. Michael). 

In churchyard. 

Trevenning (3). 

Trev^nning (cross-base). 
Millbrook (out of Maker). 
Minster (St. Merthiana). 

Waterpit Down. 
Minver, St. (St. Menefrida). 

In churchyard. 

In St. Enodoc churchyard 

In St. Michael's churchyard. 
Mithian (out of Kea, Kenwyn, and Per- 

ranzabuloe). 
Morvah. 

Morval fSt. Wenna). 
Morwenstow (St. Morwenna). 
Mount Hawke (out of St. Agnes and lUogan). 
Mullyon (St. Melanus). 

Pradannack Cross. 
Mylor (St. Milorus or Melorus). 

In churchyard. 



Neot, St. (St. Neotus), 
In churchyard. 
In vicarage garden (3). 



Neot, St. {continued) — 

In village. 

Hilltown. 

Newtown. 

Four-hole-Cross. 

In churchyard (cross-base). 

Wenmouth ,, ,, 

Newlyn, Penzance (out of Madron and St 
Paul). 

Near church. 
Newlyn, Truro. 
Northill. 

Trebartha. 



Otterham (St. Denis). 



Padstow (St. Petrocus). 

In churchyard. 

In churchyard (missing). 

In old rectory garden. 

Prideaux Place. 
Par (out of St. Blazey and Tywardreath) 
Paul, St. (St. PauHnus). 

On churchyard wall. 

In vicarage hedge. 

Carlankan. 

Halwyn. 

Paul Down. 

In hedge (cross-base). 
Pelynt (St. Mary). 
Pencoys (out of St. Wendron). 
Pendeen (out of St. Just-in-Penwith), 

In vicarage garden. 
Penponds (out of Camborne). 
Penwerris (out of St. Budock). 
Penzance, St. John the Baptist (out of 

Madron). 
Penzance, St. Mary (out of Madron). 

In Market-place. 
Penzance, St. Paul (out of Madron). 
Perran Arworthal (St. Picran). 
Perran Uthnoe (St. Pieran). 
Perranzabuloe (St. Pieran). 

Near St. Piran's Well (defaced). 

On Perran Sands. 
Petherick, Little (St. Petrocus). 
Phillack (St. Felicitas, Virgin and Martyr) 

In churchyard (2). 
„ „ (coped stone). 

In a field. 

In rectory garden (defaced). 



LIST OF CROSSES ARRANGED IN PARISHES xxvii 



Phillack {continued) — 

Bodriggy (defaced). 

Copperhouse. 
Philleigh (St. Filius de Eglosros) 
Pillaton. 

Pinnock, St. (St. Pynocus). 
Porthleven (out of Sithney). 
Poughill (St. Olave). 
Poundstock (St. Neot). 
Probus (St. Probus). 



QUETHIOCK (St. Hugh). 
In churchyard. 



Rame (St. Germanus). 

Redruth (St. Euinus or Erminus). 

Roche (St. Geomandus or Conandus). 

In churchyard. 

In rectory meadow. 
Ruan Lanihorne (St. Rumonus). 
Ruan Major (St. Rumonus). 
Ruan Minor (St. Rumonus). 

St. Rumon's Cross. 



Sampson, St., and Golant (St. Sampson). 
Sancreed (St. Sancredus). 

In churchyard (2). 

On churchyard wall. 

In churchyard wall. 

Anjarden. 

Brane. 

Lower Drift. 

Trenuggo Hill. 

Trenuggo Hill (cross-base). 

Sellan „ 

Treganhoe „ 

Sennen (St. Senara). 

On churchyard wall. 

In cemetery. 

Escalls. 

Sennen Green. 

Trevilley. 
Sheviocke (SS. Peter and Paul). 

At four cross-roads. 

Crafthole. 
Sithney (St. Siduinus or Sithuinus). 

Truthall (cross-base). 
Southill (St. Sampson). 

In rectory garden (missing). 



South Petherwin (St. Paternus). 
Stephen's-in-Brannell, St. (St. Stephen). 

In churchyard. 
Stephen's-by-Launceston, St. (St. Stephen). 
Stephen's-by-Saltash, St. (St. Stephen). 

Trematon. 
Stoke Climsland. 
Stratton (St. Andrew). 
Stythians (St. Stedianus), 

In vicarage garden. 

Repper's Mill. 

Trevalis (2). 



Talland (St. Tallanus). 
Teath, St. (St. Tetha). 

In cemetery. 

In churchyard (cross-base). 
Temple (St. Catherine). 

In churchyard (6). 

In churchyard (2 cross-slabs). 
Thomas the Apostle, by Launceston, St. (St. 
Thomas the Apostle). 

In churchyard. 
Tideford (out of St. Germans). 
Tintagel (St. Marcelliana or Materiana) 

Bossiney Cross. 

Trevena. 

In churchyard (part of shaft and base). 
Torpoint (out of E. Anthony). 
Towednack. 

In church porch (early cross-slab). 

Tredorwin. 
Tregony (St. Jacobus), 
Treleigh (out of Redruth). 
Tremaine. 
Treneglos (St. Gregorj^, sometimes St. 

George). 
Treslothan (out of Camborne). 

From village (missing). 
Tresmeer (St. Winwolaus). 

In churchyard. 
Trevalga (St. Petrocus). 

In churchyard. 
Treverbyn (out of St. Austell). 
Trewen. 
Truro, St. Mary. 

„ St. George (out of Kenwyn), 
„ St. John „ „ „ 

„ St, Paul (out of St, Clement's). 
Tuckingmill (out of Camborne and Illogan). 
Tudy, St. (St. Uda, St. Tudius). 

In churchyard (coped stone). 



XXVIU 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



Tudy, St. {continued) — 

Trevenning Cross. 

Trevenning Cross (cross-base). 
Tywardreath (St. Andrew). 

Menabilly. 

Tregaminion (2). 



Veep, St. (St. Vepus). 

In vicarage garden (cross-base). 
Veryan, St. (St. Symphorianus). 

Warbstow (St. Werburgha). 

Lower Youlton. 
Warleggon (St. Bartholomew). 

In churchyard. 
Week St. Mary (St. Mary). 
Wendron, St. (St. Wendrona). 

In church (early cross-slab). 

In churchyard. 

Boderwennack. 



Wendron, St. {continued) — 

Boderwennack (cross-base). 

Bodilly. 

Manhay-vean. 

Merlher Uny Cross. 

Merther Uny, in old churchyard. 

Trenethick. 
Wenn, St. (St. Wenna). 

Cross and Hand. 
Whitstone (St. Nicholas). 
Winnows (St. Winnocus). 

Waterlake Cross. 
Withiel (St. Clement). 

In rectory garden. 

By roadside. 

In path near church (cross-base)- 



Zennor (St. Senara). 
In churchyard (2). 
In vicarage garden. 
Wiccas, near (cross-base). 



Old Cornish Crosses 



INTRODUCTORY REMARKS 

Cornwall possesses a larger and more varied number of early ^ 
Christian monuments than any other county in the British Isles. 

So plentiful are they in this district of the West of England, that 
it may occasion surprise to many readers, unacquainted with the 
subject, when they learn that Cornwall contains over 300 crosses 
alone, besides other kinds of monuments, given in the following 
summary : — 

Inscribed Stones of all kinds, including : 

Inscribed pillar-stones 
„ crosses 



,, slabs 

,, Saxon stele 

Erect crosses (not including the 15 
Coped stones 
Recumbent cross-slabs . 



nscribed crosses) 



Total 



22 

15 

2 

I 



40 

4 

3 

360 



There is evidence of their even greater frequency in former times 
than at present, as attested by the existence of some thirty or forty 
cross-bases, representing all that now remains of the original monu- 
ments. The crosses once belonging to them have long since dis- 

' In addition to the-early crosses, there are a great number of Gothic crosses, both erect 
and recumbent. But beyond giving a classified list of them in ' Class C. : Miscellaneous 
Monuments,' and the reasons for doing so, they are not further dealt with in this work. 



2 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 

appeared, having probably been used as gateposts, or applied to some 
other utilitarian purpose, and, alas ! in many cases entirely destroyed. 

Early Christianity in Cornwall 

In conducting the present inquiry it will be necessary to glance 
briefly at such scanty materials as we possess of Cornwall in early 
Christian times, and see how far it was in communication with neigh- 
bouring countries, and to what extent its monuments were influenced 
by that intercourse. 

The exact period when Christianity was first introduced into 
Cornwall will probably never be satisfactorily determined. No 
structures, monuments, objects, or other remains have been dis- 
covered in this part of Britain to prove that the inhabitants were 
anything but Pagan during the period of the Roman occupation ; 
and history throws little or no light on the matter as early as the 
fourth century. 

Then the British bishops who, it is stated, were represented at the 
Council of Aries in a.d. 315 came from places remote from Cornwall, 
and probably knew little or nothing about the religious and social 
condition of West Wales. 

We must come, therefore, for certain and dependable information 
to the mission of St. Germanus of Auxerre and St. Lupus of Troyes, 
for the suppression of the Pelagian heresy, in a.d. 429. It is at this 
period that the history of Christianity in Britain is associated with the 
names of ecclesiastics known in the records of other countries. 

Several of the Cornish churches are dedicated to Galilean saints, 
as, for example, St. Germanus of Auxerre, at St. Germans, and Rame, 
both near the eastern boundary of the county ; St. Hilary of Troyes, 
at St. Hilary, near Penzance; St. Martin of Tours, at Lewannick, 
Liskeard, St. Martin- by-Looe, and St. Martin-in-Meneage ; thus 
indicating that in all probability Christianity was introduced into 
Cornwall from Gaul as early as the beginning of the fifth century, 
during the lifetime of these saints. 

Again, the connection between Cornwall and f-Jrittany at this 



EARLY CJIRJS7JAXJTV AV CORXWA/.I. > 

period is shown by the dedication of two churches to St. Brioc, the 
founder of Treguier and St. Brieuc, before a.d. 500, at St Breock 
and Lezant ; to St. Winwolus, abbot and founder of Landeveneck, 
before a.d. 504, at Landewednack, Gunwalloe and Tresmere ; to St. 
Ninnoca or Non, the mother of St. David, and foundress of Lan 
Ninnoc, at Altarnon ; to St. Samson and St. Budoc, bishops of Dol, 
at St. Sampson, Southill, and Budock ; to St. Patern of Vannes, and 
St. Pol de L6on, who Hved in the sixth century, at Madron and South 
Petherwin, and at Paul and Sheviocke. 

Welsh saints, such as St. Cybi of Llangybi, in Cardiganshire, 
and St. Carranog of Llancrannog, in the same county, are asso- 
ciated also with Cuby and Crantoc, in Cornwall ; while dedications 
to St. Petrock, St. David, and St. Govan, are found both in Pem- 
brokeshire and Cornwall, 

Irish saints are also represented, as St. Columba, at St. Columb 
Major and St. Columb Minor; St. Colan, at Colan ; St. Hya or 
St. Hia, at St. Ives and St. Ive ; St. Kieran at St. Keverne ; and St. 
Senara or Senan, at Sennen. 

Finally, we have Saxon or Danish saints in the names of St. 
Cuthbert, at St. Cubert ; St. Dunstan, at Lanlivery ; St. Werburgh, 
at Warbstow ; St. Menefrida, at St. Minver ; and St. Olave, at 
Poughill. 

Many other saints might be mentioned, but the few names 
given will be sufficient to establish the relationship existing between 
Cornwall and the adjoining countries. 

The British Church in Cornwall became subject to the See of 
Canterbury in the time of King Athelstan, a.d. 925-940. 

It would appear, therefore, from the historical evidence which has 
been brought forward, that none of the Christian monuments in Corn- 
wall are older than the fifth century, and that those showing Saxon 
influence are probably of the tenth and eleventh centuries. But it 
must not be forgotten that the fixing of dates always involves, event- 
ually, a direct or indirect reference to history, and that the age of a 
monument cannot possibly be determined by any purely archaeological 
process, unaided by history. 

B 2 



4 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 

The dedications of the churches seem to prove that Cornwall was 
more intimately connected with Brittany and South Wales than with 
Ireland, a fact which is fully borne out by the character of the inscrip- 
tions on the early rude pillar-stones, and the style of ornament on the 
later sculptured crosses. It was in Ireland and North Britain that 
the peculiar Celtic patterns were most highly developed ; and, gene- 
rally speaking, the decoration of the Christian monuments (a.d. 700- 
II 00) found in the South and West of England^ is of an inferior 
quality. The Celtic patterns on the Cornish crosses are more akin 
to those occurring in Wales than to those in Ireland, Scotland, or 
Northumbria. There are a few Christian inscribed stones in Brittany 
that have points in common with those of Cornwall, but as a rule 
there is an entire absence of interlaced work or other ornament. 



Relation of the Earlier Inscribed Stones to the Crosses 

Although this work nominally only deals with the crosses, it is 
absolutely necessary to make some allusion to the inscribed stones, as 
being the earliest form of Christian monuments, and to show their 
connection with the crosses. 

It is extremely difficult, in fact well-nigh impossible, to separate 
the inscribed rude pillar-stones from the inscribed crosses, since the 
same character of lettering, in some cases, occurs on both. One class, 
therefore, assists the other in arriving at some idea of the approximate 
date of each, while a comparison of the two enables us to trace the 
crosses to their earliest source. 

Mr. J. Romilly Allen, F.S.A. (Scot.), and I, have recently given 
catalogues of the ' Inscribed Stones in Cornwall,'' briefly compiled, 
and illustrating nc-arly all the examples, a reference to which will 

' 'Jhc crosses at Ramsbury and Colernc, in Wiltshire, at Gloucester, and one or two locali- 
tifs in Hants, .Somerset, and Devon, all belong to the same school, and are much superior to 
the average class of work in the .Southern, Eastern, and Midland counties of England. See 
'Notes on the Ornamentation of the Early Christian Monuments of Wiltshire,' by J. Romilly 
Allen, F.S.A. (Scot.) ( Wilts Arch, and N. H. Mag., xxvii. 50-65). 

"^ Jnurnnl Arch. Cnmh.^ Fifth Series, 1S95, pp. 50-60. 



RELATION OF INSCRIBED STONES TO CROSSES 5 

much assist the reader in studying this portion of the subject. 1 he 
Rev. W. lago, of Bodmin, contemplates an exhaustive treatise on 
these stones, so that enough only need be said here to show the con- 
nection between them and the crosses. 

The oldest and most interesting of the inscribed stones are those 
bearing the Chi Rho monogram,^ formed, as is well known, by the first 
two letters of the Greek word XPIXTOX. Although it is common in 
Italy and Gaul, examples are very rare in Great Britain, as will 
presently be seen. 

The earliest instance of its occurrence at Rome belongs to the 
year a.d. 323, and its use in Gaul, as shown by dated examples, 
extended from a.d. 2)77 to a.d. 493, at which time it preceded the 
use of the cross as a symbol of our Lord ; and since it died out in 
Gaul at the end of the fifth century, we shall not be far wrong in 
allowing, say, a hundred years for Its disappearance in Great Britain. 
For as this country was more removed from Rome than Gaul, the 
monogram may have survived here, perhaps, a century later, which 
would make their date in Cornwall not later than the seventh century. 
Its presence, therefore, on the Cornish stones is evidence, not only 
of their great age, but also tends to show that Christianity must 
have been introduced into Cornwall at a very early period. 

Of the ten examples at present known to exist, or to have existed 
(for one or two are now missing), in Great Britain, Cornwall can 
proudly boast of the possession of half this number. 

The earliest form of the monogram is that in which the diagonal 
strokes of the X cut the lower part of the p, as on the stone at 
Phillack, and that from St. Helen's Chapel, Cape Cornwall, thus : 

S^ ; while in the remaining three instances, viz. Southill ^^ 

St. Just-in-Penwith ►4-', and Doydon NJ|=:^, the X is represented 
by a horizontal stroke across the tail of the p. 

^ Journal Arch. Camh.^ Fifth Series, 1893, PP- 99-io8- See also Mo7tumental History 
of the Early British Chi/nh, by J. Romilly Allen, F.S.A. (Scot.), 1S89, p. 30. 



6 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 

The partial disappearance of the loop of the p In the examples 
from St. Just and Doydon shows them to be of a later date than 
the others, a fact which is confirmed in the latter specimen by the 
Saxon character of the name and the letters in the inscription on the 
stone. 

Considering the hundreds of monuments in Cornwall having 
crosses in relief upon them, it is not surprising to find a similar treat- 
ment of the emblem upon some of the inscribed rude pillar-stones. 

On the back of the stone at Castledor, e.g., is a Tau cross, 



r 



and at Doydon is one almost equal limbed CZT ZI3 ; while a third, 




similar to the last, but with a much longer shaft, once existed on 
the now-defaced inscribed stone at Treveneage, St. Hilary. 

Lastly, the rude pillar-stone at St. Clement's, near Truro, has at the 
top a rude cross in a circle, and the inscribed slab In St. Columb Major 
churchyard has a cross of peculiar shape on both front and back. 

Others, again, have incised crosses, as at Boslow, St. Just, 
similar to those occurring on many of the crosses. On either side of 
the inscriptions on the Trevena stone are long Incised crosses ; and 
the symbol is often introduced either before or after the name of a 
person commemorated In an inscription. 

Another point of similarity Is to be seen in the mortice on the 
top of some of the rude pillar-stones, suggesting that they were once 
surmounted by a cross. Instances occur at Castledor and Doydon, 
corresponding to those on ornamented cross-shafts, such as BIscovey, 
Watcrpit Down, &c. Finally, the rude pillar-stone at Mawgan-in- 
Meneage, called ' Mawgan Cross,' has distinct remains of a tenon 
worked on the top, evidently for the same purpose as the mortice in 
other cases. 

It will thus be seen that certain characteristics are common to 
both the inscribed stones and the crosses ; and, bearing in mind their 
intimate connection, it would be useless to attempt to draw a hard- 
and-fast line between the two kinds of monuments, since one is 



PROBABLE OBJECT OF ERECTION OE CROSSES 7 

merely a later form of the other, gradually developed according to 
the improved taste and culture of succeeding periods. 



Probable Object of the Erection of the Crosses 

By far the greater number of the monuments are dotted about on 
the bleak moors, and must have been, when erected originally, far 
from any habitation, and the questions naturally arise : For what 
purpose were they erected ? and, Why do we find them in these out- 
of-the-way places ? In the first instance, there can be no doubt that, 
like the churchyard crosses, they were also erected for devotional 
purposes, or for praying-stations, a fact which is borne out by the 
following extracts. 

In ' Dives et Pauper,' a ' worke emprynted by Wyken de Worde ' 
in 1496, there is the following quaint assertion : ' For thys reason 
ben crosses by ye waye than whan folke passyinge see ye croysses, 
they shoulde thynke on Hym that deyed on ye croysse, and 
worshippe Hym above al thynge.' 

The Rev. W. Haslam, in the 'Archaeological Journal,' vol. 
iv. 1847, p. 313, after quoting the passage already given from 
' Dives et Pauper,' adds his own valuable remarks to those of Wyken 
de Worde which we have just quoted : — 



This may have been the reason in de Worde's time, and perhaps was partly so even 
in the early days when these crosses were erected ; but the alleged reason in the old 
writers, and object of the wayside crosses, was to 'guard and guide the way to the 
church.' With respect to the former of these objects, I can attest that very many of 
these crosses evidently still answer this purpose, to which they were originally appointed. 
In several parishes there are ' church paths,' still kept up by the parish, along which 
crosses, or bases of crosses, yet remain, and generally it will be found that they point 
toward the church. Where the path has been— as inmost cases — obliterated and lost, 
the crosses in some instances still remain, not facing the west according to the invariable 
rule regarding church crosses, but pointing and guiding in the direction of the church. 
As to the allegation that they ' guard the way to the church,' there can be little doubt 
that in those early, and, it may be, ' superstitious ' times, such was regarded to be the 
efficacy of the holy sign. 

Again, the first clause in the will of D. Reginald Mertherderwa, 



8 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 

principal of Bull Hall, in Oxford, and rector of Creed, Cornwall, 
dated February ii, 1447, sets forth that ' New stone crosses [are] to 
be put up, cf the usual kind, in those parts of Cornwall from Kayar 
Beslasek to Camborne Church where dead bodies are rested on their 
way to burial, that prayers may be made, and the bearers take some 
rest.' The foregoing gives a very late date to some of the monu- 
ments ; at any rate, it proves that even in mediaeval times it was the 
custom to erect crosses. We must remember, nevertheless, that in 
those days Cornwall was far removed from centres of advance- 
ment, and it is, therefore, highly probable that its crosses, like 
its architecture, were of a later date than those in other and more 
civilised localities. As no particular kind of cross is mentioned 
in the will, we may assume from its date that Latin crosses were 
implied, since some of this type belong in all likelihood to that 
period, and were, as will be shown, the latest form adopted. 

In reply to the second question, there can be no doubt that many 
of the crosses were erected in certain positions to act also as guides 
or landmarks across the county in the old days when the Cornish 
land was an almost trackless w^aste. The traveller or pilgrim, journey- 
ing then to some distant chapel or holy well, had little besides these 
stones to guide him on his way over the moors ' from cross to cross,' 
just as we see the Stations of the Cross in Catholic countries leading 
up to a Calvary. Even at the present time many of these monu- 
ments are to be found /;/ siln by the roadside, thus showing that from 
time iiumemorial the old cross tracks have been preserved, and the 
now accepted term of * wayside cross ' has been applied to those 
which are thus situated. In several cases, however, the paths ' worn 
by the feet that are now silent ' have long since disappeared. 
Several monuments are to be seen at the intersections of roads, and 
although in many instances the crosses have been removed from the 
positions they must have originally occupied — i.e. In the middle of 
the crossing — the intersection is still called such-and-such a cross. 
Some stand by the sides of streams, and others are now placed on 
the tops of hedges, where they have been removed, partly for safety, 
but chiedy, perhaps, to be out of the way, There is an old tradition 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF DIFFERENT TYPES 9 

relating to the wayside, or moorland crosses, which is worth record- 
ing, to the effect that it was a custom amongst the richer pilgrims to 
leave alms on the crosses for the benefit of the poorer brethren who 
followed them. 



Geographical Distribution of the different Types of Crosses 

in Cornwall 

Generally speaking, the crosses as a whole are more numerous 
in the western portion of the county, and, like the inscribed stones, 
gradually diminish numerically towards the eastern end, the north- 
east part of the county being practically devoid of them. 

The rudest kind of cross found in Cornwall consists of an upright 
slab, roughly squared or shaped, and having a Latin cross in relief on 
both front and back. There are only about half a dozen examples 
of this type, but they are too scattered to be confined to any particular 
locality. Three of them, however, are pretty close to each other in 
the Land's End district, viz. two in the parish of St. Buryan, and 
one in Sancreed. 

Wheel Crosses, locally called ' round-headed crosses,' come next 
in simplicity, and are met w^ith in far greater numbers than any other 
kind. Their distribution is fairly even throughout the county, but 
they are proportionately more numerous as the west is approached. It 
has been quite impossible to place this, the largest class, all together, 
as, amongst other reasons, many of them are ornamented. The most 
primitive examples — i.e. i. Those having equal-limbed crosses on 
both the front and back of the head ; 2. Those having Latin crosses, 
or varieties of this form, upon them ; and 3. Having the figure of 
our Lord in place of one of the crosses — are first dealt with ; whilst all 
which are ornamented are placed amongst the ornamented crosses, 
because the enrichment upon them is considered of more importance 
than the shape of the stone itself, and because they thus show a more 
advanced state of development. Such elaborate examples as the 
North Cross in Lanivet churchyard, the cross at Eastbourne, and 
many others, are all wheel crosses, but contain certain characteristics 



lo OLD CORNISH CROSSES 

necessitating their separation from the unornamented specimens for 
convenience of grouping, as stated in the notes on * Method of 
Classification.' 

Holed Crosses. — After passing through the different stages of the 
unornamented wheel crosses, holed crosses appear to be the next 
development, the different varieties of which are all described in their 
proper place. There are, altogether, twenty-seven examples of this 
type, of which twenty-five are ' four-holed.' Two have three holes 
pierced in them, viz. ' Three Holes Cross,' and that on Perran Sands ; 
while in the churchyard cross at Phillack only the two upper holes of 
the four are pierced. 

A marked peculiarity, which only occurs in Cornwall, is the cusp- 
ingof the four holes. At present six examples have been discovered, 
the best, perhaps, being that in St. Columb Major churchyard. 

There are a few which are unornamented ; yet it will be seen that 
in course of time this type becomes the most highly developed form 
of cross, enriched with bosses, or the figure of our Lord in relief, or 
ornamented with interlaced work. Most of the holed crosses are 
found in and about the middle and western portions of Cornwall. 

Latin Crosses. — This type is distributed locally much the same as 
the others, the largest group numerically being in the Land's End 
district, in the parish of St. Paul, or Paul, as it is now called. 

The 07'namented Crosses, which form the second portion, or ' Class 
B,' of this work, are principally found in the churchyards. The majority 
of these monuments were the old churchyard crosses, erected for 
devotional purposes, except in a few instances, where the inscriptions 
upon them show that they are commemorative. Some have only 
been brought to light in comparatively recent years, by being found 
built into the church walls, and were only discovered during the 
restoration or rebuilding of the fabrics. 

Why they should have been thus used is not known ; but it is 
really most probable that, after the disappearance of the Celtic Church, 
they ceased to be venerated, and when new styles of Gothic architec- 
ture were introduced, their beauty failed to please ; so, lying uncared 
for in the churchyards, they were simply used as building-material. 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF DIFFERENT TYPES ii 

Local tradition on questions of this kind is seldom silent, and often 
amusing, as the following instance illustrates. The old lady who 
looks after the church at Cardynham, where a very fine cross was 
taken out of the wall, told me, in explanation of its having been there, 
that ' 'e ' {i.e. the cross) ' was hided away in the church walls by the 
Catholics so as 'e shouldn't be scat up ! ' adding that ' when 'e was 
tooked out, the blacksmith wanted to 'ave 'un to bind his wheels 'pon, 
but 'e wasn't 'ardly big enough ! ' 

Method of Classification 

Having collected drawings of the crosses, it became absolutely 
necessary to adopt some systematic method of classification whereby 
the different types of crosses could be divided, and to arrange 
them in such a manner that the chief characteristics of each kind 
should be kept together as much as possible. 

The importance of such a classification is clearly demonstrated by 
the following extract : — 

' Dr. Joseph Anderson, in his " Scotland in Early Christian Times," 
ably explains that the archaeological method of dealing with specimens 
consists — ( I ) In arranging them in groups possessing certain character- 
istics ; (2) in determining the special types of which these groups are 
composed ; (3) in determining the geographical range of each special 
type ; (4) in determining its relations to other types within or beyond 
its own special area ; and (5) in determining the sequence of the 
types existing within the geographical area which is the field of study.' 

Acting as far as possible on this advice, and after mature delibera- 
tion, I determined to classify the monuments in what seemed the 
simplest and most direct manner, based on the following principles : — 

I. To arrange them as far as possible in an order corresponding 
to their architectural development, beginning with the rudest or 
plainest forms, and proceeding step by step until the most elaborate 
examples are reached, being guided throughout by the architectural 
features of the crosses and the amount and kind of ornament upon 
them. 



12 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 

2, To divide the monuments broadly into three classes, viz, : 

Class A, Unornamented crosses. 
Class B. Ornamented crosses. 
Class C. Miscellaneous monuments, 

3. To further divide the three classes into the following groups 

Class A 
(i.) Upright slabs and pillars with crosses in relief. 



(2 
(3 
(4 
(5 

(6 



) Wheel crosses. 

) Wheel crosses with projections at the neck and on the head. 

) Holed crosses. 

) Latin crosses. 

) Miscellaneous mutilated examples, not illustrated. 



Class B 

(i.) Incised crosses and ornameni 

(2.) Sunk crosses and ornament. 

(3.) Miscellaneous ornament. 

{4.) Celtic or Hiberno-Saxon ornament. 

Class C 
(i.) Coped stones. 
(2.) Early cross-slabs. 
(3.) Cross-bases. 
(4.) Gothic crosses. 

4. To sub-divide the groups as variety in detail demands, 

5. To form a sub-division only when more than one instance 
exists which has sufficient similarity to one or more examples. 
Where single examples occur which are all unlike each other, they 
are placed at the end of their respective sub-divisions, and are called 
* Miscellaneous.' 

6. To deal with Class B (the Ornamented Crosses), as far as 
possible, in the same order as Class A (the Unornamented Crosses), 
i.e. by commencing with the wheel crosses having the smallest amount 
of ornament upon them, and working up to those of this kind having 



METHOD OF CLASSIFICATION 13 

the greatest amount upon them ; and so on through all the different 
types. 

7. To give a definition, followed by a geographical list, of each 
type of cross before describing the examples separately, and thus 
prevent constant repetition. 

By adopting this system a plain and intelligible classification is 
established, which can easily be followed by all, the object being to 
arrange the crosses in a methodical and continuous series, as best 
calculated to assist our investigation. 

But it must be distinctly understood at the outset that the mere 
fact of placing one particular type of cross before another does not 
by any means imply that on this account it is older than that by 
which it is followed. The * Probable Age of the Crosses ' will be con- 
sidered in a subsequent article under this head. 



Method Employed in dealing with each Cross 

The particulars relating to each cross are given in the following 
order : — 

1. Name of cross. 

2. Locality : 

{a) Place. 

{b) Parish. 

{c) Deanery. 

{d) Nearest large town. 

{e) Nearest railway-station. 

3. Present position. 

4. Historical notes (if any) relating to — 

[a) Original site ; 

{b) Circumstances attending discovery. 

5. Type and material. 

6. Architectural features. 

7. Dimensions. 

8. Description of cross on monument ; or 



14 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 

Description of ornament on all four sides, and comparison (if 
any) with other examples in or out of Great Britain. 

9. Remarks (if any) on the stones by previous authors. 

The following are the principal reasons which have made me 
give what, perhaps, might be considered more than necessary — full 
descriptions in regard to the localities of some of the crosses, and 
detailed accounts of the ornament upon them. 

In the first place, I have often had very great difficulty in finding 
the crosses, and for this reason alone I have attempted throughout 
to give such clear directions of their positions as will enable them to 
be easily found. This has been a somewhat difficult task, as it is so 
much easier to give verbal instructions than to print them. For 
instance, a verbal description of the position of the cross at Drift from, 
say, Penzance, would be something of this kind : — ' Well, you go 
along the St. Buryan road for a couple of miles, and then you come 
to a little sort of village-place called Drift, at four cross-roads. 
Turn to the right, past some cottages on the road to Sancreed, and 
about three or four fields on you come to an iron gate on your right, 
leading into a field. Well, climb over that — because it's locked — and 
walk straight down the hill — the field slopes a good deal — and bear 
just a trifle to the right ; go nearly down to the bottom, where a little 
stream runs, and you'll find the cross standing up amongst a lot of 
bracken. There are several other stones lying about, but you can't 
miss the cross,' 

This, although clear, does not look pretty in print. 

Another reason is, that very often the natives do not know of 
the existence of crosses on their own farms. An instance of this 
I experienced in the eastern part of the county, and will give. I 
knew there was a cross standing in a field of a certain farm, so 
called at tlie house, and asked the farmer to be kind enough to tell 
me where it was. Me replied : ' No sich thing yere, sir ; I've bin yere 
nigh 'pon twenty yeares, an' I've never zeed 'un ; 'e idden yere, yew 
may depend.' ' Well,' said I, ' have you got a " moor stone postis" 
stuck up in the corner of one of your fields } ' ' Oh ! iss,' he replied, 



METHOD EMPLOYED IN DEALING WITH EACH CROSS 15 

I'll shaw 'e that waun, but there isn't no cross 'pon 'un.' Presently 
we came to the stone, a tall round-headed monolith. ' There,' I said, 
' there's a cross on the front, and here's another on the back ! ' To 
which he replied : ' To be sure there is ! Well now, I 7iever\ That's 
a curious thing, sure 'nough. I never noticed 'un before. Of course 
I knawed there was a stone yere, but yew called 'un a cross. Yew 
zee, they come out yere when them batin' the bounds ; ' they skat 
'un weth sticks and thraw 'erth 'pon top of 'un ; ef it 'addcn a bin for 
that, don't suppose I should ever 'ave noticed 'un 'tall ! ' 

Next with regard to the rather full descriptions of the ornament 
on some of the monuments. A great deal has already disappeared, 
owing to the disintegration of the granite. Indeed, some of it is now 
extremely difficult to trace, and in course of time is likely to disappear 
altogether, especially as so many of the crosses occupy such exposed 
positions, not only from the weather, but also from the fact that some are 
still used as gateposts, &c., thus subjecting them to mutilation which 
they would otherwise escape, if proper care were only taken of them. 

It is, therefore, most important to show as much as can now be 
traced, and to confirm the illustrations by a written description, so 
that no doubt can be entertained that at the time this book appeared 
the ornament shown was actually in existence. 

MateriaL — Except where otherwise stated, the Cornish crosses 
are all made of moorland granite, locally called ' surface granite.' 
In the opinion of the local stonemasons, this kind of granite is 
much more durable than that which is quarried. 

It is not, however, nearly so well adapted for monuments as 
other kinds of stone in the county. The large crystals of felspar it 
contains are, no doubt, the chief cause of its rapid disintegration. 

Grey or white ' elvan ' ^ has proved to be infinitely better 
material than granite, as can be seen by the wonderful state of pre- 
servation in which we find, for example, the inscribed and orna- 
mented cross at Trevena, Tintagel. An opportunity of testing the 
relative durability of the two materials almost side by side occurs at 

* Many crosses are used as parish or borough boundaries. See p. 24. 
' Elvan is the local Cornish name for trap dykes. 



1 6 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 

I.ewannick. At this place there are two ogam inscribed stones, one 
of granite standing in the churchyard, and the other of grey elvan 
lately taken from the outside wall of the church-porch, and now 
preserved in the church. It will at once be seen that the ogam 
characters on the latter are all perfectly plain and distinct, whereas 
in the other case they are by no means easy to read. 

Elvan is a surface stone, and is only found in comparatively small 
blocks. That of which the second stone at Lewannick is com- 
posed was originally about 5 ft. long by about 18 in. wide, and is 
considered to be a very large piece. Another reason which accounts 
for the fine preservation of the monuments made of this material is, 
that the original face of the stone was quite smooth, so that no tooling 
of this portion was required ; the letters or ornament were therefore 
cut on the natural face, already weathered and hardened after 
centuries of exposure. 

Pentewan is another stone which lasts better than granite, as in- 
the case of the beautiful cross at Lanherne, which is made of this 
material, and has retained its ornament in almost as perfect a con- 
dition as when first cut. 

Sandstone is used in one case only — the cross in St. Breage 
churchyard. 

Slate has also been employed in a few instances, as in the cross 
near Tarret Bridge, St. Clether. 

The Forms of the Crosses on the Monuments 

Considering the very large number of crosses in Cornwall, it is 
not surprising to find a great variety in the shape of the crosses in 
relief upon them. The most common form is that in which they 
have equal limbs, expanded at the ends. Others have curved sides 
to all the limbs ; while some have only their outer sides curved. 
The rarc'st form is that in which the limbs, or arms, are of equal length 
and width. These might be called Greek crosses, a term which, I 
venture to think, is not applicable to the other forms described above. 

The term ' Latin cross ' is u.sed in this work to mean a cro.ss 



PROBABLE AGE OF SOME OF THE CROSSES 17 

having limbs of approximately equal width, and a shaft, or lower 
limb, which is much longer than the upper and transverse limbs. 
When there is any variety in the detail of a Latin cross, it is 
described, for example, as 'a Latin cross with expanded limbs.' 

Probable Age of some of the Crosses 

Let us now turn our attention for a few moments to the con- 
sideration of the probable periods when the Cornish crosses were 
erected, and show on what grounds the statements here made con- 
cerning them are based. 

The first task, of forming a classification of the Cornish monu- 
ments, having been accomplished, it now remains to complete Dr. 
Anderson's suggestions by applying them to the monuments under 
consideration. 

In the absence of dated specimens In Cornwall itself, the only 
course by which we can hope to derive reliable information regard- 
ing their age is by comparing them with examples of known age in 
other parts of Great Britain. 

As might be expected in a remote corner of what is now 
England, but was, previous to the time of King Athelstan, part 
of Wales, there are few, if any, historical documents to help us in 
arriving at an approximate date when these monuments were raised. 

Architectural mouldings — which are certain guides for deter- 
mining the dates of structures — are almost entirely absent on the 
crosses, and consequently the age of the rudest specimens must 
in many cases remain doubtful ; where, however, ornamental 
detail is introduced a clue is at once supplied for arriving at an 
approximate date. Thus, some of the more elaborate wheel 
crosses, with Celtic ornament or figure sculpture upon them, would 
be of about the eighth century, or probably rather later, since the 
MSS. of that period contain ornament of a similar nature ; while 
it is clear that the type survived to the twelfth century, as some 
have foliated sculpture or crosses upon them similar to the slabs of 
that time. 

c 



1 8 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 

As an instance of the survival of a particular shape or form, it 
may be pointed out that many of the fonts belonging to the Decorated 
or Perpendicular styles are obviously Norman in outline, the only 
difference regarding their age depending on the style of ornament 
applied to them. 

Again, the foliated scroll-work so common in Cornwall resembles 
to such an extent the ornament of a similar kind in thirteenth-century 
work, that it seems to be almost out of place when found on the 
same stone with interlaced work or key patterns ; at the same time, 
it gives a most interesting example of the combination and transition 
of the two different styles of ornament. 

Next, with regard to the plain or unornamented wheel crosses. It 
would be somewhat difficult to determine the period to which they 
belong, were it not that some of them have the figure of our Lord 
sculptured on the front of the circular head, and a cross on the back. 
It therefore seems reasonable to suppose that this type of monument 
is contemporary with those which have crosses of the same shape on 
both the front and back. 

The different ways of representing our Lord upon the Cross 
from Byzantine to mediaeval times have been very carefully worked 
out by Mr. J. Romilly Allen, F.S.A. (Scot.), in his ' Early Christian 
Symbolism' (pp. 138-144). It will not, however, be necessary 
here to give more information beyond that immediately connected 
with our subject. On page 139 he says: 'The method of repre- 
senting the Crucifixion at the present time has been arrived at by a 
gradual process of development, as has been the case with most other 
Christian symbols ' ; and he goes on to explain how, in the fifth and 
sixth centuries, the Saviour was represented only by the Agnus Dei, 
and further on remarks : ' The next step was to substitute the actual 
figure of the Saviour for the symbolical Lamb. This change was 
effected by the Quinisext Council, held at Constantinoi)le in a.d. 683,^ 
which decreed as follows: "We pronounce that the form of Him 
Who taketh away the sin of the world, the Lamb of Christ, Our 

' Other authorities give different dates ; e.g. Smith's Dictionary of Classical Aiitiijuities, 
A.lJ. 6S0 ; Dictionaty of Doctiitml and Historical Theology (Blount), A.D. 691. 



PROBABLE AGE OF SOME OF THE CROSSES 19 

Lord, be set up in human shape on images henceforth, instead of the 
Lamb formerly used." ' From this time up to the twelfth century 
our Lord was shown alive upon the cross, according to the Byzantine 
fashion, clothed in a tunic, the limbs being ' extended perfectly 
straight along the three arms of the cross, whilst the head rests, 
unbent, against the fourth.' With scarcely any exceptions, the 
Saviour is thus depicted on all the early Cornish crosses, while in the 
later, or Gothic crosses — e.g. in the churchyards of Launceston and 
Lostwithiel — the dead Christ is represented with bent head and 
crossed legs. We are thus enabled, through Mr. Allen's researches, 
to throw some light on a branch of our subject which is somewhat 
obscure, and which, so far as I am aware, has not hitherto been 
seriously considered. And although it is impossible to assign any- 
thing like an exact date for these crosses, it is, I think, safe to 
suggest that their period would range, perhaps, from the eighth or 
ninth to the twelfth century. This would allow a fair margin for the 
late appearance or disappearance of a particular style in a part of 
England so remote as Cornwall. 

Of crosses with projections at the neck, little can be said regarding 
their age. Some — indeed, most of them — have crosses in relief 
similar to those of the type just described, whilst the remainder have 
Latin crosses. But the projections seem to point to an advance in 
style, and, if this be the case, it would suggest that they are later 
than the plain examples. 

The unornamented * holed crosses ' now come under considera- 
tion. There are a great many varieties, which, however, need not 
be enlarged upon at present. Some are ornamented with interlaced 
work, and they may therefore be classed with those of that type. 
The plainer examples are, in all probability, the early forms of the 
style, while those with cusps in the holes or openings between the 
cross and the ring, being more ornate, are likely to be the latest of 
all ; but their general characteristics will be more fully described 
when this part of the subject is dealt with. 

Latin crosses appear to have been in use from first to last, 
the later examples being easily determined by their chamfered 

c 2 



20 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 

edges, which gradually brought them to an octagonal section, till by- 
degrees we find the shaft with a lantern-head and figures in the 
recesses of the regular Gothic type. No particular date can, there- 
fore, be ascribed to the Latin crosses considered as a whole. 



The Different Purposes for which the Cornish Crosses ' have been 

re-used 

The present opportunity is one not to be lost for again publicly 
calling attention to the deplorable desecration of many of our ancient 
monuments. And though it may be said that this is an unnecessary 
digression, I nevertheless feel sure that the preservation of our 
priceless relics demands a vigorous attempt, not only to prevent 
further havoc amongst them, but also to effect the rescue of those 
which are still applied to purposes for which they were never intended. 

It is well known that these crosses, scattered about, as they are, 
in such profusion throughout Cornwall, are amongst the most inte- 
resting and characteristic features of the county. On this account 
only it might be supposed that they would be of general interest to 
all, and, as such, should receive that care for their preservation to 
which they are so much entitled, 

A glance, however, at the subjoined ' List of Different Purposes ' 
— which I am aware is far from complete — will best illustrate the very 
utilitarian purposes to which the monuments are applied, and will 
show, alas ! that there is, unfortunately, only too much occasion for 
these few lines of appeal. Can nothing be done to overcome such 
disastrous apathy, and to rescue these relics while there is yet time ? 
or are they to be gradually destroyed in our very sight where they 
stand .'* Within the last few years only an inscribed stone at Tre- 
veneage, in the i)arish of St. Hilary, was trimmed down for a gate- 
})Ost, thereby utterly obliterating the inscription on the front and a 
long Latin cross on the back. Even in this decade the ancient base 
of the cross in St. Erth churchtown has been terribly disfigured by a 

' As the subject is of great importanrc, other monuments besides early crosses have been 
inserted in the hst. 



PURPOSES FOR WHICH CROSSES HAVE BEEN RE-USED 21 

lengthy inscription, executed in the most modern style by the inser- 
tion of lead letters ! 

If some of the influential landowners would only take the matter 
up heartily, much good might be done, and the necessary expense 
involved in the preservation of these monuments on their own pro- 
perties would not be very considerable. 

Public-spirited persons have set a good example in this way ; 
amongst whom may be mentioned the late Colonel S. G. Bake, of 
Camelford, who, at his own expense, restored the beautiful inscribed 
and ornamented cross-shaft to its old base on Waterpit Down ; while 
Mr. F. H. Nicholls, who found the second ogam inscribed stone at 
Lewannick, has taken the two pieces composing it out of the walls of 
the north porch, provided new stones in their places, and cemented 
and fixed the others in the church, also at his own expense.^ If 
others would but follow their example and continue the work of rescue, 
they will find ample material at their service, as the number of stones 
in the list marked by an asterisk will show. 

Even as far back as 1805 a protest was entered by the contributor 
of the plate of crosses in the ' Gentleman's Magazine.' - After stating 
where the crosses are, * Viator Cornubiensis ' concludes by saying : 
' Some crosses are said to have been taken away to make gateposts 
of. This practice, it is to be hoped, will be prevented in future by 
the lords of the manors, and other holders of land ; and should any 
of them happen to fall down, it is wished they w^ould cause them to 
be re-erected as near their former places as possible.' 

Writing on this subject of preservation, Mr. J. R. Allen, whom I 

have so often quoted, makes the following observations on the way 

in which we allow our monuments to be treated. He says : — 

It may be worth while remarking, that no other nation possesses such a wonderful 
series of monuments illustrating the history of Christian art at one of its most obscure 
periods, and probably no other nation would have treated them with such scorn, or 
allowed them to be so ruthlessly destroyed. Many of these priceless treasures have 
been lost altogether, others have been damaged by persons ignorant of their real value, 
and the whole are perishing miserably from exposure to the weather. Casts, or at least 

' Other names in connection with the restoration of crosses wiIl_be2founcl in the descrip- 
tions, 

" Vol. Ixxv. Part II. p. i2or. 



22 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



photographs, should be taken before every trace of the sculpture has disappeared. 
This is the more important as many fragments which have been preserved for centuries 
by being built into the walls of churches are being brought to light from time to time in 
the course of modern restorations and alterations ; and these are now also, in many cases, 
exposed to the weather. A gallery of casts of Celtic sculptured stones would be in- 
valuable for purposes of archseological research, and might be the means of reviving 
the national taste for the art of sculpture, in which our own countrymen at one time 
attained so high a standard of excellence. ' 

A List of the Different Purposes for which the Cornish Crosses 

HAVE been Re-used 



Afi asterisk deflates that the stofte is still put to the use specified 



Use 


Class of Monument 


Place 


Parish 




I. Agricultural Purposes 


Gatepost 


Inscribed Stone 


Treveneage* . 


St. Hilary 


>) 


„ Cross 


In rectory garden . 


St. Clements 


» 


)) )) 


Trevena . 


Tintagel 


,, 


Ornamented ,, 


Connor Down* 


Gwinear 


)> 


11 11 


Clowance, No. 3 


C rowan 


j> 


11 11 


Scorrier, No. 2 


St. Day 


»> 


11 11 


In churchyard. 


Quethiock 


>> 


11 11 


Trenethick 


St. Wendron 


» 


11 11 


Trevia, No. 2* 


Lanteglos-by-Caniel- 
ford 


>> 


)) )) 


Eastbourne, Sussex 




)> 


„ Cross-shaft 


Biscovey* 


St. Blazey 


11 


Cross 


Bodwannick* . 


Lanivet 


11 


11 


In churchyard. 


St. Columb Major 


11 


11 


11 


St. Juliot 


11 


11 


Newtown* 


St. Neot 


)) 


11 


Scorrier, No. i 


St. Day 


N.B. — Dozens of oth 


ers have the holes made in them for the hinges, but only a few of 




the best examples are given above. 


Pigs'-trough 


Cross-head 


In churchyard. 


Lesnewth 


)> 


11 


In vicarage garden . 


Altarnon 


» 


„ (Gothic) Trewavas . . | 


St. Breage 


N. 


B. — In each case one side has been hollowed out. 


Prop to a barn 


.Saxon Inscribed 


In rectory garden . 


Lantcg!os-by- Camel- 




.Stone 




ford 


Rubbing -posts set 


Some are still thus used, having been specially removed for this 


up in fields 


purpose. 



Early Christian Symbolism, p. 82. 



PURPOSES FOR WHICH CROSSES HAVE BEEN RE-USED 23 



Use 


Class of Monument 


Place 


Parish 




I. Agricultural Purposes (continued) 


Stand for a beehive 


Cross 


Praze 


. 1 Crowan 


Pivot forathreshing- 


Inscribed and Orna- 


Waterpit Down . | Minster | 


machine 


mented Cross-shaft 






» 11 


Cross 


In churchyard 


Flushing 


N.B. — In each 


case the brass bearing for the iron shaft remains in the stone. 




2. Building Purposes 




Built into a bridge ^ 


Cross (broken up) 


Gam Bridge* 


St. Breward 


Built into hedges 


Cross 


Manhay-vean 


St. Wendron 




51 


Merthen . 


Constantine 


5? )> 


Cross-head 


In churchyard 


. St. Mabyn [ford 


)) )> 


53 


Trevia, No. 2 


Lanteglos by-Camel- 


J) 11 


55 


Treffry . 


Lanhydrock 


Built into a house 


Cross 


Tredorwin 


Towednack 


11 11 


Cross (broken up) 


Black Rock* 


Crowan 


11 )> 


Inscribed Stone 


In churchyard 


Lanivet 


11 55 


55 55 


Rialton* . 


St. Columb Minor 


Built into a barn 


Cross-head 


Treniffle . 


Lawhitton 


Built into a church 


Inscribed Stone 


In west wall* 


Cuby 


wall 








11 )' 


55 33 


In west wa 
tower* 


1 of St. Cubert 


>> )j 


55 33 


In gable of 
porch* 


south Phillack 


j> » 


„ Ogam Stone 


In church 


. 1 Lewannick 


3> >5 


Ornamented Cross- 


On inside of 


north St. Just-in-Penwith 




shaft 


wall* 




>» » 


33 35 


In east chancel 
(concealed) 


wall* i Gwennap 


11 ) 


55 33 


In churchyard 


Cardynham 


)) )) 


Cross-head 


In east wall* 


Camborne 


J) )) 


33 


* 
33 35 


Mawnan 


Built into a garden 


33 


Old vicarage 


gar- Padstow 


wall 




den* 




Coping for a wall 


Ornamented Cross- 
shaft 


In churchyard 


Quethiock 


» 11 


35 55 


In cemetery 


. St. Teath 


» )) 


Cross 


In churchyard 


Gerrans 


Prop for church wall 


55 


55 


. My lor 


Floor-paving 


3> 


55 


Zennor, No. 2 


3j 


59 


Trenethick 


St. Wendron 


Step to a doorway 


3> 


Colquite . 


. St. Mabyn 


}) 99 


55 


North Coombe 


* . Linkinhorne 


33 55 


55 


Trefronick* 


. St. Allen 


55 55 


Early Cross-slab 


In church* 


St. Wendron 


35 55 


13 15 


15 


St. Columb Major 


A Step (one of a 


Shaft of Cross 


In churchyard 


Michaelstow 


flight) _ 








In stepping-stiles 


Cross 


No Man's Lan 


d* . Lanlivery 


55 55 


11 


Near Fraddon 


* . St. Enodor 


55 55 


33 


In a garden 


Helston, No. i 


Template 


Ornamented Cross- 
shaft 


In churchyard 


Sancreed, No. 2 


Lych-stone 


Cross 


55 


. St. Agnes 



^ An old man told Mr. J. R. Collins, of Bodmin, that he ' scat up the cross, and built 'un 
into Gam Bridge.' The base out of which it was taken still lies near the bridge. 



24 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



Use 


Class of Monument 


Place 


Parish 




3. Miscellaneous Purposes 




Credence table 


Inscribed Stone 


In church* 


St. Just-in-Penwith 


Cover for a well 


Cross 


In a field* 


Bodmin, No. 3 


Footbridges over 


Inscribed Stone 


Bleu Bridge . 


Gulval 


leats or streams 








II J) 


Ornamented Cross- 
shaft 


In cemeteiy . 


St. Teath 


» 5> 


Cross 


Lower Youlton* 


Warbstow 


»> » 


j> 


In cemetery . 


Sennen 


J> )> 


)> 


Polrode Mill* . 


St. Kew 


» )J 


)> 


Tregaminion, No. 2 


Tywardreath 


For forming iron 


J) 


In rectory garden . 


Lanteglos-by-Camel- 


wheel-ties upon 






ford. No. 2 


Forming part of a 


» 


)) >» 


Crowan, No. 2 


watercourse 








5> J> 


)) 


Tarret Bridge . 


St. Clether 


Pivot for a gate 


Cross-head 


In cemetery . 


St. Teath 


Stand for a sundial 


Inscribed and Orna- 
mented Slab 


Pendarves* 


Camborne 


A seat 


Incised Cross 


In porch . 


Towednack 


As boundary-stones 


Cross 


Carminnow* . 


Bodmin 


(and duly beaten) 








)) >j 


)> 


Callywith* 


Bodmin 


« " " 


" 


Respryn* 


St. Winnow 


As boundary-stones 


Ornamented Cross 


Temple Moor*. 


St. Neot 


of private pro- 








perty, and dis- 








figured by initials 








>) 5» 


Cross 


Penbeagle* 


St. Ives 


» )) 


f) 


Peverill's Cross* 


Blisland 


5» )) 


Hewn Pillar-stone 


Bodilly* . 


St. Wendron 


As bench-marks by 


Inscribed Stone 


Castledor* 


Tywardreath 


Ordnance Survey- 








ors 








» >> 


Ornamented Cross 


Temple Moor*. 


St. Neot 


»> »> 


Cross 


Bossiney* 


Tintagel 


» ') 


)j 


Merther Uny*. 


St. Wendron 


» 5> 


)i 


Trembath* 


Madron 


N.B 


— Many others are disfigured by the broad-ai 


■row. 


A directing-post 


Cross 


Perran Well (near) . 


Perranzabuloe 


Appropriated by pri- 


Gothic Cross-head 


In churchyard* 


St. Mary Magdalen, 


vate persons as 






Launceston 


memorials to their 








relatives 








)t ») 


» )> 


« 


Lostwithiel 


Broken up for road 


There are cases on record in which crosses \ 


lave shared this fate. 


metal 


No. 2 cross at Trewardale had a narrow e 


scape, as will be seen 




by referring to the account of this monum 


snt. 



The foregoing list contains the names of some very fine monu- 
ments ; but, unfortunately, aniongst those which are still in use must 
be meruioned P>iscovey, Pendarves, St. Just-in-Penwith, Gwcnnap, 



PURPOSES FOR WHICH CROSSES HAVE BEEN RE- US ED 25 

and Connor Down. It is satisfactory, however, to notice that a great 
number have already been rescued, though a great deal remains yet 
to be done. 

The custom of removing the crosses and erecting them in private 
gardens cannot, of course, be recommended, although it has, no doubt, 
been the means, to a great extent, of preserving some of them. On 
the other hand, I am of opinion that the churchyard is the most suit- 
able place in which to erect them, provided that there is nothing to 
show that they have been moved unnecessarily from in situ positions. 
In the churchyard they would at least be safe, easily found, and 
accessible to all. The adoption of this suggestion would also be 
effectual in preventing crosses being taken from one parish and 
placed in another — a by no means uncommon occurrence, and one 
which to me always seems a great mistake, as they at once lose their 
original identity and much of their ancient association. 

In the case of inscribed or sculptured stones, however, these should 
be placed within the churches, as has just been done in the case of 
the recently discovered ogam inscribed stone at Lewannick. This 
plan has been satisfactorily carried out in other counties, so that now 
the monuments thus preserved are protected from the weather, as 
well as from running any risk from external damage. 



The Supposed Symbolism of the Ornament on the Crosses 

We will now touch briefly on certain architectural or ornamental 
features of the crosses which are associated by some people with 
symbolism. My own opinion is that they are simply what I have 
just described them to be, and that, when they were designed, no 
symbolism whatever was intended. In the first place, there are no 
ancient books or manuscripts which have any bearing on the particular 
points in question, consequently we are without historical evidence 
regarding them. Secondly, the position of these features on the 
crosses themselves seems to me to be opposed to the theory that they 
are symbolic. 



26 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



Let us proceed, then, to examine separately some of the details 
ascribed as mystic signs. 

I. The Circle or Ring of a Cross, as a symbol of Eternity. — ■ 
It has been shown that the cross was developed out of the Chi 
Rho monogram ^ enclosed in a circle. A study of the following dia- 
grams - will make this clear. 




There is, however, no evidence to show that the circle was 
intended to represent eternity. The sign No. 2 was in very general 
use in the East as a kind of seal, carved on the lintels of the doors, 
and is also to be found on a number of sarcophagi. 

Again, what is now called the circle of a four-holed cross is not 
in reality a circle at all — though it is ■A.sztrvival of it — and is, in nearly 
all cases, composed of four quadrants. A true circle, combined with a 
cross, and divided by its limbs, always looks very flat, and is noticeable 
in modern reproductions, as much as the absence of entasis, or swell- 
ing of the shaft. Finally, the additions of the quadrants to a cross, 
besides enhancing the beauty of the monument, serve to strengthen 
the limbs considerably, and, by keeping them within their extremities, 
a better effect is produced, and the cross itself stands out as it should 
— the main feature. 



^ 



2. The Triquetra Knot /^rV- '^s a symbol of the Trinity. — 

There are many examples in Great Britain of very unevenly shaped 
stones which are covered with beautiful interlaced work. I now 
refer more particularly to cross-bases, several of which, by the way, 
are much wider at the bottom than at the top. On these the elabo- 
rate ornament is so arranged that it fills up the whole of the irregular 



' Early Christinn Symbolism^ p. 94. 
^ Ibid. 



J. Romilly Allen, F.S.A. (Scot.), 18S7. 



SUPPOSED SYMBOLISM OF THE ORNAMENT 27 

space, irrespective of geometrical form. Cornwall supplies two 
marked examples in which the ornament is worked into and fills 
uneven spaces. One is on the north-east front of the Lanherne cross, 
and the other is on the coped stone in St. Tudy churchyard. In the 
former case the interlaced work is carried up on each side of the 
boss on the lower limb, and fills what would otherwise have been 
two empty corners had the ornament been terminated straight across 
in the usual manner. On the St. Tudy coped stone, which tapers 
considerably in its length, the plait on the north slope not only widens 
to suit the space, but is also worked right into the sloping corner. 
Thus we see that the shape of the space was of no importance, and 
that the patterns were simply adapted to meet their requirements. 
In designing the decoration for a cross-head there were awkward 
portions on the limbs which required to be filled in, and it appears 
to me that it w^as most natural for these competent masters of their 
art to design a special knot to suit a special space. The triquetra 
knot was therefore designed for this purpose, as is clearly shown by 
the way its form is varied according to circumstances. An examina- 
tion of the different shapes of this knot on the Ornamented Crosses, 
and the spaces they occupy, will make this apparent. This system is 
still more clearly proved by the form of the knot sometimes found on 
the lower limb of a cross. It has been pointed out, in the definition 
of ' four-holed crosses,' that, as a rule, this limb is much larger than 
the others, and being also nearly square, or oblong, a triquetra knot 
was obviously not the right shape ; consequently two interlaced oval 
rings were introduced, and placed crosswise in such a manner as to 
fill up the whole space. Examples of this are seen on the crosses in 
Quethiock and St. Columb Major churchyards. In the latter this 
adaptability is again displayed by the form of the interlaced knots on 
the horizontal limbs, which are much narrower than the others, and 
so require to be treated differently. On the back of this cross the 
inner loops of the triquetra knots are worked to a curve concentric 
with that of the boss, so that nearly the entire space is occupied. 

3. A Central Boss, as a symbol of the Godhead. — The middle of 
the cross-head is the most important point, around which, in the orna- 



28 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 

mented crosses, the decoration centres. To emphasise this still more 
a boss was probably introduced. Its occurrence on what are other- 
wise plain crosses of the ordinary type is very rare, and in a few 
cases a sinking is used in place of a boss, but for the same reason, 
viz. to make this portion of the stone more significant. 

4. Five Bosses, symbolic of the Five Wounds, — There are nine 
crosses in Cornwall which have five bosses on the head. Their 
presence may, I think, be accounted for in this way : that, having 
adopted the central boss, the simplest and most effective treatment 
of the less ornate examples was the introduction of one more boss on 
each limb of the cross ; or, in those examples where the crosses are 
decorated with interlaced work, and have the five bosses on the head, 
the workmen may not have been competent to execute in coarse- 
grained granite the more delicate ornament requisite for so small a 
space. 

The attempts to discover symbolism where there is not the 
slightest evidence to prove either its intention or existence seem to 
be an innovation of comparatively modern times. It has, indeed, 
been carried to such an extent that I was seriously told on one occa- 
sion that the four holes of a cross represented the four Evangelists ! 
This, it will be admitted, is going a little too far, as nothing else but 
four holes could be the result of a cross and ring combined. Another 
instance has recently come under my notice in which two young men 
made a great discovery. At Phillack there \s paj'-t of a coped stone, 
and along the top of the ridge is a rude cable moulding. It is hardly 
credible, but these two gentlemen counted the remaining notches 
forming the cable, and, finding they came to thirty-two, decided at 
once that they represented our Lord's age. They were quite certain, 
because they had counted them twice ! 

On the whole, then, I am inclined to think that a system of sym- 
bolism has been developed out of the ornament, and not that the 
ornament was originally founded on symbolism. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE MONUMENTS 29 



Bibliography of the Monuments 

The study of early Christian sepulchral monuments has only 
become perfected by degrees, as may be seen by taking a retro- 
spective glance at what has already been written about those in 
Cornwall. 

Leland, in his 'Itinerary' (1530-37), notices the inscribed pillar- 
stone at Castledor. 

Carew, in the ' Survey of Cornwall' (1602), p. 129, gives a 
quaint little drawing of the inscribed stone at Redgate, St. Cleer — 
the only one in the volume. 

Camden's ' Magna Britannia.' — The following editions of this 
work have been published: first, 1586; second, 1587; third, 1590; 
fourth, 1594. Also 1600, 1607, 1610, 1637. Gibson's 'Additions 
to Camden' number four editions, viz. : first, 1695 ! second, 1722 ; 
third, 1753; and fourth, 1772. Cough's 'Additions to Camden,' 
two editions : first, 1789; second, 1806. 

Originally printed in Latin, the first edition In English was 
published in 16 10, on the title-page of which It is stated, 'Translated 
newly Into English by Philemon Holland.' 

The inscribed stone at Redgate, In the parish of St. Cleer, Is 
illustrated in most of the editions ; but, as a rule, It is differently 
represented In each case, not only in the outline of the stone, but 
also In the shape of the letters In the Inscription ; and all are quite 
unlike that given by Carew. 

In the 1610 and 1789 editions, however, the plates of this stone 
are identical. 

In addition to an engraving of the St. Cleer stone, the edition 
of 1722 notices the cross on St. Cleer Common called the ' Long- 
stone.' 

Gibson's ' Additions to Camden' (1772), vol. i., gives illustra- 
tions of five Inscribed stones (pp. 149, 150, 151). viz. Gulval (Bleu 
Bridge), Mawgan Cross, St. Blazey, and Castledor; and. on p. 152, 
Redgate (St. Cleer). On p. 153 a few lines are devoted to the 



so OLD CORNISH CROSSES 

mention of the cross on St. Cleer Common, which are quoted In my 
description of that stone. 

On p. viii. of the Preface a tribute is paid to Edward Lhwyd, 
keeper of the Ashmolean Museum, a writer of the seventeenth 
century, to whom most authors are indebted for first having given 
satisfactory readings and translations of the inscriptions. The 
author says : ' And although the learned Mr. Lhwyd (to whom the 
"Britannia" stands indebted for those most useful additions in 
Wales) is since dead, to the great detriment of natural history and 
antiquities, yet it fell out, providentially for this work, that before 
his death he had revised the whole Principality in order to this new 
impression.' 

In Cough's 'Additions to Camden' (1789) quite a different 
series of illustrations is given in vol. i. (Plate xii) of the inscribed 
stones given by Gibson, with the addition of the Camborne altar- 
slab. 

Borlase, in his ^ Observations on the Antiquities of Cornwall ' 
(1754), is the first author who describes and illustrates any consider- 
able number of monuments. He devotes the twelfth chapter of his 
book to the ' Inscribed Monuments before the Conquest,' accom- 
panied by two plates illustrating eleven of these stones. 

None of the crosses, however, appear to have been illustrated in 
old works until Samuel Lysons, in his 'Magna Britannia' (1814), 
gave four of the sculptured crosses not before drawn, and three of 
the rude pillar-stones already made public by Borlase. 

In the 'Gentleman's Magazine for 1805 (vol. Ixxv. p. 1201) is a 
curic)us little plate illustrating eleven 'Ancient Crosses in Cornwall.' 
'I'he drawings are, however, very poor, and not much like the originals, 
but the brief descriptive letterpress accompanying them is good and 
f[uaintly written, as will be noticed from a portion quoted in the 
section relating to ' The Different Purposes for which the Cornish 
Crosses have been re- used,' on p. 21. 

The ' CatJKjlic Miscellany' of I'^cbniary 1827, with the f)mission 
of one exam])l(', rc])ro(hjcf;s practically th(! same plat(\ Of those 
illustrated in these two magazines, four liave since disaj)])ean;d. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE MONUMENTS 31 

Mr. J. T. Blight's ' Crosses and Antiquities of Cornwall ' is, so 
far as it goes, the most complete work on the subject. The first 
edition was published in 1856, and the second, and last, in 1872.^ 
But the stones are not arranged in any methodical manner, and 
follow on each other more in a sketch-book form. He illustrates 107 
early crosses, and mentions the existence of some sixty others. A 
large number have been discovered since his work appeared, includ- 
ing most of the ornamented crosses. Not the least valuable portion 
of his book lies in the information which shows the position of 
several of the stones in his time which, from one cause or another, 
have since been moved. 

Sir John Maclean, in his ' Deanery of Trigg Minor ' (1868-79), 
gives very good illustrations of the crosses and inscribed stones in 
this division of the county. The drawings, with the interesting 
particulars connected wath them, were, I believe, mainly supplied by 
the Rev. W. lago, of Bodmin. 

It should be mentioned that when the See of Truro was con- 
stituted, in 1877, the new Deanery of Bodmin was formed out of 
parishes taken from the deaneries of Trigg Minor, West, Pyder, and 
Powder. This accounts for certain parishes being included in the 
above work which have since been transferred as stated. 

Professor AL. Hlibner, of Berlin, in his ' Inscriptiones Christianae 
Britannise ' (1876), had, up to that date, dealt more fully with the 
inscribed stones of Cornwall than any other author, and had cata- 
logued twenty-two examples of the pre-Norman period. Since the 
appearance of his book, however, several other stones have been 
found with early inscriptions on them, and have been included in a 
paper, the reference to which will be found under ' Archaeologia 
Cambrensis ' on the following page. 

Since about the year 1845 several important papers on the 
inscribed stones and crosses of Cornwall have appeared in the trans- 
actions of the various archceological societies throughout England and 
Wales, amongst which the following may be mentioned : — 

^ The West Cornwall volume was published in 1856, and when the East was issued, in 
1858, the two were bound togethei^. The second edition of the two appeared in 1872. 



32 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries, London 

Second series, vol. v. p. 481. ' Report on Archaeology in Cornwall.' W. lago, B.A. 

Second series, vol. xiv. p. 214. 'Report of An Ogam Inscription found in Corn- 
wall.' W. lago, B.A. 

Second series, vol. xv. p. 279. 'A Second Ogam Inscribed Stone at Lewannick, 
Cornwall.' A. G. Langdon. 

ArchcBologia Cambrensis 

Third series, vol. iv. p. 281. 'Inscribed Stone, Phillack.' ' 
Third series, vol. ix. p. 288. ' Inscribed Stone, Bleu Bridge.' 
Third series, vol. ix. p. 288. ' Inscribed Stone, St. Clements.' Rev. H. Longue- 
ville Jones. 

Third series, vol. xii. p. 420. ' Inscribed Stone, Cuby.' C. Barham, M.D, 
Fifth series, vol. vi. p. 356. ' Inscribed Altar Slab, Camborne.' A. G. Langdon. 
Fifth series, vol. ix. p. 251. 'An Ogam Inscribed Stone at Lewannick, Cornwall.' 
A. G. Langdon. 

Fifth series, vol. x. p. 97. ' The Chi Rho Monogram upon Early Christian Monu- 
ments in Cornwall.' A. G. Langdon. 

Fifth series, vol. xi. p. 308. ' The Inscribed and Ornamented Cross-Shaft at St. 
Blazey, Cornwall.' A. G. Langdon. 

Fifth series, vol. xii. p. 50. ' Catalogue of the Early Christian Inscribed Monuments 
in Cornwall.' A. G. Langdon and J. Romilly Allen, F.S.A. (Scot.). 

ArchcBological Journal 

Vol. ii. p. 77. ' Inscribed Stone a Few Miles from Padstow.''^ Thomas Kent. 

Vol. ii. p. 78. ' Inscribed Stone, St. Clements.' W. Haslam. 

Vol. ii. p. 328. ' Inscribed Stone, Castledor.' W. Haslam. 

Vol. iv. p. 302. 'An Account of Some Monumental and Wayside Crosses still 
remaining in Cornwall.' W. Haslam. 

Vol. X. p. 323. ' Stone Cross in the Churchyard, St. Columb [Major].' E. W. 
Godwin. 

Journal of the British ArchcBological Association 

Vol. xliv. p. 301. 'The Early Christian Monuments of Cornwall.' A. G. Lahgdon 
and J. Romilly Allen, F.S.A. (Scot.). 

Vol. xlv. p. 318. 'Celtic Ornament on the Crosses of Cornwall.' A. G. Langdon. 

Vol. xlvii. p. 301. 'The Padstow Crosses.' A. G. Langdon. 

Vol. xlviii. p. 336. ' An Ogam Stone at Lewannick.' A. G. Langdon. 

Vol. xlix. p. 274. 'Coped Stones in Cornwall.' A. G. Langdon. 

' Standing in the churchyard. * I.e. at Nanscow, St. Breock. 



BIBLTOCRAPHY OF THE MONUMENTS 33 



Journal of /he Royal Institution of Corntvall} 

Thirty-first Annual Report (1849), p. 58, Plate IV. 'Notice of an Ancient Cross 
(formerly near Penryn).'^ R. 'JMiomas, C.E. 

Thirty-second Annual Report (1850), p. 34, Plate III. 'Cross between Redgate 
and St. Cleer.' A. H. Tomkins. 

Vol. ii. p. 55. ' Inscribed Stone, St. Cubert.' C Barham, M.D. 

Vol. ii. p. 58. 'Inscribed Stone, Tregony.' C. Barham, M.D. 

Vol. iii. p. 99. ' The Prior's Cross.' Thomas Q. Couch. 

Vol. iii. p. 162. ' Mylor Church, its Crosses, Frescoes, &c.' W. lago, B.A. 

Vol. iii. p. xxxix. ' Notice of an Inscribed Stone at Worthyvale Minster.' Illus- 
tration by W. lago, B.A. 

Vol. iv. p. 59. ' Notes on some Inscribed Stones in Cornwall.' W. lago, B.A. 

Vol. V. p. 53. 'Nangitha Cross, Budock.' J. lago, F.R.S. 

Vol. V. p. 363. ' Crosses in the Churchyard, Cardynham.' W. lago, B.A. 

Vol. V. p. 364, Plate IV. ' Inscribed Stone, Welltown, Cardynham.' W. lago, B.A. 

Vol. V. p. 366. 'Inscribed Stone, St. Hilary.' C. Barham, M.D. 

Vol. vi. p. 398. ' The Lanhadron Inscribed Stone.' W. lago, B.A. 

Vol. vii. p. 139. ' Quethiock Cross.' N. Hare. 

Vol. viii. p. 276. ' Mawgan Cross.' W. lago, B.A. 

Vol. viii. p. 366. ' The Inscribed Stone, Bleu Bridge.' W. lago, B.A. 

Vol. X. pp. n, 96. ' The Ornament on the Early Crosses of Cornwall.' A. G. 
Langdon. 

Vol. X. p. 262. 'The Pendarves "Altar Slab" (a reading oQ.' W. lago, B.A. 

Vol. xi. p. 293, ' An Ogam Stone at Lewannick, Cornwall.' A. G. Langdon. 



Transactions of the Exeter Diocesan Architectural Society. 

Vol. iii. Plate XXXII. ' Cornish Wayside Crosses.' Charles Spence. 
Vol. iii. Plate XXXII. ' The Redgate Stones.' Charles Spence. 
Vol. iii. p. 205. ' Iter Cornubiense.' Charles Spence. 
Vol. vi. Plate (not numbered). J. P. Savory. 



Sussex Archcrohgical Collections. 
Vol. xxxviii. p. 2,7,. ' An Ancient Cornish Cross in Sussex.' A. G. Langdon. 



^ At the time of writing only a few numbers of this journal were available at the British 
Museum. I had, therefore, to apply to Mr. R. A. Gregg, of the Royal Institution of Cornwall, 
to whom my thanks are due for kindly supplying many wanting references. 

* See Scorrier, No. 2, in this work. 



D 



34 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 

Miscellaneous Publications. 

The Spring Gardens Sketching Club. 

Vol. viii. Plates XXXVII. and XXXVIII. ' Cornish Crosses ' {zi examples). A. G. 
Langdon. 

'A History of Temple Church, near Bodmin, Cornwall.' J. R. Brown. (Eight 
crosses, &c., illustrated by W. lago.) 

The Antiquarian Magazine. 
August, 1883. 'Two Cornish Crosses ' (St. Teath and Quethiock). 

A Week at the Land's End. J. T. Blight. (1861.) 

P. 67. Trembath Cross, Madron. 

P. 168. Cross in St. Buryan Churchyard. 

P. 179. Inscribed Stone with Chi Rho Monogram (formerly at St. Helen's 
Oratory). 

The Builder. 

March 30, 1889, two plates. 'Six Ornamented Crosses.' A. G. Langdon. 
March 21, 1891, two plates. 'Coped Stones in Cornwall' A. G. Langdon. 
June 6, 1891. 'The Padstow Crosses.' A. G. Langdon. 

Having concluded the Introductory portion of the work, I will 
now proceed to describe the monuments separately. 



CLASS A 

UNORNAMENTED CROSSES 

UPRIGHT SLABS AND PILLARS WITH CROSSES IN RELIEF 

This type of monument is dealt with first because it is the rudest 
and simplest ; the stones on which the crosses are sculptured, 
although sometimes roughly squared, are not given any definite 
architectural form, as in the case of the more highly developed free- 
standing crosses. They thus take a lower place in the scale of 
development than those in which the contour of the stone has been 
considered. 

Like the crosses, no two of these monuments are exactly similar in 
all respects, but the differences which may be noticed in the general 
details are not sufficiently important to justify further sub-divisions. 

Judging from their rudeness, it might at first be supposed that 
they were the earliest known examples ; but there is no evidence to 
support such a theory. Indeed, the fact of the crosses upon them 
being in relief, instead of being incised, seems to suggest an opposite 
conclusion. 

The first example, at Drift, is merely a rough stone with crosses 
in relief on the front and back ; and although it is doubtless one of 
the earliest instances of this kind of monument, it is probably of a 
much later date than those which have incised crosses upon them. 

Next of this class in order of development come those which have 
only been partially tooled, thus forming them into slabs, or, as in the 
exceptional case of Cross Close, in St. Columb Minor parish, into a 
rude cylinder. 

When we consider the very great amount of labour expended in 



36 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



sinking both faces of the stone sufficiently deep to bring the crosses 
into rehef, it seems somewhat remarkable that further labour was not 
bestowed in shaping the monuments into some distinct form. 

There are five examples of this type, which will be found at the 
following places : — 



Buryan, St. 

Columb Minor 
Sancreed 
Sennen . 



Tregurnow Down. 
Trevorrian. 
St. . Cross Close. 
Lower Drift. 
Escalls. 



It may here be stated that another stone, very similar to that at 
Drift, is said by Mr. J. T. Blight to have been in his time in the 
rectory garden at Southill, but at the present time no trace of it 
can be found. 

Lower Drift, Sancreed 

Sancreed, formerly San Creed, or Sancreet, in the Deanery of 
Penwith, is situated four miles west of Penzance. 

Drift is a small village which stands about a mile and a half south- 
east of Sancreed churchtown, at a 
point where the road from Penzance 
to St. Buryan intersects that from Paul 
to Sancreed. 

The fourth field on the right-hand 
side of the road from Drift to San- 
creed belongs to Lower Drift Farm, 
now in the occupation of Mr. North. 
It forms part of the side of a steep 
i^^ii-^— hill, sloping from the road down to a 
little stream which flows into the sea 
at Newlyn. Amongst the bracken 
in this field, and near the jjank of the stream, stands the stone. 

I was told by an old man named Pavvlings, living at St. Levan, 
that the stone was found, about the year i(S5o, by his father, who 
was employf^fl with him in clearing this fif^ld. It was then lying on 




UNORNA MEN TED CROSSES 



37 



the ground, and on being moved il rolled a short distance down the 
hill. The crosses upon it were then n(jtic(-d, Ijut as the stone was 
too heavy for them to replace, they fixed it upright for preservation 
on the spot it now occupies. 

In plan the stone may be described as three-sided, inasmuch as 
it tapers to a rounded end from one side to the other. It is, as just 
mentioned, a very rude form of monument, and appears to be a 
rough piece of granite utilised in its natural condition. 

Dimensions. — Height, 4 ft. ; width : at the to[) 2 ft., at the bottom 
2 ft. 9 in. ; thickness at the bottom of the wider side, 15 in. 

Close to the top of the stone, on both front and back, is sculptured 
a Latin cross in relief ; th^lt on the front has an inclination to the left, 
while that on the back is upright. 



Tregurnow Down, St. Buryan 

St. Buryan, in the Deanery of Penwith, is situated six miles 
south-west of Penzance. 

The spot on which this cross-slab stands on Tregurnow Down 
is about two miles south-east of St. Bur- 
yan churchtown, not far — and in the same 
direction — from Dawns Men. The slab is 
doubtless i^i situ. 

This monolith is a roughly hewn gra- 
nite slab, and is in a very good state of 
preservation. 

Dimensions. — Height, 4 ft. 4 in. ; aver- 
age width of shaft, i ft. 10 in. ; thickness 
at the bottom, %\ in., tapering to 6| in. at 
the top. 

On both the front and back is a 
Latin cross in relief, the limbs in each 

case beina: carried to the extremities of the stone. Rudeness in 
execution is apparent in the shaft, which is irregularly curved about 
halfway down, and in the varying width of the arms. 




OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



Trevorrian, St. Buryan 

For locality of St. Buryan, see last. 

Trevorrian Farm is situated about three-quarters of a mile north- 
east of St. Buryan churchtown. 

About half a mile from the churchtown, on the left-hand side of 
the road to Newlyn, is a circular cross-base, built on its side into the 
hedge. Just beyond this is a stile, forming the entrance to a footpath 
leadine across some three or four fields into Trevorrian Lane. The 
slab will be found loosely fixed on top of the hedge, by the left- 
hand side of the stile, next the lane.^ It is not in situ, and has, 
apparently, only been recently placed where it now stands for 
preservation. 

The monument consists of a flat slab of worked granite, the upper 
corners of which are now broken off. 

It should be stated that the base above 
mentioned cannot belong to it, as, amongst other 
reasons, the mortice does not correspond in 
shape with the bottom of the slab, and it is only 
referred to for purposes of identification. 

Dimensions. — Height, 2 ft. 10 in. ; width, 14 
in. ; thickness, 5 in. 

On both the front and back is a cross, cut 
in relief on the upper portion of the stone, the 
three upper limbs of each being carried to the edge of the slab. 
These crosses are formed by sinking the four flat and square 
spaces between the limbs, so that in each case the face of the 
cross is in the same plane as the lower or unsunk portion of the 
stone. 




' Since the above was written the slal) has been taken down from the liedgc, and 
mounted on a small granite base in the corner of the field, next the lane, a few feet from its 
previous position. 



UNORNAMENTED CROSSES 



39 



Escalls, Sennen 

Sennen, or St. Sennen, in the Deanery of Penwith, is situated one 
mile from the Land's End and ten miles south-west of Penzance. 

Escalls Farm is one mile north-east of 
Sennen churchtown. 

This slab is built into a hedge in one of 
the fields. It is formed of a rough granite slab, 
and is somewhat mutilated. 

Dimensions. — Height, 3 ft. 2 in. ; width across 
the limbs, i ft. 10 in. 

Only one face is visible ; on it is cut a 
Latin cross in relief; the bottom of the shaft 
has either been mutilated or so worn away that it is now uncertain 
how far it originally extended. 




Cross Close, St. Columb Minor 

St. Columb Minor, in the Deanery of Pyder, is 
situated twelve miles north of Truro, and about two 
and a half miles north of Newquay railway-station. 

About two miles from Newquay, on the left-hand 
side of the St. Columb road, is a stile which forms 
the entrance to a pathway leading across the fields 
to St. Columb Minor churchtown. The slab stands 
by the right-hand side of this path, in the first field. 
Probably it is in situ, since the word ' close,' as used 
in Cornwall, means a field; hence 'Cross Close,' or 
* Cross Field.' It is very roughly hewn, and appears 
to be almost circular in plan, an extremely rare form in 
this county. I ascertained personally that, at a depth 
of seven or eight inches below the surface, the monument 
is packed tightly round with stones — a possible substitute for a base. 

Dimensions. — Height, 3 ft. 2 in. ; average width, 15 in.; average 
thickness, \2\ in. 




-'^==?^^^*»^'^tW* 



40 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 

On the front is a rudely executed Latin cross, in high relief, 
projecting i^ in. beyond the face of the stone, excepting at the 
ends of the limbs, where they are rounded down. The three 
upper limbs are carried to the outline of the stone, when standing 
exactly in front of the cross. On the back, however, the sculpture 
is not clear. The lumpy remains near the top may indicate that a 
cross similar to that on the front originally existed, but sufficient 
does not now remain to identify them with any particular form of 
cross or ornamental device. 



WHEEL CROSSES 

Under this heading are placed all those monuments which have 
approximately circular heads of a greater diameter than the width of 
the shaft. 

They are by far the most common in Cornwall, and there exists a 
great variety among them, chiefly as regards (i) the shape of the 
head, (2) the form of cross in relief upon it, and (3) certain archi- 
tectural features. In the first place, the heads in many instances 
are not actually round, being in some cases elliptical, and in others 
halving straight sides ; but such differences in detail as these would 
hardly justify the adoption of a separate sub-division for each kind, 
since they evidently all belong to the same type. No two examples 
are absolutely identical, there being slight variations in the shapes of 
the different parts. Where these variations become very marked 
the monuments have been placed in different sub-divisions, which, for 
convenience of reference, have been arranged in the following groups, 
and will be dealt with in this order : — 

(i.) With equal-limbed crosses in relief on the front and back of 
the head, 

(2.) Similar to ( i ), but with the addition of sundry architectural 
features. 

(3.) With Latin crosses in relief on either one or both faces. 

(4.) With the figure of our Lord in relief on the front, and a 
cross on the back. 



UNORNAMENTED CROSSES 



41 



A list of examples in Ccich gnjup and sub-division will bo given 
before proceeding to describe the different varieties. Ornamented 
wheel crosses will be found in ' Class B.' 



WHEEL CROSSES WITH EQUAL-LIMBED CROSSES 
IN RELIEF ON THE HEAD 

Geographical Distribution 



Advent. 

Tresinncy. 
Agnes, St. 

In churchyard. 
Altarnon. 

In churchyard. 

In vicarage garden. 

Two-gates. 
Blisland. 

Lavethan.' 

Trewardale (2). 
Boconnoc. 

In churchyard. 
Bodmin. 

Berry Tower. 

Outside the Gaol. 

In a field. 

Callywith. 
Breock, St. 

White Cross. 
Breivard, St. 

Lanke (2). 
Budock. 

Nangitha. 
Buryan, St. 

Boskenna, in a field. 
Camborne. 

In church wall. 
CardynJiam. 

Treslca Down. 
Constantine. 

In churchyard. 



Egloshayle. 

In churchyard (2). 
Ewe, St. 

Corran. 
Forrabury. 

Outside church}'ard. 
Glnvias, St. 

Enys. 
Gumualloe. 

In churchyard. 
Givinear. 

In churchyard. 
Hilary, St. 

Trewhela Lane. 
Juliot, St. 

In churchyard. 
Kczv, St. 

Polrode Mill. 
Lanivet. 

Bodwannick. 

Fenton Pits. 

St. Ingonger. 

Tremoor Cross. 

W^oodley Cross. 
Lanteglos-by- Canielford. 

In rectory grounds. 

Trewalder. 

Trevia. 
Lcvan, St. 

On church}'ard wall. 

Sawah. 

Rosepletha. 



' See footnotes, p. 44. 



42 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



Linkinhorne. 

North Coombe. 
Luxulyan. 

In churchyard. 

Methrose. 

Trevellan. 

Mabyn, St. 

In churchyard. 

Col quite. 

Cross Hill. 
Madron. 

Hea Moor. 

Trengwainton Cairn. 
Mawnan. 

In church wall. 
Merther. 

TresilHan. 
Michaelstow. 

Trevenning. 
Minver, St. 

St. Enodoc. 

Roche. 

In rectory garden. 

Ruan Minor, St. 

St Rumon's Cross. 



Sancreed. 

On churchyard wall. 

In churchyard wall. 

Anjarden. 
Sennen. 

On churchyard wall. 
Stephen' s-m-Brannell, St. 

In churchyard. 
Thomas the Apostle, St., Launceston. 

In churchyard. 
Trevalga. 

In churchyard. 
TyivardreatJi. 

Tregaminion. 
Warbstoiv. 

Lower Youlton. 
Wenn, St. 

Cross and Hand. 
Winnozv, St. 

Waterlake. 
Withiel. 

By roadside. 

In rectory garden. 



Wheel Crosses with Crosses having expanded Limbs 

NOT CARRIED TO THE EDGE OF THE StONE 

There are three examples of this type, which will be found at the 
following places : — 

Altarnon, No. i . . In churchyard. 

,, . . Two-gates, 

Levan, St. . . . Rosepletha. 



Altarnon, No. i. In the Churchyard 

Altarnon, in the Deanery of Trigg Major, is situated eight miles 
south-west of Launceston. 

The cross stands on the south side of the church. 



UNORNA MEN TED CROSSES 



43 




What remains of the cross itself consists of a mutilated head 
loosely placed over the socket of a round base. It is probable that 
the two pieces were once part of the same monument, the missing 
shaft having most likely been utilised for some purpose. 

Dimensions. — Height of head, 
2 ft. ; width of head, 2 ft. The 
base is 3 ft. 5 in, in diameter and 
7 in. thick. 

The crosses on front and back 
are alike. 

Two-gates, Altarnon 

For locality of Altarnon, see 
last. 

Two-gates is situated on the right-hand side of the road which 
passes the east end of the church, about half a mile north of the 
building. This name is given to a portion of the road which sets 
back, and gives an entrance to two fields. 

The stone is locally called ' Short Cross,' and is probably part of 
a taller monument. It stands immediately round _ 

the corner of the recess, on the right, near the first 
gate, but as it is placed against the hedge, only the 
front is visible. 

Dimensions. — Height, 2 ft. i in. ; width of head, 
1 ft. 7^ in. ; width of shaft, 1 2 in. 

The head can hardly be called rounded, though 
the lower angles are roughly so ; the sides being almost perpendi- 
cular. The upper portion has been broken straight across the top, 
and a piece is chipped off one of the top corners. 



i^N^^iJ^ 




Rosepletha, St. Levan 

St. Levan, in the Deanery of Penwith, is situated eight miles 
south-west of Penzance. 

Rosepletha is a farm, part of which adjoins the churchyard. 



44 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



Outside the eastern exit from St. Levaii churchyard is a path- 
way leading in a north-east direction to Rosepletha farmhouse 

The massive and rudely executed cross stands in situ in the 

second field from the church, by the left- 
hand side of the path. When this drawing 
was made the base was covered with soil, 
but it has since been exposed. 

Dimensions. — Height, 4 ft. 6 in. ; width 
of head, 2 ft. ; width of shaft : at the neck 
13^ in., at the bottom 14^ in. The cross is 
of a uniform thickness of 1 1 in. The base 
is about 3 ft. 4 in. square. 

The crosses on front and back are 
alike, both having a slight inclination to 
the right. 




Wheel Crosses similar to those just described, eut with the 
UiTER Limbs carried to the edge of the Head 

There are eleven ^ examples of this type, which will be found at 
the following places : — 



Blisland 
Bodmin, No. i 
Camborne, No. i 
Constantine . 
Gluvias, St. . 
Gwinear, No. i 
Mabyn, St. . 
Madron 



Trewardale, No. i. 

Berry Tower 

In church wall 

In churchyard 

Enys 

In churchyard. 

Cross Hill 

Trenc{wainton Cairn 



' J. T. lilight {Crosses and Antiguities of Cornwall) illustrates on p. 5 another cross of 
this type at Lavcthan, Blisland, and adds : ' This cross originally stood on Hlisland Moor ; 
removed for preservation.' I have, however, been unable to identify it with cither of the 
four crosses standing in these grounds. 

Sir John Maclean {Deanery of Trii:;}:; Minor, vol. i. p. 25) also illustrates this cross, and 
says: 'It is believed that its original site was by the roadbiile, near Chccscwring at Carbilly, 
from where, a few years ago, a cross was removed.' 



UNORNAMENTED CROSSES 



45 



Sancrecd, No. i 

Trevalga 

Warbstow 



On churchyard wall 
In churchyard 
Lower Yuulton 



Trewardale No. i, Blisland 

Blisland, in the Deanery of Bodmin, is five miles north-east of 
Bodmin. 

Trewardale, the residence of Mrs. Edward Collins, is situated 
about a mile south of Blisland churchtown. 

Sir John Maclean ^ gives the following particulars regarding this 
cross : ' It originally stood at the 



.'\ii>>:. 



I: r-\_;' ^ .1, ■■'liiiit^- 



intersection of the road leading 
from Blisland to Bodmin with 
that from Tresarret Bridge to 
Cardynham, This cross has 
from time immemorial been 
known as " White -e- Cross," 
(White Cross), and was removed 
a few years ago by Captain 
Collins, R.N., then the proprie- 
tor of Trewardale.' The cross 
was brought in first, and placed 
on a hedge in Trewardale; the 
base, which was built into a 
hedge, was not added until some years afterwards. They are now 
properly erected in the garden near the house. 

Dimensions. — Height, 4 ft. 7 in. ; width of head, i ft. 9 in. ; width 
of shaft, 14^ in. ; thickness, 7 in. 

The cross on the front of the head is very clear and sharp, and 
appears to have been recut, while very little remains of that on the 
back. 

1 Sir John Maclean, Deanery of Trigg Minor, vol. i. p. 25. 




46 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



Bodmin, No. i. Near Berry Tower 

Bodmin, in the Deanery of Bodmin, is situated near the centre 
of the county. 

Berry Tower stands on the north side of Bodmin, and is all that 
remains of an ancient chapel, built a.d. 1501, and dedicated to the 
Holy Cross. The land surrounding it has been 
enclosed and formed into a cemetery. The cross 
' originally stood where three ways meet, near the 
ancient building now used as a barn at Berry, 
and was removed a few years ago to its present 
position.' ^ 

It is somewhat mutilated, and the head leans 
considerably over to one side. The only great 
difference between this and the examples just 
described consists in the beaded angles of the 
shaft, which are worked also on the sides, and 
are stopped at the head. 

Height, 4 ft. ; width of head, i ft. 8^ in. ; width of 
shaft, I2in. ; thickness, 1 1 in. 

The limbs of the crosses are slightly curved, and the extremity 
of the lower one is almost the whole width of the shaft. On the front 
the emblem has a very great inclination to the right, while on the 
back it is nearly perpendicular, and has in the middle a small circular 
hole. 

Camborne, No. i. In the Church Wall 




Dimensions. 



Camborne, in the Deanery of Carnmarth, is situated twelve miles 
south-west of Truro. 

This cross-head is now built into the outside east 
wall of the chancel. 

Dimensions. — Height, i ft. 7 in. ; width of head, 
I ft. 7! in. 
1 1 will i>e noticed that the upper limb of the cross does not 

' .Sir John M.iclean, Deanery of Triy^f^ Afinor, vol. i. p. 117. 






UNORNAMENTED CROSSES 



47 




follow the outline of the head at its extremity, Hke the others, 
but is concave — a unique feature. 

Constantine. In the Churchyard 

Constantine, in the Deanery of Kerrier, is six miles east of Helston 
and seven south-west of Falmouth. There is a railway-station at 
both places. 

The cross is fixed in the ground, at the edge 
of the footpath, near the north-east angle of the 
church. 

Dimensions. — Height, i ft. 9 in. ; width of 
head, i ft. 8 in. ; thickness, 7 in. 

The front and back are alike, but the cross on the latter is almost 

worn away. 

Enys, St. Gluvias 

St. Gluvias is in the Deanery of Carnmarth. 
the town of Penryn, and is two miles 
north-west of Falmouth. 

Enys, the seat of Francis Gilbert 
Enys, Esq., J. P., is situated about a 
mile and a quarter north of Penryn. 

Mr. John D. Enys, brother of 
the above, has kindly sent me the 
following particulars regarding this 
monument : ' The cross came from 
Sancreed, and was sent to Enys by 
the Rev. Henry Comyn, of that 
place. My father had sent down a 
cart with some things for Mr. Comyn, 
and the cross was sent back as a 
present, and put up at Enys on 
June 13, 1848.' 

It has been fixed in a modern 
base, and now stands in a rockery, 
the back is convex. 



This parish adjoins 

1 




/^■t^ 



Its front surface is flat, while 



48 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



Dimensions. — Height, 4 ft. 2 in. ; width of head, i ft. 8 in. ; width 
of shaft : at the neck 13 in., at the bottom 12 in. ; thickness, Sin. 

On both the front and back of the head is a cross, the lower Hmlj 
in each case being a Httle longer than the others. 



Gwinear, No. i. In the Churchyard 

Gwinear, in the Deanery of Penwith, is situated three miles east 
of Hayleand one mile north-east from Gwinear Road riiilway-station. 

The cross-head is fixed on a small, and 
probably modern, base, and stands on the south 
side of the churchyard. 

Dimensions. — Height, i ft. 4 in. ; width of 
head, i ft. 7^ ii^- ; thickness, 5 in. 

The crosses on front and back appear to 
have been re-cut, for, although in very low relief, they are remark- 
ably distinct. Each line of the limbs is slightly concave. 




'^a5^;j<£Sf%V«!?s'-^ 



Cross Hill, St. Mabyn 

St. Mabyn, in the Deanery of Bodmin, is situated five miles 
north-west of Bodmin town. 

The cross stands in situ in a field, just inside 
the gate, at a place called ' Cross Hill,' on the 
left-hand side of the road leading from St. 
Mabyn churchtown to Dinham's Bridge and 
Littlewood. 

Dimensions. — Height, 2 ft. 9 in. ; width of 
head, i ft. 5 in. ; shaft, t i in. wide ; thickness, 
Q in. 

This monument is considered one of the 
earliest examples of this type. 




UNORNAMENTED CROSSES 



49 




Trengwainton Cairn, Madron 

Madron, in the Deanery of Penwith, is silualed about one and 
a half miles north of Penzance. 

Treno'wainton Cairn is about one mile south-west of Madron 

o 

churchtown. 

The shaft and lower 
portion of the head are 
missing. The somewhat 
pointed head is fixed into 
the mortice of its roughly 
hewn and orio^inal base, 
which stands in situ. 

Dijuensions. — Present 
height of head, i ft. 1 1 in. ; 
width of head, i ft. 1 1 \ in. ; 
thickness, 7^ in. The base is 4 ft. wide and 12 in. thick. 

The crosses are alike on both front and back. 







Sancreed, No. i. On the Churchyard Wall 

Sancreed, in the Deanery of Penwith, is situated four miles west 
of Penzance. 

The Rev. R. Basset Rogers, vicar of Sancreed, has kindly supplied 
me with the following details regarding the recovery 
of this cross. Writing from the vicarage in October 
1887 hs says: 'I found the cross recently in a 
ditch, on an estate called Trannack, about half a 
mile from here. I had heard of a cross in existence 
there, and searched about the spot indicated several 
times, but without success. At last, one afternoon 
I stumbled upon it lying flat in a ditch, and two days afterwards, on 
.going there again, found it had been removed by the occupier of the 

E 



irK 






50 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



farm, to be worked into his garden hedge. He, however, let me 
have it quite wilhngly, and we placed it in the old earth socket on 
the west wall of the churchyard, where the head of the cross now 
by the vicarage gate [Sancreed No. 2] used to be.' 

The shaft and base are still missing. 

Dimeiisions. — Height, i ft. 10 in.; width, 2 ft. i in. ; thickness, 9 in. 

The crosses on front and back are alike. 






Trevalga. In the Churchyard 

Trevalga, in the Deanery of Trigg Minor, is situated six miles 
north-west of Camelford railway-station and twenty miles from 
Bodmin and Launceston. 

The monolith stands on the south side of the church, near 

the porch. 

Judging from its general 
appearance, it seems to be a 
very early example. The 
head is elliptical, and the 
entasis on the shaft occurs 
on the south side only. 

Dimensions. — H e igh t, 5 
ft. 9 in. ; width of head, i ft. 
8 in. ; width of shaft : at the 
neck i3.yin., at the bottom 
15^ in. ; thickness, 10^ in. 

The crosses on the head 
are very remarkable. That 
on the east front is not quite 
upright, and the vertical 
limbs are not central, being placed considerably to the left. All are 
very slightly expanded and of different lengths, the upper and right 
being the longest. The cross on the west front has limbs of nearly 
equal length, but the ends are not e\j)andcd. This is a \'ery rare 





VNORNAMRNTED CROSSES 



51 



form in Cornwall, and, like the other cross, is also placed towards the 
north side, to which it has a marked inclination. 









Lower Youlton, Warbstow 

Warbstow, in the Deanery of Trigg Major, is situated eight miles 
north-east of Camelforcl. 

Lower Youlton Farni is about three-quarters of a mile south-west 
of Warbstow church. 

The original site of this cross is unknown. It 
now forms the footbridge over a little brook that 
runs in the valley between Lower Youlton and 
Trewonnard, The cross on the upper surface has 
been almost obliterated by the feet of persons using 
the footbridge. The cross on the under side is, 
however, much more distinct, and is similar to 
that on the upper side, here illustrated. 

Dimensions. — Length, 4 ft. 4 in. ; width of head, 
2 ft. ; width of shaft, i ft. 6 in. ; thickness, 8 in. 









U#<v'J 



Wheel Crosses similar to those described on p. 42, but with 
THE Lower Limb expanded to the full width of the 
Shaft. 

There are five examples of this type, which will be found at the 
following places : — 

Boconnoc, No. i 
Lanivet . 



Lanteglos-by-Camelford 
Withiel, No. i 



In churchyard. 
Fenton Pits. 
St. Ingonger. 
Trewalder. 
By roadside. 



Boconnoc, No. i. In the Churchyard 

Boconnoc, in the West Deanery, is situated seven miles north 
of Fowey, and three miles north-east of Lostwithiel railway-station. 

E 2 




52 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 

This cross is somewhat mutilated. It was found in 1886, when 
building a new organ-chamber to the church. It now stands in 
.-■^ the churchyard, near the entrance from Boconnoc 



'.^»i^'^. House. 

Dimensions. — Height, 2 ft. 7 in. ; width of head, 
I ft. 7 in. ; width of shaft at the top, 13 in. ; thick- 
ness, 7i in. 
p-^Si^'.;:;\ The crosses on front anci back are similar, and 

>-- >)l/,y /''''• if Si'/f^ each has a little hole in the centre. 

Fenton Pits, Lanivet 

Lanivet, in the Deanerv of Bodmin, is situated three miles south- 
west of Bodmin. 

Fenton Pits is a small village about two miles south-west of 
Lanivet churchtown. 

This cross has been broken off at the base, and 
now stands in the ground, by the side of the road. 

The base, containing the lower portion of the 
shaft in its mortice, is built into a hedge close by. 
The top of the cross is very much chipped. 

Diinensions. — Height, 3 ft. 2 in. ; width of 
head, i ft. 11 in. ; width of shaft, 12 in. 
f.^^)i^%^k^^-' The only variation between this and the fore- 

going examples is that there is a bead worked 
on the ci.(\^(z of the head, between the ends of the limbs. 



St. Ingonger, Lanivet 

For locality of Lanivet, see last. 

St. Ingonger, Gunger, or Gonger as it is locally called, is a farm 
situated about midway between Lanivet and Lanhydrock, near which 
point the road to Bodmin turns off in a northerly direction. 

' St. Gonger Cross,' as the monument is named, formerly stood 




UNORN. I MEN TED CR OSSES 



53 



on the grass at the junction of the roads, but is 
now fixed against the right-hand angle of the 
roads. 

It has been broken at the neck, but is other- 
wise in a good state of preservation. 

Dimensions. — Height, 5 ft. 5 in. ; width of 
head, i ft. 10 in. ; width of shaft, 12 in. 

The only noticeable feature is the extreme 
narrowness of the limbs at their intersection. 






Bt."3 




Trewalder Cross, Lanteg-Ios-by Camelford 



Lanteglos-by-Camelford, in the Deanery of 
Trigg Minor, is situated a mile and a half south- '^1^1^ 
west of Camelford. 

Trewalder Farm is one and a quarter miles west of Lanteglos. 

The cross stands on top of a hedge ' at the junction of three 
roads near Trewalder. It formerly stood in the hedge at the corner 
of the field called "Great Bovetown." When the hedo^e at the 







corner of this field was taken down, a few years ago, to widen the 
road, the cross and base were removed to the hedge oi)posite.' • 

Di77iensions. — Height, 2 ft. 5 in. ; width of head, i ft. 9111. ; width 



' Sir John Maclean, Deanery of Trigg Minor, vol. ii. p. 2S2. 



54 



OLD CORXISH CROSSES 



of shaft, 12 in. ; thickness, 12 in. The base is 3 ft. 10 in. square and 
10 in. thick. 

The crosses on front and back are ahke, and each has a small 
hole in the centre. 

Withiel, No. i. By Roadside 

Withiel, in the Deanery of Bodmin, is situated three miles west 
of Bodmin. 

About one mile south of Withiel churchtown the road to Roche 

^__ _ is intersected by that from St. Columb Minor to 

-f M i <%K Bodmin. The cross will be found on the left- 

f^'-''-:^ hand side of the former, about a hundred yards 

^^■^r.J^ beyond the four cross-roads. No doubt the 

monolith is in situ, and it is said to be deeply 

buried in the ground. 

Dimensions. — Height out of the ground, 3 ft. 
4 in. ; width of head, 2 ft. i \ in. ; width of shaft, 
I 5.7 in. ; thickness, 9 in. 

The crosses on front and back are alike ; their 
projection is very slight, each being just sufficiently in advance of 
the shaft to show a line. 






¥^- 







Wheel Crosses having a Bead on the edge of the Head, 

SURROUNDING THE CrOSS, EXCEPT WHERE IT JOINS THE ShAFT. 

There are nineteen examples of this type, which will be found at 
the following places : — 

Advent ..... Tresinney. 



Blisland . 
Bodmin, No. 2 
Breock, St. 
B reward. St. . 
I)uryan, St. 
I'^gloshaylc, No. j 
I'^orrabury 
Hilary Si. 



Trewardale, No. 2. 
Outside the gaol. 
White Cross. 
Lankc;, No. ]. 
I)()skenna, No. i. 
In churchyard. 
Outside churchyard. 
Trewhela Lane. 



UNORNAMENTED CROSSES 



55 



Lanlvet .... 
Lanteglos-by-Caniclford, No. i 



Luxulyaii 

Mabyn, St. 

Madron . 
Michaelstow 
Winnow, St. 



Bod wan nick. 

In rectory grounds. 

T re via, No. i. 

In churchyard. 

Methrose. 

In churchyard. 

Colquite. 

Hea Moor. 

Trevenning, No. r. 

W aterlake Cross. 



Tresinney, Advent 

Advent, in the Deanery 
of Trigg Minor, is situated 
one and a half miles south 
of Camelford and nine and 
a half north of Bodmin. 

This cross stands in 
its roughly hewn base, in 
si/it, ' in the open field on 
the west side of the j)arish 
church [on the Tresinney 
estate]. The ancient road, 
which has been deviated, 
passed close by it, and 
was intersected here by 
the church path.' ' 

It is a tall, elegant 
monolith, and one of the 
highest of its type in the 
country. It is somewhat 
chi{)ped, one piece having 
been knocked out of the 







BmMi^ 



^^ 






' Sir John Maclean, Deanoy of 
Trigg Minot\ vol. ii. p. 282. 



^.\V- 






56 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 

shaft near the bottom. The head is sHghtly elHptical, and the shaft, 
for a monument of this height, is very slender. The entasis is more 
noticeable on the left side than on the right. 

Dimensions. — Height, 8 ft. 6 in. ; width of head, i ft. lo^ in. ; 
width of shaft: at the bottom 15 in., at the neck ii~in. ; thick- 
ness : at the bottom 9 in., at the neck 6\ in. The base is 4 ft. 6 in. 
wide. 

On the head is a cross of the usual shape, which has a consider- 
able inclination to the right. There is a similar cross on the back. 

Trewardale No. 2, Blisland 

Blisland, in the Deanery of Bodmin, is situated five miles north 
of Bodmin. 

Trewardale, the residence of Mrs. Edward Collins, is about a 
mile south of Blisland churchtown. 

This cross-head now lies by the base of No. i cross, already de- 
scribed on p. 45. 

Sir John Maclean ' gives the following interesting account of 
this fragment : — 

' This cross formerly stood by the wayside between Lower Lanke 

,-- -•^ and Penpont (in the parish of St. Breward). The 

(i^MiyWkiS, base, with its central socket, still remains in its original 
v'-*,* v^\li?fc!f-i position. The cross had been thrown down and 



V^rK ;'^Wy broken at the neck, and the head was found a few 
K .:ri:~-- years ago, by the Rev. Charles M. Edward Collins, of 

Trewardale, on a heap of stones which were being broken for 
repairing the roads. He caused it to be removed to Trewardale.' 

Dimensions. — Height, i ft. Sin. ; width, i ft. 9 in. ; thickness, 7 in. 
On both the front and back is a cross ; that on the back has a small 
round hole at the intersection of the limbs. 

' Dciinoy of Tri'^i^ M/nur, vol. i. p. 354. 



UNORNA MEN TED CROSSES 



57 



Bodmin, No. 2. Outside the Gaol 

Bodmin, in the Deanery of Bodmin, is situated near the centre 
of the county. 

The cross is supposed to have originally stood at the meeting of 
the three roads opposite the gaol. Some years __ 

aofo it was taken down, and for a considerable 
time lay amongst a heap of stones. When this 
building was enlarged, and through the influence 
of the late Captain Norway, R. N., then governor 
of the gaol, permission was obtained from the 
committee for its erection. A base was accord- 
ingly provided by them, upon which the monu- 
ment was placed where it now stands. 

It is a very fine monolith, and is in a good 
state of preservation. The head is beaded ; the 
shaft Is very narrow at the neck, and has a 
remarkable entasis. 

Dimensions. — Height, 7 ft. 8 in. ; width of head, 
2 ft. 4 in. ; width of shaft : at the neck 13 in., at 
the bottom 18 in. ; and of a uniform thickness 
of 9I in. 

The cross on the front is inclined to the 
right, while that on the back is upright, and 
has a small circular hole in the centre. 




White Cross, St. Breock 

St. Breock, in the Deanery of Pyder, is situated about one mile 
west of Wadebridge railway-station. 

White Cross is a small village or hamlet situated about one mile 
west of St. Breock, and, like White Cross, Ludgvan, takes its name 
from the cross. 

Unfortunately, the monument has been broken across the shaft. 




58 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 

and the ends of the fracture are chipped. The parts hav^e, however, 

been securely fixed together by the village blacksmith, by means of 

a substantial iron cramp on front and back. 

The inhabitants are very proud of their relic, 

and are niost particular to keep the crosses on the 
head whitewashed. A similar custom is in vogue 
at White Cross, Ludgvan, where, however, the 
whole monument is whitewashed. 

Dhnensions. — Height, 3 ft. 9 in. ; width of 
head, 1 ft. 8 in. ; width of shaft : at the neck 
12 in., at the bottom 13!^ in. ; thickness at the 
bottom, 10^- in., tapering to 5 in. at the top. 
%.x^,. The cross on the front (shown on the drawing) 

is a little inclined to the right, while that on the 

back is upright. Midway between the fracture and the ground is a 

horizontal incised line. 

Lanke No. i, St. Breward 

St. Breward, in the Deanery of Trigg Minor, is situated five miles 
south of Camelford. 

Lanke is about one and a half miles south of St. Breward 
churchtown. 

The cross formerly stood at Fenton Pits, in the parish of Lanivet, 
near the entrance to Lesquite Farm. About the year 1885 it was 
removed by the late Mr. Collins to his garden at Lanke, where it 
now stands. 

Probably this is the same cross as that illustrated by Blight,' and 
there stated to be 7 ft. 4 in. high froni the base. 

It is a very fine and massive moncjlith, but is somewhat chipped 
in places. 

Dimensions. — I leight, 6 ft. 3 in. ; width of head, 2 ft. 1 in. ; width of 
shaft : at the top 15 in., in the middle 16 in., and at the bottom 15 in. ; 
thickness : at the bottom 12 in., at the neck i i in. 

The head varies sr)mf;what from those already described, as the 

' J. T. IMighl, Crosses and Antiquilics of Cornwall, p. i. 



UNORNA MEN TED CROSSES 



59 



beads on its edges are confined only to those portions between the 
limbs, and do not surround the head, as in other cases. The limbs 
are very wide at the ends, and very narrow at the intersection, the 
spaces between them being deeply sunk. The cross on the front has 
a small central hole, and beneath the bottom of the lower limbs is an 
incised line about 8 in. long. On the back the cross is very rudely 














^m '%.'■» 



HP 



Ms 




executed, and is curious in many ways, an idea of which will, however, 
be better gained by an inspection of the drawing than by any 
description. Attention should be called to the three grooves, one of 
which is on the left side of the upper limb, and the others, one on 
either side of the lower. 



Boskenna No. i, St. Buryan 

St. Buryan, in the Deanery of Penwith, is situated six miles south- 
west of Penzance. 

Boskenna estate is about two and a half miles north of St. 
Buryan churchtown. 




6o OLD CORNISH CROSSES 

This is a small cross-head of horseshoe shape, and is now mounted 
on a plain granite shaft about four feet high. 

,_..._ It stands by a gateway in the field-pathway which 

runs from Boskenna to St. Buryan. 

Difnensions. — Height, i ft. 6^ in. ; width, i ft. 8 in. ; 
and 7^ in. thick. 

There is a cross on the front only ; the back of the 
stone is quite plain, and retains no indications of ever having 
had a cross cut upon it. 

Egloshayle, No. i. In the Churchyard 

Egloshayle, in the Deanery of Bodmin, is situated about half a 
mile south-east of Wadebridge. 

There are two crosses in this churchyard, one on either side of 
the northern entrance. 

No. I cross is said to have been brought from 
Dunmere Wood, Pencarrow. It has evidently been 
used as a gatepost at some time or other, as is shown 
by the hole near the right side. 

Dimensions. — Height, 3 ft. 4 in. ; width of head, 
I3|in. ; width of shaft, to in. ; thickness, 8 in. 

A curious feature in the cross on the front is the 
•i^Mi^->i^^s. manner in which the lower portion of the upper limb 
is finished, by being brought down to a point in the 
centre, slightly in relief of the rest of the emblem. 

Forrabury. Outside the Churchyard 

I'^orrabury, in the Deanery of Trigg Minor, is situated six miles 
north-west of Camel ford. 

The cross now stands on a waste piece of ground on the south 
side of the churchyard. 

In his notice of tliis cross Sir John Maclean ' says : ' It is n^i in 

' Deanery of Tt ii^}^ Minor, vol, i. p. 5S5. 




UNORNAMENTED CROSSES 



6i 



/^' 






its original site, and has at some tinie Ijeen used as a gatepost, as 
shown by the holes at the back. . . . Near its present position, 
however, there is a field -jr- ^ 

called " Cross Park," ... '^ 

numbered 74 in the tithe 
map. It is likely that this 
cross formerly stood by the 
ancient way near to the 
field from which it has de- 
rived its name.' 

Dimensions. — Height, 5 
ft. 7.2 in. ; width of head, 
I ft. 6 in. ; width of shaft : 
at the top 13 in., at the 
bottom 15 in. 

The crosses on front 
and back of the head appear 
to be similar, but both are 
much worn. 













Trewhela Lane, St. Hilary 

St. Hilary, in the Deanery of Penwith, is situated six miles east of 
Penzance and two and a half east of Marazion Road railway-station. 

Trewhela Lane lies about a mile to the north-east of St. Hilary 
churchtown. It branches off to the left, in a 
north-west direction, from the highway between 
St. Hilary and Camborne. 

At the top of the lane, and opposite to the 
point where it turns to the right towards Fnys, 
is a footpath which diverges to the left across 
the fields to Pemberthy Copse,' This path is 
approached by a ' trim tram,' - near the right of 

' Copse = a wood. 

- A ' trim tram ' is, I believe, a Cornish specialty, being a substitute for a gate or stile. 
It is constructed of some half-dozen or more pieces of rough-hewn granite about 5 ft. long, 







62 



OLD CORXISH CROSSES 



which is the cross ; it is not fixed in a base, but stands loosely in 
the ground. 

The stone is in a most dilapidated condition ; the upper and left 
sides of the head are broken away, and there is barely sufficient detail 
remaining to enable its class to be determined. 

Dimensions. — Height, 2 ft. 7 in. ; present width of head, about 
2 ft. ; width of shaft, 14^- in. ; thickness, 12 in. 







Bodwannick, Lanivet 

Lanivet, in the Deanery of Bodmin, is situated three miles south- 
west of Bodmin town and three and a half miles from Bodmin 
railway-station. 

^.^— ^ Bodwannick Farm is one mile north of Lanivet, 

/ ''Mj''-\_^^^\ and is in the occupation of Mr. Richard Knight. 
'" ' ' 9 ^ ':-^''\ 'The cross is fixed head downwards in the ground, 
and is used as a gatepost in the gateway between the 
fields named 'Under Lanes' and 'Green Hill' The 
existing hinges are shown. 

Mr. Knight most kindly unearthed and laid the 

cross on the ground for me, thus enabling a thorough 

examination of it to be made. He has known of its 

existence for twenty years, and informed me that I 

was the only person who had ever asked to see it 

in all that time. This fact is only mentioned as 

evidencing how little interest is taken in Cornwall 

k < ^lif^'-') concerning these monuments. 

^^ .-•« The monolith, with its tenon intact, is in a good 

^*^'*^ state of preservation, and is a fine example of a 

wheel cross. On the front of the shaft (here illustrated) there is 

an incised border-line on each side, which is returned across the top 

12 in. deep, and 7 in. or 8 in. thick. These are placed on edge transversely, from 12 in. to 
14 in. apart, their upper surface being level with that of the ground, whilst the intervening 
«paccs between them are sometimes as much as 18 in. deep. The object of these peculiar 
structures is to exclude cattle, for which purpose they are very effective, though perfectly 
easy for pedestrians to pass over. This accounts, perhaps, for their being most commonly 
used at the entrances to churchyards. 







UNO RNA MEN TED CROSSES 



63 



just below the head. These Hues are omitted on the back of the 
stone. 

Dimensions. — Total height, 6 ft. 2 in. ; width of head, i ft. 10 in. ; 
width of shaft : at the neck i ft., at the bottom i ft. 4 in. Thickness : 
at the bottom of the shaft 10 in., at the neck 9 in., at the top j\ in. 

The front and back of the head are alike, each cross having a 
small hole in the centre. 



rC*^. 






Lanteglos-by-Camelford, No. i. In the Rectory Grounds 

Lanteglos-by-Camelford, in the Deanery of Trigg Minor, is situ- 
ated one and a half miles south-west of Camelford. 

This cross was removed from the highway some years ago to its 
present position for preservation. It now 
stands in a field adjoining the rectory garden, 
and has at some time been utilised for a gate- 
post, as is clearly shown by the hole in the 
shaft, which is much broken at the edges. 
The riofht side of the shaft has an entasis, but 
on the left side this has been omitted. 

Di^nensions. — Height, 5 ft. 6 in. ; width of 
head, i ft. 8 in. ; width of shaft at the neck, 
14 in., diminishing slightly towards the bottom ; 
thickness, 9 in. 

The crosses on the head are a good deal 
worn ; that on the front is inclined to the right, 
and that on the back is upright. 







¥{}i: 




Trevia No. i, Lanteglos-by-Camelford 

For locality of Lanteglos-by Camelford, see last. 

Trevia is a hamlet situated near the junction of three roads about 
one and a half miles north of Camelford. 

I am indebted to Mr. J. R. Collins, of Bodmin, for supplying me 
with particulars, accompanied by a sketch and dimensions, of this 



64 



OLD CORXISH CROSSES 



recently discovered cross, which I have not had an opportunity of 
visiting. 

It was found in August 1894, about 300 yards west of Camelford 
Workhouse, and had been remov^ed from a hedge close by. 

The cross is now in front of the house occupied by Mr. Nathaniel 
Stephens at Trevia. 

Dimensions. — The head is circular, and is i ft. 9 in. in diameter ; 
only 3 in. of the shaft remain. 

Comparing his sketch with other specimens, it appears to 
approach more nearly the type of wheel cross dealt with in this section 
(see p. 54) than any other, and has, accordingly, been so classified. 



Luxulyan. In the Churchyard. 

Luxulyan, in the Deanery of Bodmin, is situated five miles north 
of St. Austell and about half a mile from Luxulyan railway-station. 
The cross has been recently erected in the church- 
yard. 

Prior to this it lay for some years, neglected, on 
top of a rockery in the vicarage garden. 

Formerly it stood, so I was informed, at ' Three 
Stiles,' near Consence, on the road to Bodmin, 
where the base still remains, built into a hedge near 
its original site. 

Although the cross has been used for a gate- 
post, it is, nevertheless, in a very good state of pre- 
servation. The two holes for receiving the lugs or 
irons used in supporting the gate may be seen, one 
over the left arm of the cross, and the other near 
the bottom of the shaft. The tenon is intact. 

Dii7iensions. — Length, including tenon, 4 ft. lo.^ in. ; width of 
head, i ft. \\\ in. ; width of shaft, 15 in. ; thickness, Z\ in. 




UNORNAMENTED CROSSES 



^>S 



Methrose,' Luxulyan 

For locality of Luxulyan, see last. 

Methrose, Medrose, or ' Meadows ' as it is locally named, is a 
farm about one and a half miles 






south of Luxulyan. 

The cross and base are built 
into the hedge of a field called 
' Broom Park,' and only a portion 
of the front is visible. 

Dimensions. — Height of cross, 
I ft. \o\ in. ; width of head, i ft. 
5^ in. ; width of shaft, 9^ in. ; 
thickness, 5^ in. The base is about 2 ft. square. 





St. Mabyn. In the Churchyard 
St. Mabyn, in the Dean- /^^S##^\ 



ery of Bodmin, is situated 
five miles north-west of Bod- 
min. 

This cross was formerly 
built into a rough wall ' on 
the left-hand side of the road 
leading from St. Mabyn 
churchtown to Longstone, 
about 200 yards from lane 
end.' ^ It has since been re- 
covered, and is now mounted 
on an old stop-chamfered 
shaft taken from the schools, 
and fixed into a modern base. 
This somewhat inconofruous 
monument was erected in 

' In 1890 this cross was removed by Mr. Rashleigh to Menabilly, and mounted on a 
plain granite shaft. 

' Sir John Maclean, Dea)tery of Ti'igg Minor, vol. ii. p. 452. 

F 




66 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 

the churchyard, about 1885, opposite the east end of the church. 
The original site of the cross is unknown, and I am unable to say if 
the piece of stone upon which it rested in the wall is a fragment of 
the old shaft. 

Dimensions. — Total height of the monument, 6 ft. 10 in. ; height 
of head, i ft. 9 in. ; width, 2 ft. ; thickness, 6 in. 

The head is beaded, but the crosses upon it are so much worn 
that they are barely traceable ; that on the west is inclined a good 
deal to the risfht. 



'&' 



Colquite, St. Mabyn 

For locality of St. Mabyn, see last. 

Colquite, the residence of Mrs. Glencross, is situated about two 
miles south of St. Mabyn. 

The original site of this little cross is not known. For many 

years it formed the threshold of a doorway to a cowhouse or stable 

at Boconnion, in the parish of Helland. Mr. Pye gave it to the 

Rev. J. H. Glencross, late rector of Helland, who 

J/^^-'\y^-^$^x placed it in his garden. After his death Mrs. 
P't^<»'"*^?^* Glencross removed to Colquite, and, taking the 
\im0r-^^!J cross with her, erected it in the garden where it 
Y;^rj"'/* now stands. 

^^^!Si It was probably once much long^er, but all 

^ """ ' ■•"^~ that now remains is the head and some six inches 
of the shaft. 
Dimensions. — Height, 2 ft. ; width of head, i ft. 7 in. ; width of 
shaft, ii|in. ; thickness at the bottom, 6^ in., tapering to about 
4 in. at the top. 

The crosses on front and back are alike ; in the centre of each 
is a small round hole. 

Hea Moor, Madron 

Madron, in the Deanery of Penwith, is situated a mile and a half 
north of Penzance. 



UNORNAMENTED CROSSES 



07 



Hea Moor (pronounced Hay) is an estate situated about three- 
quarters of a mile south-east of Madron church- 
town. 

The cross rests on a large stone built into a 
hedge on the right-hand side of the road through 
Hea Moor to Penzance. The head is elliptical, 
and retains a few inches of the shaft, the whole 
being much chipped. 

Dimensions. — Height, 2 ft. 5 in. ; width of h(;ad, i ft. 10 in. 

Only the front is visible ; the cross upon it has splayed edges, and 
the background is very deeply sunk. 




Trevenning No. i, Michaelstow 

Michaelstow, in the Deanery of Trigg Minor, is situated three 
miles south of Camelford. 

Trevenning is a hamlet situated about a quarter of a mile south 
of Michaelstow churchtown. 

There are three crosses in Mr. Bastard's garden at Trevenning. 
Nos. I and 2 were brought by him, from the 
moors near Rough Tor, in the spring of 1888, and 
placed in their present position for preservation. 
Both were found by the head of Reedy Marsh, 
in the parish of St. Breward, about three or four 
gunshots eastward of ' Middle Moor Post,' and 
some 300 yards from the edge of the marsh. 
No. 3 has been in this garden for many years. 
No. I only will be dealt with here, and Nos. 2 and 3, being of a 
different character, will be found under the head of ' Crosses with 
Incised Ornament' 

This cross is roughly executed and much injured, the most 
noticeable feature being the rebates on the edges of the shaft, in 
place of the usual bead. The base on which it is mounted, although 
not belonging to it, was, I believe, also brought in from near Rough 
Tor about the same time as the cross. 

F 2 




68 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



Dimensions. — Height, 2 ft. 6 in. ; width of head, i ft. 10 in. ; width 
of shaft, I ft. 5 in. ; thickness, 7^ in. The base is 3 ft. 4 in. x 2 ft. 8 in. 
X 6 in. thick. 

The cross on the head is most irregular, each of the hmbs being 
different in size and shape. 



Waterlake Cross, St. Winnow 

St. Winnow, in the Deanery of Bodmin, is twelve miles south- 
west of Liskeard and two miles south of Lostwithiel railway station. 
Waterlake is a hamlet near Bodmin Road railway-station. 









The cross stands in a cottage-garden occupying a piece of 
ground at the bifurcation of the road. This ground may possibly 
have been enclosed, in which case the monolith is likely to be in 
situ. A grass mound 2 ft. 6 in. high has been raised round it. which 
covers up rather more than half the shaft, the bottom of which is 
fixed in the ground. It has been wrought from a block of granite 
unevenly cleft, the result being that, viewed from the front, the 
head slopes back. 

Dimensions. — Height from top of mound, 4 ft. 6 in. ; width of 



UNORNAMENTED CROSSES 69 

head, 2 ft. 2 in. ; width of shaft at the neck, i ft. 4 in., but widening 
towards the bottom ; thickness, 10 in. 

The crosses on front and back are so remarkable that they must 
be described separately. 

Front. — This is one of the rare examples of a plain equal-limbed 
cross ; it has an inclination to the left, and at the intersection of the 
limbs there is a circular hole. 

Back. — The limbs are all of uneven width ; the two usually placed 
horizontally are curved upwards, and the lower and upper are sloped 
from right to left, the former being widely expanded at the bottom. 

Wheel Crosses similar to those just described, but with the 
Bead carried a short Distance down the Shaft, forming 
A Pear-shaped ^ Recess within 

There are two examples 'of this type, which will be found at the 
following places : — 

Gunwalloe . .In churchyard. 

Sancreed, No. 2 . In churchyard wall. 

Gunwalloe. In the Churchyard 

Gunwalloe, in the Deanery of Kerrier, is three and a half miles 
south of Helston. 

The church of Gunwalloe is situated on the coast, just inside a 
little cove, and is said to have been erected as a votive offering by 
one who here had escaped from shipwreck. So near is the sea 
that at times the church is washed by the spray, and the waves have 
frequently broken away the walls of the churchyard." 

Regarding the recovery of this cross the Rev. A. H. Cummings' 
says : ' If we may conjecture its position, it was probably by the side 
of the pathway which led the wayfarer across the little stream that 

' A description of this particular form is given in the section which deals with crosses 
having the figure of our Lord sculptured in relief upon them. 
' Churches of West Cornwall^ by J. T. Blight, p. 51. 
^ Churches and Antiquities of Cury afid Gun-iualloe,^. 131. Truro, 1S75. 



70 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 




here meanders through the sandbanks. At any rate, somewhere 
near the church there formerly stood a stone 
cross, which is mentioned by several writers as 
being of very early workmanship. It was thrown 
down long since, and was said, a year or two ago, 
to be lying at the bottom of the stream, which 
empties itself into the sea. After diligent in- 
quiry, however, the writer found that a stone 
cross and base had been in bygone years taken 

from Gunwalloe to Penrose, the seat of J. J. Rogers, Esq., for safety ; 

and this cross has now been placed in the angle of the south-east 

corner of the churchyard — not by any means its original position, but, 

at any rate, where for the future it may be safe from mutilation or 

destruction.' 

Dimensions. — Height, 2 ft. i in, ; width of head, i ft. 6^ in, ; width 

of shaft, 1 2 in. 

The front and back of the head are alike, and the crosses upon 

them have splayed edges. 



Sancreed, No. 2. In the Churchyard Wall 

Sancreed, in the Deanery of Penwith, is situated four miles west 
of Penzance. 

This cross was brought, many years ago, from Sellan, an estate 
in this parish. 

Adjoining the east wall of the churchyard is a 
piece of ground, belonging to the vicarage, called 
the Nursery. The cross is built into this wall, a few 
feet from the right-hand side of the gateway. 

It is very similar to that just described, but has 
been broken at the place where the bead stops on 
the shaft. 

Dimensions. — Height, 2 ft. 6 in. ; width of head, i ft. 11 in. ; thick- 
ness, 8 in. 

Only the front is visible, on which is a short Latin cross in relief, 
the u[)per limb only extended to the inside line of the bead. 




UNORNAMENTED CROSSES 



71 



Wheel Crosses similar to those defined on P. 54, but with 
THE Bead continued down each Side of the Shaft 

There are two examples of this type, which will be found at the 
following places : — 

Lanivet . . Tremoor Cross. 

Withiel, No. 2 . In rectory garden. 



Tremoor Cross, Lanivet 

Lanivet, in the Deanery of Bodmin, is situated three miles south- 
west of Bodmin town. 




72 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 

The monument stands in its base, on a hedge, at four cross-roads 
near Tremoor, about one and a half miles west of Lanivet. 

It is in a very good state of preservation, all the angles being 
very clear and sharp. 

The position it now occupies is very curious. There is an 
opening in the hedge, the sides of which are built up in rough stone- 
work, and form an outlet for a spring of water from the field 
beyond. Across this space, and about midway up the hedge, is 
placed the cross, the base spanning the opening and resting on, the 
sides. 

Another curious feature is that the mortice goes right through 
the base, and the shaft of the cross is let into it the whole depth, 
so that originally the bottom of the cross was resting on the 
ground. 

Dimensions. — Height, 3 ft. 4 in. ; width of head, 2 ft. 2 in. ; 
width of shaft, 15 in. The base is about 3 ft. 6 in. wide and 12 in. 
thick. 

The crosses on front and back are alike. 

Withiel, No. 2. In the Rectory Garden 

Withiel, in the Deanery of Bodmin, is situated five miles west of 
Bodmin town. 

The cross, which is in a very good state of preservation, formerly 
stood in the road, immediately outside the rectory entrance-gate. It 
was removed to the garden c. i860, and erected on a modern base 
of two steps. 

Di^nensions. — Height, 7 ft. 5 in. ; width of head, i ft. 1 1 in. ; 
width of shaft, 13 in. ; thickness: at the neck 8|in,, at the bottom 
loj in. 

Front. — The lower limb of the cross on this face is much wider 
than the others, being expanded almost to the inside line of the bead 
on the edge. 

Back. — The cross on the head leans slightly to the left, and the 
upper limbs extend to the edge of the stone. The three upper limbs 



U NORN A MEN TED CROSSES 



73 



are carried to the edge of the liead, and the bead is stopped three 
inches below the neck. 




'^t:0^^'' 



Wheel Crosses similar to those defined on P. 54, but with 
THE Bead carried completely round the Head, slightly 
IN advance of the Shaft 

There are four examples of this type, which will be found at the 
following places : — 

Bodmin . . . Callywith. 

,, No. 3 . . . In a field. 

Breward, St. . . . Lanke, No. 2. 

Minver, St. ... St. Enodoc. 



74 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



Callywith, Bodmin 

Bodmin, in the Deanery of Bodmin, is situated near the middle 
of the county. 

Callywith Farm is rather over one mile north-east of Bodmin. 

The cross, which is not considered to be 
in sitti, stands by the hedge in the corner of 
a field marked r 1 30 on the parish map, and 
now forms a boundary-mark between the 
parishes of Bodmin and Cardynham. This 
no doubt accounts for the battered condition 
of the monolith, consequent upon the time- 
honoured custom of ' beating the bounds.' 
There is, however, just sufficient indication of 
its character remaining to show that it belongs 
to this subdivision. 

The shaft has an entasis on one side only, 
and is brought in and suddenly narrowed at 
the neck. 

Dimensions. — Height, 5 ft. 6 in. ; width of 
head, i ft. 8 in. ; width of shaft, i5-|in, ; thickness, 9 in. 

The crosses on front and back of the head are barely traceable. 
In the centre of each is a small circular hole. 




Bodmin, No. 3. In a Field 

For locality of Bodmin, see last. 

Maclean states that the monolith ' formerly stood by the way- 
side, at the top of Castle Street Hill, close to the corner of the 
enclosure marked 1096 on the parish map ; but when the fence 
of the more modern enclosure was built, about forty years ago, 
the cross was removed, and laid over a well in the adjoining 
meadow, where it still remains.'' In a footnote he adds: 'This 



' Deanery of Trigg Mi nor, vol. i. j). i i8. 



UNORNAMENTED CROSSES 



75 






information was obtained from Stephen Roseveare, aged eighty- 
two, who resided in one of the cottages adjoining the meadow. 
He remembered the removal of the cross, and [although 
blind] pointed out to the author its original site.' 

The left side of the head is cut off in a line with 
the shaft, and the top is a little broken. The uneven 
fracture at the extreme end suggests that it may 
have been snapped off from its base. 

Dimensions. — Length, 6 ft. 3 in. ; width of head, 
2 ft. ; width of shaft at the neck, 16 in., and an inch 
less at the bottom ; thickness, 10 in. 

The cross on the head is in low relief, and inclines 
to the left. 




ir-:-:-' \ 1 






i- 



Lanke No. 2, St. Breward 

St. Breward, in the Deanery of Trigg Minor, is 
situated five miles south of Camelford. 

The cross stands on a rockery in Mr. Collins's 
garden. It is a well-proportioned and beautiful little specimen 
The head is elliptical, but only a small portion of the shaft remains. 

Dimensions. — Total height, i ft. 9 in. ; height of 
head, i ft. 6 in. ; width of same, i ft. 5 in. The shaft is 
13 in. wide. 

The crosses on front and back are alike, but that on 
the latter is not quite so distinct as the one here 
illustrated. 




St. Enodoc, St. Minver 

St. Minver, in the Deanery of Bodmin, is situated three miles 
north-east of Padstow and six miles north-west of Wadebridge. 

St. Enodoc is two and a half miles west of St. Minver. 

The cross stands in the churchyard, near the south porch, and has 
been considerably mutilated. The head, attached to the upper 
portion of the shaft, was found built into the old churchyard wall 
when the church was restored in 1863. It was refixed by the late 



76 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



F. J. Hext, Esq., J. P., D.L.., of Tredethy. The head is elliptical, its 
longer diameter being horizontal. Beneath that portion of the bead 

on the edge which passes over the 
shaft is a rounded groove. The 
shaft is straight on the south side, but 
there is a very marked entasis on the 
north, and a large piece near the 
bottom of this side is gone. 

Dimensions. — Height, 4 ft. 9 in. ; 
width of head, i ft. 10 in. ; height of 
same, i ft. 7 in. ; width of shaft : at the 
neck 10 in., at the bottom about 14 in. ; 
thickness: at the bottom 6^ in., at the 
neck 5 in. 

The base in plan is a rhomboid. 
The right side is 2 ft. 7 in. long, and the 
left 2 ft. 4 in. ; and the thickness, 7 in. 
The crosses on the head are similar in shape ; that facing east 
inclines to the north, that on the west, to the south. 




Wheel Crosses having Quadrants of a Circle filling in the 
Angles at the intersection of the Limbs ^ 

There are three examples of this type, which will be found at the 
following places : — 

Agnes, St. . . .In churchyard. 

Kew, St. . . . Polrode Mill. 
Roche, No. i . .In rectory garden. 



' An example of this peculiarity will be found on part of a cross-head at Woodchurch. 
illustrated in the Transactions of the Historic Society of Lancashire and Cheshire (vol. ix. 
New Series, Plate XV.). 

Another instance occurs on part of a cross-head in Adel Museum, near Leeds. 

See also the cross in Lesnewth churchyard, p. 163. 



UNORNAMENTED CROSSES 



77 



^^vVV?, 



«' ^ 



'f \ 



St. Agnes. In the Churchyard 

St. Agnes (pronounced by its inhabitants St. Anne's, in order to 
distinguish it from St. Agnes, one of the Scilly Isles) is situated in 
the Deanery of Powder, and is eight miles north-west of Truro and 
four miles north-west of Chacewater railway station. 

This massive cross now stands by the 
wall on the south side of the churchyard. 

According to Blight, it was formerly used 
as a lych-stone, to rest coffins upon previous 
to their being taken into the church. 

The projecting portion of the head, on 
the left side, has been cut off in a line with 
the shaft ; and the upper part, straight across 
the top. The shape of the head is very 
peculiar : it is widest at the bottom, and 
curves outwards, and then inwards, the 
chamfer on the edge being carried down 
the shaft. On the left side the chamfer 







^'^^^^ 



^^^^^•--'^ 



is gone. 

Dmtensions. — Height, 5 ft. 4 in. ; present 
width of head, i ft. 5 in. (originally it was about i ft. 10 in.) ; width 
of shaft: at the top 15 in., at the bottom I3in. ; thickness at the 
bottom, II in,, increasing upwards to 12^ in. at the neck. 

Front. — The cross on the head seems to have been re-cut, as the 
edges are quite clean and sharp. 

Back. — This is similar to the front, but not nearly so distinct. 



Polrode Mill, St. Kew 

St. Kew, in the Deanery of Bodmin, is situated four miles north 
of Wadebridge. 

Polrode Mill is situated about halfway between St. Kew highway 
and St. Teath, on the right-hand side of the road. 



78 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



This cross, the original site of which is not known, was once, no 
doubt, a very fine example, though now much injured. At the present 
time it forms one of the granite slabs which cover 
a small watercourse running under the road lead- 
ing from the highway to Polrode Mill. It is 
. placed at the extreme end, on the left-hand 
/ side, where, fortunately, it is out of the way of 
traffic. 

Like the cross which is laid over a well at 
Bodmin, the side of the head has been cut off in 
a line with the shaft, presumably, in this case, to 
make it fit close to the adjoining stone. The 
top is much broken, and there is probably a piece 
missing from the bottom of the shaft ; but the 
remainder is in an excellent state of preservation. 
When entire, the head was originally encircled 
on both sides by a bold bead, into the lower 
portion of which run the beads on the angles of the shaft. In 
both cases they are worked round the angles, and show on the sides 
of the stone. 

Dimensions. — Length, 5 ft. 8 in. ; width of head, 2 ft. 5 in. ; width 
of shaft, I ft. 6.^ in. ; thickness, 9 in. N.B. — The first two dimen- 
sions are taken to the dotted lines, as if the cross were complete. 

An inspection of the under side shows that the crosses on front 
and back of the head are alike, each having a small hole in the centre. 




Roche, No. i. In the Rectory Garden 



Roche, in the Deanery of St. Austell, is situated six miles north 
of St. Austell and one mile south of Victoria railway-station. 

The cross stands in a meadow facing the rectory, a short distance 
south of the church, and is said to be in situ. 

It is much chipped, especially round the upper portion of the head. 
The angles of the shaft are beaded on the front and back, but not 



UNORNAMENTED CROSSES 



79 



on the sides, as in the case of the cross at Polrode Mill, St. Kew. 
The base consists of an irregu- 
lar block of granite, roughly 
wrought. 

Diviciisions. — Height, 4 ft. 
I in. ; width of head, i ft. 10 in. ; 
width of shaft, 14 in. ; thickness 
at the bottom, to the neck, 9 in., 
tapering to 7 in. at the top. 

The sinkings in the head 
on front and back, which form 
the background of the crosses, 
are very deep, and in the middle 
of each cross is a circular hole. 




Wheel Crosses in which the Background of the Cross is 
formed by four triangular sinkings having rounded sides 

There are seven examples of this type, which will be found at the 
following places : — 

Cardynham 

Ewe, St. 

Levan, St. . 

Luxulyan 

Merther 

Stephen's-in-Brannell, St. 

Tywardreath 



Treslea Down. 

Corran. 

Sawah. 

Trevellan. 

Tresillian. 

In churchyard. 

Tregaminion, No. 



Treslea Down Cross, Cardynham 

Cardynham, in the Deanery of Bodmin, is situated four miles 
north-east of Bodmin town. 

Treslea Down is situated about three-quarters of a mile east of 
Cardynham churchtown, and the cross is near the eastern boundary 
of the down. 

Altogether, this is a very quaint and curious example. The head 



8o 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



is almost square, is considerably chipped at the top, and the shaft is 
very short. The base is formed of a rough triangular block of granite, 
which in course of time has sunk on one side, so that the whole 
monument is now tilted over. 

Dmiensions. — Height of cross, i ft. 9 in. ; width of head, 1 ft. 

5 in. ; width of shaft, \o\ in, ; 
'Lf4-M^'':-. thickness, ()\ in. The longest 

side of the base is 4 ft. 

The crosses on the head 

are very peculiar : their 

backgrounds are each formed 

by four sinkings having 

deeply splayed sides, but 

instead of being diagonal, 

like others, they are placed horizontally and vertically. They are 

rounded on the outside, and pointed where nearest the centre. That 

on the front is very clear, but that on the back is much defaced. 










Corran, St. Ewe 

St. Ewe, in the Deanery of St. Austell, is situated six miles south of 
St. Austell churchtown, at which place is the nearest railway-station. 
Corran is an estate situated about one mile east of St. Ewe. 

The monument stands near the cross-roads, 
about halfway between the Croswin Almshouses 
and St. Ewe churchtown, and about half a mile 
east of the latter. It will be found on the left- 
hand side of the road to Lanuah, on the top of 
that portion of the hedge which, by reason of 
the sudden narrowing of the road, projects at 
this part. In the inner angle is a stile forming 
the approach to a path leading to Kestle. 

The cross is much mutilated, especially on 
one side of the head. 

Dimensions. — Height, 3 ft. 4 in. ; widtli of head, 1 ft. 7 In. ; width 




UNORNAMENTED CROSSES 



8i 



of shaft: at the neck 12 in., at the bottom 14 in. ; thickness at the 
bottom and top, 7 in., and at the neck, 8 in. 

The crosses are ahke on front and back, the sunk portions being 
placed in the same positions as on the cross at Treslea Down. 
Cardynham, described on p. d>o. 



Sawah, St. Levan 

St. Levan, in the Deanery of Penwith, is situated eight miles 
south-west of Penzance. 

Sawah is a farm situated about a mile north-v/est of St. Levan 
church. ..,.,.^. 

The cross and base stand in a 
hedge on the right-hand side of the 
path leading from St. Levan church 
to Sawah. 

Dimensions. — Height of cross, 
2 ft. I in. ; width of head, i ft. 8 in. ; 
width of shaft at the bottom, 1 1 in. ; 
thickness, 9 in. The base is about 
2 ft. 8 in. wide and 14 in. thick. 








Trevellan, Luxulyan 

Luxulyan, in the Deanery of Bodmin, is situated five miles north 
of St. Austell and about half a mile from Luxulyan railway-station. 



^fifMUi^?^;^-':^-'-J^^ 




'"M 



Trevellan Farm is about two and a half miles north of Luxulyan. 

G 



82 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 

The cross has for some years formed part of a bank near the 
road by the entrance to Trevellan Farm. 

This is a very rude specimen, and is chamfered on one side only. 
Large pieces have been broken off from either end, and the stone 
generally is much injured. 

Dimensions. — Length, 6ft. 2 in. ; width of head, i ft. gin. The 
shaft varies in width from 1 5 in. to 17 in. 

Only the front, side, and one end are visible. The cross on the 
head was originally surrounded by a bead. 

Tresillian, Merther 

Merther, in the Deanery of Powder, is five miles east of Truro. 
Tresillian is a scattered village situated partly in Merther, 
Probus, and St. Erme parishes, and is about three 
-^"* ■■■'.. \\^ miles north-east of Truro. 



r.-s-/ 



/'•' .<^^:,. '' ^^"'%^ The cross stands on top of Tresillian church 

v':'>r>i> • ''wJI wall, adioiningf the road, and is mounted on half 



'•'^ijf^r '^'W^ ''■■■'■yi ^^ ^ large cross-base. 

^^^^-^^'-^^W The cross was placed in its present position 

W^C/#)\^fS by Captain W. S. C. Pinwill, of Trehane, Probus 

In 1863 it was brought by his father from the 

Chapel Field at Tregellas, a farm situated about one and a half miles 

north-east of Probus. 

Dimensions. — Height, 2 ft. 6 in. ; width of head, 2 ft. 2 in. ; width 
of shaft, 16 in. ; thickness, 11 in. at the bottom, tapering slightly to 
the top. 

St. Stephen's-in-Brannell. In the Churchyard 

St. Stephen's-in-Brannell, in the Deanery of St. Austell, is situ- 
ated five miles west of St. Austell churchtown and three miles north- 
east of Grampound Road railway-station. 

Mr. Doney, of Messrs. Doney & Evans, of St. Austell and 
Hodmin, has kindly furnished me with a sketch, dimensions, and 
[)articulars of this cross, which is one of the few I have not seen. 

' It was taken from a field at Treneague, in this [)arish, and now 



UNORNAMENTRD CROSSES 



83 



lies in the churchyard. The front and back are alike, and the shaft 
and base are missing.' 

Di7nensions. — Height, including one or two inches of the shaft, 
I ft. 4 in. ; width of head, i ft. 6 in. The thickness varies a good 
deal ; at the bottom it is 8 in., at one side 7 in., at the other 4 in. 

Comparing the sketch with other specimens, it appears to be 
most like those at Sawah and Merther, on pp. 81 and 82, and has, 
accordingly, been placed with them. 

Tregaminion No. i, Tywardreath 

Tywardreath, in the Deanery of St. Austell, is situated about three 
and a half miles north-west of Fowey and one mile east of Par 
railway-station. 

Tregaminion is two miles 
south of Tywardreath church- 
town, and the same distance due 
west of Fowey. 

At Tregaminion is a private 
chapel belonging to Mr. J. Rash- 
leigh, of Menabilly. This much- 
dilapidated cross has been 
mounted on an old millstone, and 
now stands near the north-west 
angle of the chapel. 

Dimensions. — Height, 2 ft. 3 in. ; width of head, i ft. 9 in. 
height of same, i ft. 4 in. ; width of shaft, 13 in. ; thickness, 7 in. 




Miscellaneous Examples, of which only one Specimen of each 

EXISTS 

There are thirteen unclassified examples, which will be found at 
the following places : — 

Altarnon, No. 2 , .In vicarage garden. 

Budock .... Nangitha. 
Egloshayle, No. 2. . .In churchyard. 

G 2 



S4 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



JuHot. St.. No. 

Lanivet . 

Levan, St., No. 

Linkinhorne 

Mawnan . 

Ruan Minor 

Sancreed 

Sennen, No. i 

Thomas the Apostle, St. 

Wenn, St. 



In churchyard, 
Woodley Cross. 
On churchyard wall. 
North Coombe. 
In church wall, 
St. Rumon's Cross. 
Anjarden. 

On churchyard wall. 
In churchyard. 
' Cross and Hand.' 



Altarnon, No. 2. In the Vicarage Garden 

Altarnon, in the Deanery of Trigg Major, is situated eight miles 
south-west of Launceston. 

This cross-head now stands in the vicarage garden. It was found 
on a farm in this parish, doing duty as a pigs'- 
trough, for which purpose the back had been 
hollowed out. 

It is of horseshoe form, and has a bead on 
the edge. Within, but separated from this 
bead by a flat surface, are four deep triangular 
sinkings, which form the background of the 
cross. They have splayed edges, and the 
lower two are rather longer than those above. 
Dimeiisions. — Height, 2 ft. 10 in. ; width of shaft, 8 in. ; thickness, 
10 in. 

With the exception of the absence of projections at the neck, this 
cross-head is very similar in shape to that in Lesnewth churchyard,^ 
on p. 165. 

Nangitha, Budock 

Budock, or St. Budock, in the Deanery of Carnmarth, is situated 
two miles west of Falmouth. 




' By a strange coincidence this stone has been utilised for the same purpose as that 
mentioned above. 



UNORNAMENTED CROSSES 



85 



Nangitha Farm is about half a mile west of Budock. 

The remains of this monument will be found on the right-hand 
side of a cart-road called Nangitha Lane, a short distance above the 
farm. 

All that is now left of it is a fine circular base, having a slightly 
convex top and a curious 
rounded portion on one 
side of the mortice. In 
this mortice, which is 
pierced right through the 
stone, is the remnant of 
the cross-head. 

Dr. James lago.F.R.S., 
gives an interesting ac- 
count, with an illustration, 
of this cross ^ and its sur- 
roundings. On visiting it |V r ^ 
in August 1 89 1, I found 
the portion of the cross 
still in the mortice, where 
at least it appeared to be 
safe, as it was tightly 
jammed in. 

Dimensions. — Diameter of base, 5 ft. 2 in. ; thickness, 11 in. ; 
length of the portion of cross, 2 ft. ; width of same, i ft. 2 in. ; 
thickness, 9 in. 

The remaining piece of the cross is very curious, and opens up a 
wide field for speculation, especially in regard to its original position 
on the shaft. It seems probable, however, that when entire the 
head of the cross was circular. 




^ Journal^ Royal Inst. Corini'all^ vol. \-. p. 53. 



86 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



if . ^ I M 




Egloshayle, No. 2. In the Churchyard 
Egloshayle, in the Deanery of Bodmin, is situated half a mile 
south-east of Wadebridge. 

This cross now stands by the west entrance to the churchyard, and 
is opposite to No. i cross, already described on p. 60. 
I am not in possession of any particulars relating 
to its former site or history. 

Dimensions. — Height, 3 ft. 6 in. ; width of head, 
I ft. 4 in. ; width of shaft, 1 1 in. 

The crosses on front and back seem to be alike. 

That on the front (shown on the drawing) is very 

distinct, but on the back only parts of the cross remain. 

I failed to find anything like a fleur-de-lis upon it, as 

i^ given in Maclean.^ 

St. Juliot, No. I. In the Churchyard 

St. Juliot, in the Deanery of Trigg Minor, is situated seven miles 

north-east of Camelford. 

The cross stands on the eastern side of 
the churchyard, close to the entrance. 

Information regarding its history is sup- 
plied by Maclean,^ who tells us that it for- 
merly stood by Anderton Mill, in the parish 
of Lesnewth, and that in 1852, for the 
purpose of preservation, it was set up in St. 
Juliot churchyard by the then perpetual 
curate, the Rev. G. W. Manning. 

Of its use as a gatepost ample evidence 
still remains in the existence of two strong 
lugs, or iron hooks, leaded into the shaft, 
for the purpose of hanging a gate. In 
addition to these two holes, a third has 
been sunk near the lower lug, showing that 
the st(;ne has been used on more than one occasion for this purpose. 

' Dcaucry «J Trti,'^ M/'/ior, vol. i. p. 407. • Ibid. \ul. ii. p. 400. 




UNORNAMENTED CROSSES ^7 

Perhaps the most interesting feature of this monument is its shape, 
which, however, makes it somewhat difficult to classify. Obviously it 
does not belong to the first class of monument, described on p. 35, since 
it possesses architectural features not present in that particular type. 
On the other hand, the shape of the head hardly seems sufficiendy 
pronounced to justify the name of ' wheel cross ' being applied to it. 
It may, therefore, I think, be considered either as transitional, or as 
a very early form of the round-headed, or wheel crosses, since the head 
is only just indicated by a slight depression, about an inch deep, on 
each side, but is otherwise of the same width as the portion of the shaft 
adjoining. 

The upper part of the stone is outlined by a bead, which is now 
considerably mutilated, a matter of small surprise after what it has 
undergone. The bead appears to die off just below the head, but it 
is now impossible to say where it originally terminated. 

Dimensions. — Height, 5 ft. 5 in. ; width across the upper portion, 
or head, 2 ft. ; greatest width of shaft, 2 ft., and at the bottom, i ft. 
10 in. ; thickness at the bottom and neck, 9^ in., tapering to 7^ in. 
at the top. 

On both front and back of the head is a cross. The three upper 
limbs in each case extend to the bead, whilst the lower limb, or shaft, 
is carried a short distance below the depressions representing the 
neck, and is a little longer than the others. 

Woodley Cross, Lanivet 

Lanivet, in the Deanery of Bodmin, is situated three miles south- 
west of Bodmin. 

Woodley Farm is situated on a hill above the valley of Lanivet, 
and is about half a mile west of the church. 

The cross and portion of its base now lie, one on either side of a 
very rough, stony road, which is apparently only used by the farm- 
people as an access to some of the fields. The presence of the cross 
here seems to indicate that this was an ancient road-track, since it 
leads directly down to the church. 

The present sites of the cross and base preserve their relative 



88 



OLD CORXISH CROSSES 



positions same as in the illustration, except that they are much farther 
apart, the distance between the head of the cross and portion of the 
base opposite being 5 ft. 6 in. The cross was probably knocked out 
of the base, as it is roughly fractured at the bottom, and was then 
simply moved to where it still lies, neglected by the side of the hedge. 
It will also be noticed that a large piece of the base — nearly half- 
is broken off, and has disappeared, but the remaining portion is 
probably in sitti. 





As might be supposed from the foregoing, the cross is very much 
mutilated, and forming, as it now does, a sort of paving-stone in the 
road, hys in consequence become much worn and chipped by the 
passage of carts, &c. 

Dimensions. — Length of cross, 4 ft. 9 in. ; width of head, 2 ft. ; 
width of shaft, 13.]. in. ; thickness : at the bottom 10 in., at the top 
6 in. The base when entire was .\ ft. 6 in. long and probably 3 ft. wide. 



UNORNAMENTED CROSSES 



89 



On the exposed side of the head are four triangular sinkings 
having rounded sides and angles ; they are raised in the centre, their 
upper surfaces being flush with that of the stone. 



St. Levari, No. i. On the Churchyard Wall 

St. Levan, in the Deanery of Penwith, is situated eight miles 
south-west of Penzance. 

The cross stands on the east wall of the churchyard, on the left- 
hand side of the entrance. 

It is very clearly cut, and seems 
to be rather a late example. The 
chamfers on the angles of the shaft 
die off gradually on to the lower 
portion of the head. 

Diinensiojis. — Height, 2 ft. 8 in. ; 
width of head, i ft. 9 in. ; width of 
shaft, 15 in. ; thickness, 9 in. 

The crosses on front and back of 
the head are alike, and are similar 
to those on the cross in this church- 
yard, and on that at St. Michael, St. Minver, the only difference 
in detail being that the lower limb of the cross in question is 
without the expanded termination corresponding to those on the 
others. 

North Coombe, Linkinhorne 

Linkinhorne, in the East Deanery, is situated four miles north- 
west of Callington and eight miles south-west of Launceston rail- 
way-stations. 

North Coombe Farm, in the occupation of i\Ir. John Trehane, is 
situated two miles north-west of Linkinhorne churchtown. 

The Rev. Norman L. Bicknell, has kindly forwarded me a 
sketch, dimensions, and particulars relating to this cross. 

It is now used as the step of a gateway leading into an old 




90 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 

cottage which stands close to the farmhouse and is known to have 
been built over a hundred and fifty years ago. Neither the present 
farmer nor his old uncle, who is now nearly ninety, remember this 
stone as having been in any other position than that which it now 
occupies. 

The late vicar, the Rev. W. H. Poland, had noticed this stone, 
and attempted to recover it, but without avail. In a list of ' Things 
to be done in the Parish ' which he left was the following entry : ' To 
recover the old cross at Coombe.' 

This cross has been much mutilated. One side of the head has been 
cut off, as well as a portion of the side of the shaft, and, apparently 
to make it fit better, another inch has been cut out of the side of the 
head. There are also two deep sinkings on the shaft ; the upper 
hole is square, and the lower is round, which seems to show that it 
was previously used for some other purpose, probably as a gatepost. 

The base of the cross formerly lay near the gateway, but two or 
three years ago it was broken up. Two large pieces, however, 
remain, and show the size of the socket. 

Dimensions. — Height, 3 ft. 3 in. ; width of head when entire, i ft. 
9 in. ; width of shaft, 1 1 in. ; thickness, 8^ in. 

On the exposed side of the head is an equal-limbed cross with 
expanded ends and curved sides. The upper limbs are not carried 
to the edge of the stone.^ 

Mawnan. In Church Wall 

Mawnan, in the Deanery of Kerrier, is situated four and a half 
miles south-west of Falmouth. 

This portion of a cross-head was dug up 
near the front entrance to the churchyard 
when the new gateway was erected during 
the restoration of the church in 1881. 

It is now built into the west wall of the 
north aisle, immediately below the window-sill. 

' Not knowing what may be at the l)ac:k, its classification is uncertain. It has, therefore, 
been placed in this sub-division, though api arently it belongs to the type defined on p. 42. 




UNORNAMENTED CROSSES 91 

Di7nensions. — Height, i ft. 2 in. ; width of head, i ft. 8 in. 

Only one face is visible, on which is carved a cross of irregular 
shape. The left arm is much longer than the others, and is tilted 
upwards, like those on the crosses at ' Cross and Hand,' St. Wenn, 
and at Waterlake, St. Winnow. 



St. Rumon's Cross, Ruan Minor 

Ruan Minor, in the Deanery of Kerrier, is situated ten miles 
south-east of Helston. 

The late Mr. S. J. Wills, of St. Wendron, sent me a cutting from 
a local paper of April, 1892, which contained a sketch and notes of 
this cross. After saying that the cross stands In a field still called 
the Chapel Field, in which once stood the oratory of St. Rumon, he 
describes the cross as ' a rude pillar of hornblende, on which a simple 
cross is still faintly visible. Nothing like it appears anyw^here else in 
Cornwall, so rude and unshapely are its outlines. . . . Indeed, if the 
traditions still current in the neighbourhood did not confirm the evi- 
dence of the " oldest inhabitant," I should have hesitated before ad- 
mitting that this stone Is really a Christian memorial. But its situa- 
tion, coupled with the local tradition and the statement of an old 
man whose recollection of it extends over a period of sixty years, 
that his ancestors called it St. Rumon's Cross, give it an Importance 
that it might not otherwise be able to claim.' 

Dimensions. — Height, 2 ft. 10 in. ; width of head, i ft. 4 in. ; width 
of shaft : at the bottom 10 In., at the neck 1 1^ in. 

Anjarden, Sancreed 

Sancreed, in the Deanery of Penwith, is situated four miles west 
of Penzance. 

Anjarden Manor Is a short distance south of the church. 

The cross stands on top of a hedge about a quarter of a mile 
south of the church, and on the left hand side of the parish road 
leading from Sancreed to Tregonebris. 



92 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



Dimensions. — Heio^ht, 2 ft. 2 in. ; width of head, i ft. \o\ in. ; 

width of shaft, 11^ in. ; thickness, 5 in. 

This Httle cross is chiefly interesting since it 
combines the two methods most commonly employed 
in forming the crosses on the stones. The upper 
portion of the emblem is produced by sinking the 
two triangular spaces and enclosing them on the 
outer side, while in the lower portion the whole of 
the background is sunk, a method most generally 

adopted. On the back is a cross similarly executed. 




Sennen, No. i. On Churchyard Wall 

Sennen, or St. Sennen, In the Deanery of Penvvith, is situated 
ten miles south-west of Penzance. 

This cross-head is now fixed on top of the eastern pier of the 
south entrance to the churchyard. 

It was shown to me by Mr. J. Uren, of Sennen, in July 1884, at 

which time it was near the ' Giant's Stone.' ' 

^/^rr^^-^ This stone will be found by following the church 

,<,rv^^ ',^>^ Ai path from the north-east corner of Sennen 

'V •K&i'Jilf^^-^.li churchyard in an easterly direction. 

\ < ^i:^i^'^'.m The cross-head was then built into a hedge 

'■\?'-'^^>^fcl^'^F ^^ f^w feet from the left-hand side of the last 

'■i-4i^^ stile crossed before reaching the ' Giant's Stone ' ; 

the lower portion rested on the ground, but 

the back was concealed. The accompanying drawing was made 

when it was in this position. It will be noticed that a piece is 

broken off the bottom. 

DimeJisions. — Height, 2 ft. ; width of head, 2 ft. 6 in. ; thickness, 
about 7 in. 

The crosses on front and back are alike, and are formed of four 



' The 'Giants Stone' is a huge block of pranite in which some deep holes arc cut. It 
is said to have been a sacrificial stone, and that the holes were made to receive the blootl ol 
the victims I 



UNORNAMRNTED CROSSES 93 

beaded triangles so arranged that they form a cross with expanded 
linil)s between them. Their sides are concave, the outer ones being 
concentric with outHne of the head, and 5^ in. within it. 



St. Thomas the Apostle. In the Churchyard 

St. Thomas the Apostle, in the Deanery of Trigg Major, is situ- 
ated in the valley between the parishes of St. Mary Magdalene and 
St. Stephen's, Launceston. 

The church stands close to the river Kensey, and is near both the 
railway-stations. 

The cross will be found near the north-east angle of the church, 
amongst some architectural fragments found in ,''.'.'.::'••, 

the Old Priory during excavations made in the 
recent formation of the railway-cutting and en- 
largement of the gasworks. 

It was found when the church was rebuilt 
in 1869-70. When the chancel wall was taken 
clown, the cross was discovered built Into the 
lower portion. It formed one of the plinth 
stones, which may probably account for the 
chamfer along one side. 

It will be seen that the stone Is very much mutilated. A large 
piece Is missing from the top, and the sides of the head have been 
cut off even with the shaft, showing that it has been utilised for some 
other purpose. This Is the greater pity since It Is a more elaborate 
example of this type than Is usually found. In Its complete state the 
head was surrounded by a second bead — as shown by the dotted lines 
— a feature which is very unusual. After being brought in below the 
head, it is sloped outwards, and then downwards, its outer line running 
into that forming the bead on the angles of the shaft, and is then 
returned across the bottom. The partial continuation of this outer 
bead, to indicate the narrowing of the neck between the head and 
shaft, is also peculiar. 




94 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



Dimensions. — Height, 3 ft. 6 in. ; probable width of head when 
complete, i ft. 7 in. ; width of shaft, 15 in. ; thickness, 6 in. 

Within the inner bead of the head on front and back is an equal- 
limbed cross. 

'Cross and Hand,' St. Wenn 

St. Wenn, in the Deanery of Pyder, is situated four miles east of 
St. Columb Major and three miles from Victoria railway-station. 

' Cross and Hand 'Ms in the valley near the foot of Castle-an- 
Dinas, on the top of which is an ancient earthwork. 




•5 /"^-^-^^ 



'iO'".."l f 




•■^r^ :.M 



The cross stands in the extreme north-west corner of the parish. 
Between it and the hedge is a small rivulet, and at a point at right 

' I have been unable to ascertain the origin of this name, and cannot find tlie place on 
maps or in books of reference. 



UNORNAMENTED CROSSES 95 

angles to the cross this hedge is intersected by another, their junction 
being the meeting-point of three parishes, viz. St. Wenn, St. Colunib 
Major, and Roche. 

Some years ago the cross became detached from its base, but has 
recently been refixed, so insecurely, however, that it leans forward 
two feet. In addition to its having been roughly executed originally, 
it is now considerably mutilated. The entasis on the shaft is very 
marked, and the stone is thickest in the middle. The base is sup- 
posed to be in situ. 

Dimensions. — Height, 6 ft. i in. ; width of head, i ft. 11 in. ; width 
of shaft : at the neck 15 in., at the bottom 17 in. ; thickness : at the 
bottom 8^ in., in the middle 10 in., and at the neck Z\\n. 

Front. — On the head is a cross of very irregular shape, having 
a recessed background, the face of the cross being flush with that 
of the stone. The upper and horizontal limbs are carried to the edge 
of the rounded head. That on the right is canted up, and the upper 
one inclines considerably to the left, while the left limb slopes slightly 
downwards, and is expanded at the lower end. 

Back. — On the head is a cross similar to that on the front. 

WHEEL CROSSES WITH THE ADDITION OF SUNDRY 
ARCHITECTURAL FEATURES 

Geographical D istribution 
Cuberf, St. 1 Lelant. 



In churchyard. 
Illogan. 

In churchyard. 



In churchyard. 
Tintagel. 

Bossiney. 



With a central Sinking 

There are two examples of this type, which will be found at the 
following places : — 

Cubert, St. . .In churchyard. 

Illogan . . .In churchyard 



96 OLD CORXISII CROSSES 



St. Cubert. In the Churchyard 

St. Cubert, in the Deanery of Pyder, is situated ten miles north- 

,--r»>^ west of Truro and five miles south-west of 

fQ^^\ Newquay railway-station. 

^^-■W/ T-l^^ cross now stands against the west wall 

^,r','t$ of the north transept of the church. It was 

LlmH brought up from Ellenglaze Lane somewhere 

;,)yv^.%^ about the year i860. The shaft on which the 

I ■' <- Wx cross is mounted formerly stood outside the 

Mf/ ,f^ churchyard, but what purpose it served does not 

Pm ,^' appear to be known. 

IVkII^v , fl Dimensions. — Heiorht of cross, i ft. 10 in. ; 

11^'*' ;;%T^ width of head, I2|in. ; width of shaft, 8^ in. ; 

\ '{ thickness, 6 in. 

r/'.^'i t On the head is an irregularly shaped cross 

■i' '^^ tiM with wide limbs. In the middle is a large square 

if-W^'lX'W'%i ^^^^^^"^ having rounded angles. In its present 

v^BK^^^^^^^ position the back is not visible 

Illogan. In the Churchyard 

Illogan, in the Deanery of Carnmarth, is situated two and a half 
miles north of Redruth. 

The cross stands on the south side of the church, and is sup- 
posed to be in situ. It is most probably very deeply buried, as the 
sexton informed me that when digging a grave by the side of it he 
uncovered the lower portion of the shaft to a depth of 5 feet without 
finding the bottom. 

Dimensions. — Height, 5 ft. 10 in. ; width of head, i ft. 8| in. The 
.shaft is a uniform width of 15 in. 

The head is beaded, and the angles of the shaft are chamfered. 
Except that the head is somewhat chipped, the cross is in a very 
good state of preservation. 



UNORNAMENTED CROSSES 



97 



On both front and back of the head is across. That on the front 
is incHned to the left, and has very widely expanded hmbs and a 





circular sinking in the centre. On the back is a cross having limbs 
of approximately equal length and width, and an inclination to the 
right. In the centre is a large square sinking with rounded angles. 

With a Central Boss 

There are two examples of this type, which will be found at the 
following places : — 

Lelant, No. i. . . In churchyard. 

Tintagel . . . Bossiney. 



Lelant, No. i. In the Churchyard 

Lelant, or Uny Lelant, in the Deanery of Pen with, is situated six 
miles north-east of Penzance. The church stands about one mile 
west of Lelant railway-station. 

H 



98 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



^/^^ 



The cross stands on the south side of the church, and is supposed 
to be in situ. 

It is in a very good state of preser- 
vation, and is an interesting example, 
owing to the pecuHar form of the crosses 
on front and back of the head, with their 
central bosses. The shaft has an entasis, 
is contracted at the neck, and its angles 
are chamfered. 

Dimensions. — Height, 6 ft. lo in. ; 
width of head, i ft. 4^ in. ; width of 
shaft: at the neck 13 in., at the bottom 
16 in. The stone is of a uniform thick- 
ness of 1 1 in. 

The crosses above mentioned are 
formed by four triangular sinkings so 
placed as to form what is termed a St. 
Andrew's cross between them. That on 
the front is very much more evenly exe- 
*k0^- cuted than the one here shown. 

The only other cross at all resembling 
this particular form is on Connor Down, Gwinear. 




Bossiney Cross, Tintagel 



Tintagel, in the Deanery of Trigg Minor, is situated six miles 
north of Camelford. 

Bossiney is a village one and a half miles north-east of Tintagel 
church. 

About half a mile north of Bossiney, near Pentaly, the ancient 
road from Bossiney to Watcrpit Down is intersected by the highway 
from Camelford to Boscastle. The monolith stands near the angle 
of the road leading to Boscastle. 

It is very much chipped round the head. The only part of the 



UNORNAMENTED CROSSES 



99 



■;^^0i^K 



bead now remaining, and by which it was once surrounded, is seen 
passing over, and sh'ghtly in advance of, the shaft, the entasis on the 
latter being very marked. 

Dhnensions, — Height, 5 ft. ; width 
of head at present, about 1 ft. 10 in. ; 
width of shaft, i ft. 5 in. ; thickness, 
7 in. 

The head is ahke on front and 
back, the cross on each being formed 
by four deep and clear triangular 
sinkings having splayed edges. The 
crosses have expanded limbs, all of 
which are, however, of different widths 
at the extremities, the lower in each 
case being by far the largest. In the 
middle of each cross is a boss in bold 
relief. 







WHEEL CROSSES WITH A LATIN CROSS OR CROSSES IN 
RELIEF UPON THEM, THE UPPER LIMBS CONTAINED 
IN THE HEAD 

Like the examples already described, many crosses with this form 
of the emblem upon them have some other characteristic on the front 
— such as the figure of our Lord, «&c. — which places them in other 
groups. Only th.ose, therefore, which come under the above head 
will be dealt with here. Where the Latin cross does not occur on 
the back also there is an equal-limbed cross. 



Geographical 


DistribiUion 


Breage, St. 


Hahetoivn. 


Trevena. 


In village. 


Burymi, St. 

Boskenna Gate Cross. 


Hdston. 

In a garden. 
Just-in-PemvitJi, St. 


Camborne. 


Kenidjack (2) 


Trevu. 


Nanquidno, 



H 2 



lOO 



Keverne, St. 

Trelanvean. 
Lanteglos-by- Camelford. 

Tregoodwell. 
Lelant (2). 

Brunian Cairn. 

Sea Lane. 
Ludgvan. 

In churchyard. 
Mabe. 

In vicarage garden. 
Madron. 

Boswarthen. 
Paul, St. 

In vicarage hedge. 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 
Pendeen. 



In vicarage garden. 



Sennen. 

In cemetery. 
Sennen Green. 

Stytiiians. 

In vicarage garden. 

Tozveduixck. 

Tredorwin. 
Warleggon. 

In churchyard. 

Zennor. 

In vicarage garden. 



With the Lower, but not the Upper, Limbs carried 

TO THE EDGE OF THE StONE 

There are five examples of this type, which will be found at the 
following places : — 

Breage, St. . . . . Trevena Cross. 

Camborne .... Trevu, No. i. 
Just-in-Penwith, St. . . Kenidjack, No. i. 

Lelant ..... Brunian Cairn. 
Paul, St., No. I . ■ . .In vicarage hedge. 



Trevena ' Cross, St. Breage 

St. Breage, or Breage, in the Deanery of Kerrier, is situated 

three miles west of Helston. 

This little cross stands in its base 
at the junction of three roads about 
half a mile north of St. Breage 
church town. 

A large piece has been broken 
off the top, carrying with it the 

Pronoiiivcd Trevenna, and sometimes thus spelt. 




UNORNAMENTED CROSSES 



lOI 



upper limb of the cross. The base is very large for a cross of this 
size, but is now covered with turf to the depth of about two or three 
inches. 

Dimensions. — Height, i ft. 9 in. ; width of head, 14^ in. ; width 
of shaft, 10 in. ; thickness, 6^ in. The base is 3 ft. 2 in. square. 

The crosses on front and back are alike. 



Trevu No. i, Camborne 

Camborne, in the Deanery of Carnmarth, is situated twelve miles 
south-west of Truro. 

Trevu is the property and late residence of George J. Smith, 
Esq., J. P., and is close to the railway-station. 

'This cross formerly stood near the railway-station, Camborne.' ' 
It is now mounted on a modern base in 
the garden of the above-named residence. 

The projection of the head beyond 
the shaft is extremely slight, and on 
one side has been broken off. 

Dimensions. — ■ Height, 2 ft. 7 in. ; 
width of head, i ft. 6 in. ; width of shaft, 
I 5 in. 

On the front is a Latin cross having 
an inclination to one side. 

In the centre of the cross on the back here illustrated is a small 
circular hole. 







Kenidjack No. i, St. Just-in-Penwith 

St. Just-in-Penwith, in the Deanery of Penwith, is situated seven 
miles west of Penzance. 

Kenidjack estate is about half a mile north of St. Just. 

The cross stands in the garden belonging to Alma Villa, the 
residence of Mrs. James. 

There are two crosses in this garden. The first to be noticed 



J. T. Blight, Crosses and Antiquities of Cornwall, p. 23. 



102 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 

stands just inside the boundary-wall, next to the road, from which it 
can be seen. 

It formerly stood at Maen, in the parish of Sennen, and was 
<.;?^ii^?s».. removed to its present position many years ago. 

|m .^'M'^-j It is a massive little monument, and has 

^-;/-V'^v%v uprio-ht sides to the head, which are rounded at 
""j^;-' , <'V;^^ the top and bottom. Apparently it was once 

,|^^!,' , 'i. used as a gatepost, as there is a hole in the side 

f^iv ; A';! of the shaft, just below the neck. 

,j1w'||| Dimensions. — Height, 2 ft. 9 in. ; width of head, 

5-«r^ I ft. 6 in. ; width of shaft, 1 2 in. ; thickness on the 
side, 13 in., and, including the projection of the crosses, 15^ in. 

On both front and back is a wide-limbed cross in high relief, each 
having a projection of i^ inches. The cross on the front is upright, 
while that on the back has a considerable inclination from right to 
left. 

Brunian ' Cairn, Lelant 

Lelant, or Uny Lelant, in the Deanery of Penwith, is situated six 
miles north-east of Penzance. 

Brunian Cairn is a small village some two and a half miles west 
of Lelant, and about half a mile from the larger village of Brunian. 

I am indebted to Mr. G. H. Grenfell, of Penzance, for some very 
good sketches, dimensions, and particulars regarding this cross. 

It stands in the village, on a piece of ground which was formerly 
the site of a pond, now drained. The cross was, therefore, at one 
time surrounded by water. 

It appears to be in a very fair state of preservation. The angles 
of the shaft are beaded on front and back, and die off gradually on 
to the lower portion of the head. 

Dimensions. — Height, 5 ft. ; width of head, i ft. 11 in. ; width of 
shaft, I ft. 5 in. 

The crosses on front and back are similar, except that the limbs 
of one are much wider than those of the other. 

' Also spelt Ilruiiiiion and lininion. 



UNORNAMENTED CROSSES 



103 



St. Paul, No. I. In Vicarage Hedge. 

Paul, or St. Paul, in the Deanery of Penwith, is situated two and 
a half miles south of Penzance. 

The cross stands against the vicarage hedge, a short distance 
beyond the church, and on the left-hand side of the road leading to 
Mousehole. The base is built into the hedge 
on end, nearly opposite to the cross. 

An old man employed in repairing the 
roads and hedges informed me that he found 
the cross, about the year 1878, buried in the 
hedge, near the spot where the base now 
stands. It is much chipped about the head, 
and varies slightly from others of this kind 
by the easy curve connecting the head to 
the shaft. 

Dimensions. — Height, 2 ft. 9 in. ; width of head, i ft. 10^ in. ; 
width of shaft at bottom, i ft. The base is 3 ft. x 2 ft. x 10 in. thick, 
with a mortice in the middle 14 in. x 10 in. x 5 in. deep. 

Only one face of the stone is visible. The two horizontal limbs 
of the cross upon it are of equal width ; the upper one is expanded 
at the top, and the shaft is gradually contracted by the sloping 
together of its sides. 




With each Limb carried to the edge of the Stone 



There are four examples of this type, which will be found at the 
following places : — 



Helston, No. i 
Lanteglos-by-Camelford . 
Sennen . . . . 

Zennor, No. i 



In a garden. 
Tregoodwell. 
Sennen Green. 
In vicarage garden. 



I04 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



Helston, No. i. In a Garden 

Helston, in the Deanery of Kerrier, is situated ten miles south of 
Camborne ; its railway-station is one mile from the town. 

The cross now stands in Mr. Baddeley's garden, Cross Street. 

Blight says : ' This cross was removed from 
Tresprison [St. Wendron], near Helston, where 
it served as a stepping-stile.' 

A large piece has been broken off the top. 
The sides of the shaft are chamfered, and die 
into the under side of the head. The outline of 
the head is continued to the inside line of the 
chamfer on both the front and back of the shaft. 
Dimensions. — Height, 2 ft. 3 in. ; width of head, i ft. 4I in. ; 
width of shaft, 12 in. ; thickness, 9 in. 

The crosses on front and back are alike, both being in very low 
relief. The horizontal limbs are so much below the centre of the 
head that they are almost down to the neck. 




AtlV? 






Tregoodwell, Lanteglos-by-Camelford 

Camel ford, in the Deanery of Trigg Minor and parish of Lante- 
glos, is situated twelve miles north of Bodmin. Camelford railway- 
station is not far from the town. 

Tregoodwell Farm adjoins the town of Camelford. 

For the following particulars regarding the recent 
discovery of this cross I am indebted to Mr. T. B. 
Burns, of Camelford. He informed me that the cross 
was dug out of a hedge, in June 1891, while the owner 
of the farm was taking down a portion of it, in order 
to make an opening for a gateway. Fortunately, he preserved the 
stone, instead of again using it for building purposes, as is customary 
in the majority of instances. It now rests on the top of one of the 






J. T. BliK'Iit. Ancunt Crosses and Antiquities of Coniivall^ p. 58. 



UNORNAMENTED CROSSES 105 

boundary-stones of Camelford borough, close to the s[)ot where it 
was found, near the junction of two lanes. 

It is very roughly hewn, and is now rather chipped. Only about 
two inches of the shaft remain. 

Dimensions. — Height, i ft. 5 in. ; width of head, 16 in. ; width of 
shaft, 9 in. ; thickness, 4|in. 

On both front and back is the upper portion of what appears 
in each case to have originally been a Latin cross. That on the 
back slopes slightly to the left. 

Sennen Green, Sennen 

Sennen, in the Deanery of Penwith, is situated ten miles south- 
west of Penzance. 

The cross stands near a stile on the left-hand side of the pathway 
leading across the fields from Sennen church to 'V^^iK 

Sennen Green. It is placed against the hedge, so f •^^:t]p[hj^^^^^ 
that only the front is visible. kh.''^^^ ^'0"^^ 

The head is quite round, and the shaft is of ^''^^^ J^''' 'tSr 
uniform width and without entasis. "^ '^^"^^ 



Dwiensions, — Height, 3 ft. 2 in. ; width of head, ir^-"^!! 

1 8i in. ; width of shaft, 1 2^ in. ^ g "W^ 

On the front is a wide-limbed cross in high ^^^-^^j^'^ i*^ 



relief, having slightly splayed edges and a pro- 
jection of an inch. The upper limb is very short, and the right is 
much wider than the others. 

Zennor, No. i. In the Vicarage Garden 

Zennor, in the Deanery of Penwith, is situated seven miles north- 
west of Penzance. 

The cross stands on the grass in front of the zi^l**: 






V i carage. f^t'"^X"''-, .—:■.--"" 

It was found in a hedge of the vicarage garden, ^'^^if;^^' 

by the present vicar, in the spring of 1890. 4if-^'^" 

It is somewhat mutilated at the top and bottom, :^'^>*^^^ 

and was probably once much higher. 



io6 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



Dimensions. — Height, i ft. gin. ; width of head, i ft. 6 in. ; width 
of shaft, 1 2 in. ; thickness, Z\ in. 

The cross on the back is similar to that on the front (here illus- 
trated), but its shaft is not carried to the bottom of the stone. 

With expanded Limbs, ^ none of which are carried to the 

EDGE OF THE StONE 

There are three examples of this type, which will be found at the 
following places : — 

Mabe . . .In vicarage garden. 

Sennen, No. 2 . .In cemetery. 

Warleggon . .In churchyard. 






Mabe. In the Vicarage Garden 

Mabe, or St. Mabe, in the Deanery of Carnmarth, is situated five 
miles west of Falmouth. 

The cross stands against the front wall of the vicarage. 

Instead of a bead on the edge 
of the head there is a rebate,^ and 
the entasis on the shaft is very 
marked. 

f"5vSiv». :-".. ^.^«mvvw»«i^^■l Dimensions. — Height, ^ft. 'Xm. ; 

.•';.3«- i<:' !•• ,ft!'/v>J width of head, I5in. ; width of 

shaft : at the top and bottom 1 1^ 
in., in the middle 12^ in. ; thickness, 
8 in. 

The crosses on the front and 
back are not alike. That on the front has a much longer shaft 
than the cross on the back, and the limbs are very slightly expanded 
at the ends. From the sharp appearance of the cross on the back, 
as well as the re-dressed portion on the ui)per part of the stone, the 
whole seems to have been recut in modern times. 

' A cross of this form will be found in ihc Add Museum, near Leeds. 

'^ The occurrence of a rebate, or L-shapcd sinking, is very rare ; the only other two 
instances will be found on No. i cross, Trevenning, Michaclstow, and on a Latin cross in 
Ihc village oi St. Neot. 




s%\S^^ 




U NORN A MEN TED CR OSSES 



107 



Sennen, No. 2. In the Cemetery 

Sennen, or St. Sennen, in the Deanery of Penwith, is situated ten 
miles south-west of Penzance and one mile from the Land's End. 

Sennen churchtown proper consists only of the church and a few 
houses. The rest of the village is called Treave, after a farm of that 







name, and appears to have sprung up around the farm instead of 
around the church. 

This splendid monolith has at last found a resting-place in the 
middle of the recently formed cemetery adjoining the churchyard. 

For some years it formed a footbridge over a small stream which 
runs below Trevear Farmhouse, situated about a mile and a half 
north-east of Sennen church. This farm is in the occupation of Mr. 



io8 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 

Harvey, to whom I am indebted for the following history connected 
with the recovery of this cross : — 

About the year 1878 the Rev. R. J. Roe, rector of Sennen, with 
the permission and co-operation of Mr. Harvey, decided on the 
removal of the cross to a place of safety. A long search was then 
made for the base, which, report said, was somewhere in the vicinity 
of the cross ; but for some time it could not be found. Ultimately, 
an old man in the village, who was referred to, said he remembered 
its exact situation, and pointed it out. After considerable labour the 
base was dug out from a depth of four feet below the surface. The 
monument was then erected by the side of the road, immediately 
opposite the west end of the church, and was in that position when 
this drawing of it was made ; but the base was then covered. 

About the year 1890 it was removed to the new cemetery. 

Dimensions. — Height, 7 ft. 2 in. ; width of head, 2 ft. 2 in. ; width 
of shaft : at the neck 18 in., at the bottom 2o|^ in. ; thickness, 13 in. 

Fro7it. — On this face is a cross with expanded limbs, the hori- 
zontal and upper limbs not being carried to the edge of the head. 
The upper limb has an inclination to the left, and the shaft is carried 
to about 18 inches below the neck, where it is terminated by a very 
widely expanded end, or step. 

Back. — The cross on this face is similar to that on the front, but 
the upper limbs run out to the edge of the head, and the horizontal 
ones are below its centre. The shaft, however, is very much longer 
than the other, and is carried some three feet below the neck, and 
gradually widens towards the bottom. 

Warleggon. In the Churchyard 

Warleggon, in the Deanery of Bodmin, is situated six miles east 
of Bodmin and five miles north-east of Bodmin Road railway- 
station. 

The cross now stands in the churchyard, opposite the south 
porch. 

Its r)riginal site is not known, but it was removed to the church- 



UNORNAMENTED CROSSES 



109 



yard from Carborrow, near Treveddow, where it was last used as a 
gatepost. There are no less than six holes in this monolith, made 
at different times for receiving the iron lugs to which the gates were 
hung, as follows : on the front, near the top, 
is a hole, the making of which broke away 
a large portion of the face, as well as the 
upper limb of the cross ; on the east, one 
hole ; on the north, another, below the cross ; 
and on the west, three. The severe jarring 
to which the stone must have been sub- 
jected during the period of its utilisation 
no doubt accounts for the large pieces which 
have been broken off the edges of the holes. 

Dimensions. — Height, 5 ft. 7 in. ; width 
of head, i ft. io|in. ; width of shaft, 15^ in. ; 
thickness, \o\ in. 

Front. — The cross here is neither central 
nor upright, and slopes from left to right. 
The upper limb, as above stated, has been 

broken off, and the horizontal limbs, of uneven length, are very low 
down on the cross-head. The shaft is carried about halfway down 
the stone, and is terminated by an expanded end. 

Back. — This is in a still more dilapidated condition. Little of 
the cross remains except the upper limb ; but the emblem seems to 
have originally been similar to that on the front. 




wmmu 
mmk 



:Cii£t?j2t 




Miscellaneous Examples, some with a Bead on the edge of 
THE Head, or other slight Variation in Detail, including 

IHE addition of SUNDRY ARCHITECTURAL FEATURES 



There are eleven unclassified examples, which will be found at 
the following places : — 

Buryan, St. . . . Boskenna Gate Cross. 

Halsetown . . .In village. 

Just-in-Penwith, St. . Kenidjack, No. 2. 



no 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



Just-in-Penwith, St. 
Keverne, St. 
Lelant . 
Ludgvan, No. i 
Madron 
Pendeen 
Stythians 
Towednack . 



Nanquldno. 

Trelanvean. 

Sea Lane. 

In churchyard. 

Boswarthen. 

In vicarage garden. 

In vicarage garden. 

Tredorwin. 



Boskenna Gate Cross, St. Buryan 

St. Buryan, in the Deanery of Penwith, is situated six miles 
south-west of Penzance. 

Boskenna Hes about two miles south-east of St. Buryan 




The monument stands in its circular base opposite Boskenna 
Gate, and has been broken in two below the head. 



UNORNAMENTED CROSSES iir 

Diiucnsions. — Height, 5 ft, ; width of head, 2 ft. ; width of shaft, 
1 51^ in. ; thickness, 12 in. ; diameter of base, 5 ft, 

The crosses on front and back are alike, and extend from beneath 
the bead at the top of the head to the bottom of the stone, their 
shafts being gradually widened towards the bottom. That on the 
front is not central, but is placed considerably to the left. Most of 
the corresponding portion of the cross on the back, below the frac- 
ture, has disappeared. 

Halsetown. In the Village 

Halsetown, in the Deanery of Penwith, is a modern parish formed 
out of St. Ives, but its boundary is not shown on the map in the 
' Truro Diocesan Kalendar.' It is situated one mile south of St. 
Ives railway-station, 

I am indebted to Mr, G. H, Grenfell, of Penzance, for a sketch 
and information regarding this cross. He has known of its exist- 
ence since 1889 

It is now used as the capstone for a gatepost, and will be found 
about halfway between the modern church and the Halsetown Hotel. 
One side of the head has been cut off in a line with the shaft, and 
the rest of the stone is much mutilated. 

Dimensions. — Height, i ft. 9 in. ; width, i ft. 2 in. 

On the front is a cross, which is now very indistinct ; the upper 
limb is very short, and is not carried to the top. The others appear 
to die off before reaching the outline of the stone. The back is 
plain. 

Kenidjack No. 2, St. Just-in-Penwith 

St. Just-in-Penwith, in the Deanery of Penwith, is situated seven 
miles west of Penzance, 

With the exception of one or two minor differences in detail, 
this cross is very similar to No. i in this garden, already described 
on pp. loi, 102. 

A piece is chipped off the top, and the monument has been 
broken across the shaft. The sides of the head are slightly rounded, 
and slope inwards towards the top. 



1 1 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



^?;^v 




Dimensions. — Height, 3 ft. 6 in. ; width of head, i5|in. ; width 
of shaft: at the top 10^ in., at the bottom 12 in ; 
thickness, 10^ in. 

On both the front and back is a cross in high 
reHef having splayed edges ; the horizontal limbs 
extend to the outline of the head, the shafts in 
each case being carried to within six inches of 
the bottom, where they rest on what might be 
called a square step, the full width of the stone, 
the surface of which is flush with that of the 
cross. 

Nanquidno, St. Just-in-Penwith 

For locality of St. Just-in-Penwith, see last, 

Nanquidno is a farm situated a mile and a half south of St. Just 
churchtown. 

Mr. G. H. Grenfell, of Penzance, has kindly supplied me with 
sketches and particulars of this little cross. 

It was found in the spring of 1894, on the site of an ancient 
baptistery, by the side of a stream which divides the parishes of St. 
Just and Sennen. 

Dimensions. — Height, i ft. 8 in. ; width of head, i ft. 4 in. 

Front. — The cross on the front is much worn, and the upper 
limbs do not appear to have been carried to the edge of the head. 
In the middle of each of the upper spaces between the limbs of the 
cross and outline of the head is a small boss, the only instance of 
the kind occurring in the county. 

Back. — The cross on this face is similar to that on the front, but 
the limbs arc much wider, and the two little bosses are omitted. 



Trelanvean, St. Keverne 

St. Keverne, in the Deanery of Kerrier, is situated twelve 
miles south-east of Helston. 

Trelanvean Farm is about three miles west of St. Keverne 
churchtown, on the left-hand side of the highway to Helston. The 



UNORNAMENTED CROSSES 



113 



cross stands near the farther and right-hand corner of the second field 
after passing through the farm. 

At the present time the bottom of the shaft is buried two feet in 
the ground, and it was not 
until I had cleared away 
the earth that I discovered 
the stopped chamfers. 
The monolith is not fixed 
in a base, and has no tenon, 
which seems to show that 
it is not now in sitti. 

The penannular ring 
forming the bead on the 
head projects beyond the 
face of the stone, the ends 
being stopped against the 
cross-shafts on front and 
back. The shaft has 
chamfered angles, with a 
shallow, hollow moulding 
between them on the 
sides. At the bottom of 
the latter is a distinctly 
Gothic stop ; this, together 
with the hollow moulding, 
seems to indicate a very 
late date. 

Dimensions. — Total height, 7 ft. 5 in. ; width of head, i ft. 6 in. ; 
width of shaft: at the neck 13 in., at the bottom i ft. 6Hn. The 
shaft is of a uniform thickness of 7 in., and the head 9 in. 

On both front and back is a cross in relief, formed by two beads 
side by side. The crosses extend from beneath the bead on the head 
nearly to the bottom of the stone. A short distance from this point 
they appear to have been worn away, as the shaft is not traceable to 
the extreme end. 




114 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



Sea Lane, Lelant 

Lelant, in the Deanery of Penwith, is situated three and a half 
miles south-east of St. Ives, and has a railway station. 

Sea Lane is a turning on the left-hand side of the main road 
which leads from the churchtown to the railway- 
station. The cross stands against the hedge, at 
the corner formed by the road and lane. 

The chamfered angles on the shaft are stopped 
against the lower side of the head, the outline of 
the latter being carried to the inside line of 
the chamfer on the shaft. 

Dimensions. — Height, 2 ft. 9 in. ; width of 
head, i ft. 7 in. ; width of shaft, 13I in. 
Only the front is visible, on which is a wide-limbed cross in relief, 
having a small round hole in the centre. 




Ludgvan, No. i. In the Churchyard 















/f? £• 



^ mm 





Ludgvan, in the 
Deanery of Penwith, is 
three and a half miles 
N.E. of Penzance, and 
one mile from Marazion 
Road railway-station. 

This slender mono- 
lith stands in its circular 
base near the south- 
east angle of the 
churchyard, and is pro- 
bably in situ. Except 
that the eastern side of 
the head is considerably 
broken away, the cross 
is otherwise in a fair 
state of preservation. 



U NORN A MEN TED CR OSSES 



i'5 



Dimensions. — Height, 5 ft. o.^ in. ; width of head, 17 in. ; width of 
shaft, I 3 in. ; thickness at the bottom, 7 in., tapering upwards to 5I 
in. at the neck. The base is about 3 ft. 3 in. in diameter. 

Front. — A cross in reHef, the shaft of which is carried some 
distance below the neck. 

Back. — On the head is a cross, with hmbs of uneven length, rest- 
ing on a rounded, projecting band at the neck. The latter is. an 
interesting detail, especially as it is not part of a surrounding bead, .so 
often found, but is quite a separate architectural feature. 

Boswarthen ' Cross, Madron 

Madron, in the Deanery of Penwith, is situated one and a half 
miles north of Penzance. 

Boswarthen is a hamlet situated one mile north-west of Madron 
churchtown. 

The monument stands in situ in its circular base by the right- 
hand side of the road leading from Madron to Boswarthen. 




Dimensions.— W€\g\\l, 3 ft. 3 in. ; width of head, i ft. 1 1 in. ; width 
of shaft, 14 in. ; diameter of base, 3 ft. 9 in. 

The cross has been broken across the shaft. The head is beaded, 



' Bosuaithen is also spelt Roswhaiton. 



I 2 



ii6 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



and the crosses on both front and back, being rather curious, require 
separate descriptions. 

Front. — Within the bead on the head is the upper portion of the 
cross. It is equal Hmbed, and extends to the neck. At this level 
the lower portion of the shaft is suddenly curved inwards, and, thus 
narrowed, is carried to the bottom of the stone. 

Back. — The upper portion of this cross is in a similar position to 
that on the front, but has expanded limbs and a small round hole in 
the centre. The angles at the extremity of the lower limb are 
rounded, then curved inwards, and again rounded outwards on to 
the lower and narrower portion of the shaft. 



\m mm 



/ 






Pendeen. In the Vicarage Garden 

Pcndeen is a modern parish formed out of St. Just-in-Penwith. 
It is in the Deanery of Penwith, and is situated two and three-quarter 
miles north of St. Just, and seven miles north of Penzance. 

The cross in its base 
now stands in the vicarage 
garden. It is very much 
mutilated, but sufficient 
remains to show that, 
with the exception of the 
scotia, or hollow mould- 
ing on the angles of the 
shaft, in place of the ordi- 
nary chamfers, the monument resembles that at Boskenna Gate, 
St. Buryan, but on a smaller scale. 

Dime7isions. — Height. 2 ft. i in. ; width of head, about 15 in. in 
the widest remaining portion ; width of shaft, 12 in. ; thickness, 8 in. 
The roughly rounded base is about 3 ft. 3 in. in diameter. 

The crosses on front and back are alike, the shaft in each case 
being gradually increased in width towards the bottom. 



• '0 \,i 1/ ^ 



UNORNAMENTED CROSSES 



117 



Stythians.' In the Vicarage Garden 

Stythians, or St. Stithlans, in the Deanery of Carnmarth, is 
situated four miles north-west of Penryn and three miles south-west 
of Perran Well railway-station. The cross now stands in the vicarage 
garden, close to the entrance. 

* This cross was found buried in the churchyard,' - but the date of 
its discovery is not given. 

It is in a very good state of preservation, and from the stopped 
chamfers on the back appears to be rather a late example. Amongst 






Pqrl plon. 

Other remarkable features are the circular sinkings on the head, 
which are slightly raised in the middle like recessed bosses. 

Dimensions. — Height, 3 ft. loin. ; width of head, i ft. 6^ in. ; 
width of shaft, 1 2 in. ; and a uniform thickness of 1 1 in. 

On both the front and back is a cross in relief ; each, being unique 
in shape, requires a separate description. 

Fi'OJit. — The cross on this face is the full height of the stone, the 
upper Hmbs being carried out to the edge of the head ; they are 
expanded at the ends and very uneven. Rather more than half-way 

' It may be remarked of the three crosses in Stythians parish, that they differ in many 
ways from those in other parts of the county. 

"^ ]. T. Blight, Ancient Crosses and Antiquities of Cormua/l, p. 44. 



ii8 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 

down the slightly bent shaft is widened by being curved outwards, 
and then continued to the bottom, with the sides parallel. On the 
head are four sinkings, a feature found on only two other crosses, 
viz. those in Roche churchyard and in Merther Uny old churchyard, 
St. Wendron ; though the two latter are, no doubt, considerably older 
than the one now under consideration. The two upper sinkings in 
this case cut into the lower portion of the limb, thus making it differ- 
ent in shape from the others. 

Back. — On this face is another curious cross, which, like that on 
the front, occupies the whole height of the stone. It has very broad 
horizontal limbs and shaft, the former being widely expanded at the 
ends. Only the two upper sinkings are formed on the head, the 
others being apparently omitted for want of room. These cut into 
the upper limb of the cross in the same manner, but not to such an 
extent, as those on the front. The shaft of this cross is gradually 
expanded to within a few inches of the bottom, where it is widened 
in a similar manner to that on the front, one side being curved on 
to the edge of the stone. 

Tredorwin, Towednack 

Towednack, in the Deanery of Penwith, is situated six miles 
north-east of Penzance and two and a half miles south-west of St. 
Ives railway-station. 

Tredorwin is the residence of Mr. W. K. 
Baker, C.C. 

There was formerly at Coldharbour, in Towed- 
nack, an old cottage called the ' Church House.' 
About the year 1880 most of it fell down, and on 
/j'^/J^-'k removing the old chimney-stack the cross was 

I vk^^^'^•^•.€ found built into it, having thus been used as a mere 

PP, building-stone. 

^'wi^''^^'^'%''!'M^'^ ^^''- I^'^''^^'' was able to secure this cross, and 
erected it in his garden, where it now stands. 
It is the only one of this class in which the upper limbs are 
carried tn the edge of the stone and the shaft is not. 




UNORNAMENTED CROSSES 



119 



Dimensions. — Height, 3 ft. 6 in. ; width of head, 15^ in. ; width 
of shaft, 1 2 in. ; thickness, 9 in. 

The cross on the back is similar to that on the front shown 
on the drawing, but the shaft is not quite so long. 



WHEEL CROSSES WITH THE FIGURE OF OUR LORD IN 
RELIEF ON THE FRONT AND A CROSS ON THE BACK 

Geographical Distribution 



Buryan, St., No. i. 

In churchtown. 

Boskenna Cross. 

Trevorgans. 
Camborne. 

Pendarves. 
Constantine. 

Trevease, 
Crowan. 

Clowance, Nos. i and 2. 

Praze-an-beeble. 
Day, St. 

Scorrier, No. i. 
Erth, St., No. I. 

In churchtown. 

Battery Mill. 
Feock, Si. 

In churchyard. 
Gulval. 

Rosemorran. 



Gwennap, No. i. 

In vicarage garden. 
Gwinear, No. 2. 

In churchyard. 
Lelant, Nos. 2 and 3. 

In cemetery. 
Levan, St. 

Trebehor. 
Ludgvan. 

White Cross. 
Michael'' s Mount, St. 

On west side. 
PJiillack, No. i. 

In churchyard. 
Stythians. 

Repper's Mill. 
Treslothan. 

Near village (missing). 
Zennor, Nos. 2 and 3. 

In churchyard. 



In addition to the foregoing, the following crosses, also with the 
figure of our Lord upon them, will be described in due course under 
the different headings to which they belong. The object of their 
insertion here is to enable this branch of figure-sculpture to be dealt 
with as a whole, independent of the type of cross on which the figure 
is found. 



120 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



Crosses with the Figure of Our Lord upon them, but differing 
IN Detail from those already given 

Note. — On those marked with an asterisk the figure is incised in outHne instead of 

being in relief. 



On Wheel Crosses. 

Camborne, No. 2. 

Outside the Institute. 

Trevu,* No. 2. 
Erth, St. 

Trevean. 
Feock, St. 

Trelissick. 
Flushing. 

In churchyard.* 
Just-ill- Pe7iwith, St., No. 2. 

In vicarage garden. 
Levan, St., No. 2. 

In churchyard. 
Madron, St. 

In churchyard. 
Sennen. 

Trevilley.* 
Stythians. 

TrevaHs (2). 

On Unornamented Holed Crosses. 

Buryan, St., No. 2. 

In churchyard. 



Erth, St., No. 2. 

In churchyard. 
Pa?il, St., No. 2. 

On churchyard wall. 

On Latin Crosses. 

Buryan, St. 

Chyoone. 
Matvg an- in-Pyder. 

Mavvgan Cross. 
Nezvlyn {Penzance^. 

Near church. 

On Ornamented Crosses. 

Erth, St., No. 3. 

In churchyard. 
Maivga7i-in-Pyder. 

Lanhcrne. 
Phil lack, No. 6. 

In churchyard. 
Sajicreed, Nos. 3 and 4. 

In churchyard. 



The two lists combined give a total of forty- seven examples, and 
include the whole of those occurring on all the different types of 
crosses in Cornwall. 

The Figure^ 

The representations of our Lord's figure on the Cornish crosses 
are of the rudest and most grotesque description. They are 



' Other observations on the figure will be found on pp. 18, 19. 



UNORNAMENTED CROSSES 121 

executed in low relief, rarely having a projection exceeding an 
inch. 

They are found on all the different types of crosses, and are 
treated in a variety of ways, both as regards the pose of the body 
and the arrangement of the limbs, and are generally shown in the 
rigid Byzantine fashion described on p. 19. 

Except in the isolated instance on the cross at St. Michael's 
Mount, where it occurs on the shaft, the figure is always sculptured 
on the upper portion of the monument, the greater part of it being 
on the head ; while the legs, in most cases, are carried a short 
distance down the shaft. 

When the entire figure had to be fitted into the circular recess of 
the head, it became so compressed that its proportions ^ were spoilt 
and a grotesque effect was the result. 

This, no doubt, accounts for the incomplete and stumpy repre- 
sentations of the figure so often found. The frequent omission of 
the feet, legs, and, in some examples, half of the body, was due to 
the want of the necessary space in which to complete the figure, 
and these portions were consequendy omitted, in order to avoid the 
necessity of impairing the proportions of the parts depicted. 

Some of the different ways in which the figure is represented 
may be classified as follows : — 

I. Clothed in a Tzmic.—ln the unbent figures our Lord is some- 
times shown clothed in a tunic, after the Byzantine fashion of 
depicting Him alive upon the cross. The sleeves are widened at 
the ends like the expanded arms of a cross, but the hands are con- 
cealed ; the bottom of the garment is well defined, and appears to 
hang loosely round the legs. There are fourteen examples of this 
kind (four of which are in the parish of St. Buryan), viz, : — 



Buryan, St. 

In churchyard. 
In churchtown. 
Boskenna Gate. 
Trevorgans. 



Erth, St., Nos. 2 and 3. 
In churchyard. 

Gulval. 

Rosemorran. 

' E.g. see Clowance No. i, Crowan, p. 131. 



122 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



Just-in-Pemvith, St., No. 2. 

In vicarage garden. 
Levari, St., No. 2. 

In churchyard. 
]\Iadro)i. 

In churchyard. 
Mawgan-in -Pyder. 

Lanherne. 



Paul, St., No. 2. 

In churchyard. 
Phillack, No. 6. 

In churchyard. 

Sancreed, Nos. 3 and 4. 
In churchyard. 



Probably most of the figures were originally intended to be thus 
represented ; but some were carelessly executed, and in others there 
is not sufficient detail remaining whereby any of the vestment can 
now be identified. 

2. With a Band round the Waist. — Only one example : Sancreed, 
No. 4, in the churchyard. 

3. The Figu7^e on a Cross. — It is remarkable that there are only 
two examples on wheel crosses in which the figure is shown on a 
cross, which is carved on the head of the monolith, thus giving the 
appearance of the Crucifixion ; but the figures are of the general 
unbent form. One example is at Trevilley, Sennen, and the 
other is in St. Just-in-Penwith, No. 2. A still nearer approximation 
to the true crucifix occurs on three Latin crosses, viz. at Chyoone, 
Mawgan Cross, and Newlyn. Possibly these five instances may be 
intended to represent the dead Christ upon the cross, similar to the 
mediaeval manner, which was introduced in the twelfth century and 
became common in the thirteenth. 

4. The Figure incised instead of being in relief. — This method 
of execution is very uncommon, only three examples being at 
present known, viz. Flushing, Trevu No. 2, and Trevilley ; full 
descriptions of each will be found under ' Incised Ornament' 

Other variations in the treatment of the figure will be better 
understood by considering the different parts of the body sepa- 
rately. 

The Head. — In most cases the head is perpendicular, but there 
are ten examples in which it is inclined to the right, viz. : — 



UNORNAMENTED CROSSES 123 



Cofistantiue. 

Trcvcasc. 
Crowan. 

Clovvance, No. i. 
Day^ St. 

Scorrier, No. i. 
Erth, St. 

Trevcan. 
Gulval. 

Roscmorran. 



Lelanty Nos. 2 and 3. 
In cemetery. 

Ludgvan. 

White Cross. 

Sennen. 

Trevilley (incised). 

Zennor, No. 3. 

In churchyard. 



Two are inclined to the left, viz. Chyoone, St. Buryan, and 
Phillack, No. I. 

Three are shown with what is probably intended for a nimbus, 
viz. those in the churchyards of St. Buryan, St. Paul, and Sancreed 
No. 4. 

The features remain on three only, viz. Sancreed No. 3, Pen- 
darves No. i, and Gwennap No. i. 

The Body. — In some cases the body seems to be naked, in 
others it is shown very full, like the plump body of a child, while in 
a few instances it is very thin. In some examples the figure is 
contracted at the waist and has hips like a female figure ; as, e.g., 
Trevalis, No. i, Stythians ; Lelant cemetery (2); Trebehor, St. 
Levan ; and White Cross, Ludgvan. 

The Arms. — The arms are perhaps more freely treated than any 
other member. In many cases they are both slightly elevated ; and 
more so than usual on the crosses at St. Feock ; St. Michael's Mount ; 
Lelant cemetery, No. 2 ; Rosemorran, Gulval ; and Mawgan Cross. 
Occasionally only one of the arms is raised, as at Scorrier, No. i, 
where the right arm is bent almost at right angles, and at Lelant 
cemetery. No. i, slightly. The left arm only is raised on the crosses 
at Phillack No. i, Lelant cemetery, and Trevean. 

The Legs. — As a rule the legs are quite straight and close 
together. There are, however, four exceptions to this rule, two of 
which occur in the parish of Camborne, viz. at Pendarves, No. i, 
and outside the Institute ; also on the cross formerly at Treslothan, 



124 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 

and that on St. Michael's Mount. At Trebehor, St. Levan, the legs 
are only slightly separated. 

In the three former the spread of the legs is exaggerated to an 
unnatural extent. At Trevean they are close together, but curved 
to the right. These members are omitted altogether in the following 
examples : Clowance, No. 2 ; Phillack, No. i ; St. Erth church- 
yard, No. 2 ; and Zennor, No. i. In the three last-named crosses 
the background of the figure is sunk, and the body terminates, flush 
with the face of the stone, at the lowest part of the sinking, making 
it evident that this was all of the figure which it was intended to 
show. 

The Feet. — Curiously enough, these members are often omitted, 
apparently, in many cases, for want of room, as already pointed out. 
Where they do exist they are very long and out of all proportion to 
the figure, and as a rule are turned outwards at right angles. It is a 
noteworthy circumstance that the five examples best Illustrating this 
treatment all occur in the parish of St. Buryan, and in each case the 
figure is clothed in a tunic, viz. in the churchyard, in the churchtown, 
Boskenna Cross, Trevorgans, and Chyoone. The feet are best pro- 
portioned on the crosses at Phillack, No, 6, and Sancreed, No. 4, 
and are omitted on the following crosses : Pendarves, and outside 
the Institute, in the parish of Camborne ; Treslothan, Rosemorran, 
Trevease, and St. Feock. Occasionally the feet rest on a projection, 
or, rather, the bottom of the legs disappear in it, as at St. Levan, 
No. 2, St. Michael's Mount, and Sancreed churchyard. No. 3. At 
Rolling Mill they are continued into and form part of the surround- 
ing bead of the head ; at Trevalis they are merged in a heart, at 
Trevease in the top of a cross in relief, and at Gwennap in the 
surrounding bead. 

The monuments included in the first list, on p. 119, will now be 
described. 



o 

E 
H 



O 
D 




UNORNAMENTED CROSSES 125 

Having no Bead on the Edge of the Head 

There arc four examples of this type, which will be found at the 
following places : — 

Buryan, St., No. i . .In the churchtown. 

,, ... Boskenna Cross. 

,, ... Trevorgans. 

Crowan . . . Praze-an-beeble. 

St. Buryan, No. i. In the Churchtown 

St. Buryan, or Burian, in the Deanery of Penwith, is situated 
six miles south-west of Penzance railway-station. 

This monument stands in the middle of the meeting of three roads 
a few yards south of the churchyard. 

Particulars relating to its history, both as regards the original 
site of the cross itself and the date when the base on which it is 
mounted was built, would be interesting, since the two parts are 
obviously not of the same date. The only information I have been 
able to obtain is from an old resident, Mr. J. H. Johns, of the 
* King's Arms,' St. Buryan. In reply to my inquiries as to Mr. 
Blight's statement, that ' The cross stood originally within the limits of 
the churchyard,' ^ Mr. Johns says : * Long ago they buried round the 
cross, but we do not think that it ever stood on the portion of ground 
now enclosed within the churchyard wall, but was probably in part of 
the original burying-ground, w^hich was larger than the existing one.' 

Evidently there is an old and well-established tradition to the 
effect that its present site was once part of the churchyard, in which 
the cross stood originally. Perhaps when the churchyard was 
enclosed, in comparatively recent times, its area was curtailed, the 
cross being, we may assume, on one of the portions excluded. Under 
these circumstances there seems sufficient ground for hazarding the 
suggestion that the cross probably stood in its original base on the 
same spot it now occupies, but at a lower level ; and that for its 

' J. T. Blight, Ancient Ovsscs and Antiquities of Corjtwall^ p. 9. 



126. OLD CORNISH CROSSES 

proper preservation it was elevated on the present massive substruc- 
ture, this showing, at any rate, that it must then have been held in 
high veneration. 

With regard to this base, Mr. Johns states that old men still 
living in the village remember repairs having been done to it from 
time to time by the lord of the manor, the Rev. John Tonkin, as 
well as by his late father. 

The cross is much chipped at the top. It is fixed into an 
octagonal stone with sloping sides placed on top of the built-up 
base just mentioned. 

Dimensions. — Height of cross, 2 ft. 7^ in. ; width of head, i ft. 
6iin. ; width of shaft, i2|in. ; thickness, 8^ in. The base is 11 ft. 
6 in. square. 

Front. — Placed low down on the head, and passing below the 
neck, is sculptured one of the straight, unbent figures of our Lord, 
emphasised by a gradually recessed oudine which is deepest round the 
figure. He is shown clothed in a tunic ; the arms are slightly ex- 
panded at the ends, and the large feet are turned outwards at right 
angles. The whole representation is very similar to the example at 
Trevorgans, in this parish. 

Back. On the head is an equal-limbed cross, flush with the 

surface of the stone. The method employed in its execution is 
somewhat remarkable. The background of the upper portion is 
formed by two triangular sinkings in the usual manner, while the 
lower limbs are indicated by two incised quadrants. 

Boskenna Cross, St. Buryan 

For locality of St. Buryan, see last. 

This cross now stands at the meeting of three roads, about 
a mile and a half south-east of St. Buryan churchtown, at a point 
where the road from the churchtown intersects that from Boliet 
to Trevedran. 

Mr. J. H. Johns, landlord of the 'King's Arms,' St. Buryan, 
informfd me of the circumstances connected with the discovery 



UNORNAMENTED CROSSES 



127 



of this cross. It api)cars that formerly one of the angles at the 
intersection of these roads was so sharp and awkward for traffic 
that, in 1869, the local authorities decided to ease this corner 
by rounding off the hedge, which was then about ten feet thick. 
Mr. Johns' father was one of the men employed on this work, 
and shortly after commencing he found the cross buried in the 
hedge. By the advice o( His Honour Charles Dacres Bevan, 







Kcver«p. 




"^^*i^S^^:^^^'S^-^-' '""" 



County Court Judge of Cornwall, and then residing at Boskenna 
Mansion House, the cross was erected on the triangular piece of 
grass in the middle of the roads, a spot on which it is extremely 
likely it originally stood. 

Dimensions. — Total height of the monument, 6 ft. 10 in. ; height 
of the cross, 2 ft. 4 in. ; width of head, i ft. 8 in. ; width of shaft, 
I2iin. 



128 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 

The only ancient part of the monument is the httle cross at the 
top, which is mounted on a base made up of an extraordinary 
collection of apparently disused circular granite stones. Immediately 
beneath the cross is a cylindrical piece, the upper edge of which is 
roughly rounded off Beneath this comes a short drum, about two 
inches wider than the piece above and nine inches deep. The 
next two stones are much wider but not so deep as the last, the 
bottom one consisting of the lower portion of an old cider-press, 
with its surrounding channel and lip ! 

There is a good deal to admire in the feeling which prompted 
this effort to once and for all preserve so ancient a relic, and the 
care bestowed in the erection of this curious substructure goes far 
to remove its incongruity. 

Front. — The figure of our Lord here sculptured is quite the best 
example in which He is represented wearing the tunic ; the expanded 
sleeves are especially apparent, as well as the outline of the garment 
above the knees. The feet are very large, and turn outwards at 
right angles. 

Back. — On the head is a cross with expanded limbs, flush with 
the surface of the stone. The four triangular sinkings, or recesses, 
which form the background are not of uniform size, the lower being 
considerably larger than those above, thus making the lower limb the 
longest. The inner portion of each sinking is raised, forming bosses 
in low relief 

Trevorgans, St. Buryan 

For locality of St. Buryan, see p. 125. 

Trevorgans, or Trevorgance, is an estate consisting of three 
farms situated aljoul half a mile west of the churchtown. 

The cross now stands against the hedge on the left-hand side 
of the road to St. Just, about half a mile north-west of St. Buryan 
churchtown. 

Mr. Charles Jenkin, formerly of Trevorgans, but now of Trcgadg- 
with, informed \wv. that the cross formerly stood close to its [)resent 



UNORNAMENTED CROSSES 



129 




site, on top of a hedge enclosing a field then in his occupation. I n this 

exposed position the monument was, unfortunately, a tempting object 

for boys to throw stones at, an opportunity of which they took full 

advantage. Finding that it was thus getting 

considerably damaged, he had it taken down and 

placed for better preservation where it now 

stands. 

The original site of this monument is not 
known ; at any rate, it could not reasonably be 
supposed to have been in situ in such a position 
as that from which it was removed. 

Dimensions. — Height, 3 ft. 9 in. ; width of 
head, i ft. gin. ; width of shaft, 13 in. ; thickness, •=: 
6,Mn. 

Front. — Like the examples in the churchtown, St. Buryan, and 
at Madron, the figure is sculptured lower down on the stone than 
usual, and in general appearance resembles that in the churchtown, 
St. Buryan (pp. 125, 126). 

Back. — This surface is not visible, as the cross is placed close 
against the hedge. 

Praze-an-beeble, Crowan 

Crowan, in the Deanery of Kerrier, is situated four miles south 
of Camborne. 

Praze-an-beeble, or Praze, as it i's called, is a village about three- 
quarters of a mile north-west of Crowan. Praze 
railway-station is on the branch line from Gwinear 
Road to Helston. 

This little cross-head Is now in the garden of 
Mr. William Carah, diocesan surveyor. 

In reply to my inquiries respecting it, he kindly sent me the 
following particulars : ' It seems a mystery where the cross we have 
originally came from. A friend of mine, living abroad at present, saw- 
it, I think, at a farm-place, being used as a bottom for a beehive. 
He asked the people for it. intending to fix it somewhere. At any 

K 




<, J 1 ' -- 1 



I30 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 

rate, when he left England he had not done so, and at my request 
they gave the cross to me.' From the chipped state of the edges, it 
has evidently received some very rough treatment. 

Dimensions. — Height, i ft. 6 in. ; width, i ft. 8 in. ; thickness : at 
the bottom 6^ in., at the top 5^ in. 

Front. — Part of a small conventional figure of Christ, extending 
to the knees, at which point the fracture occurred which separated 
the head from the shaft. 

Back. — The remains of a mutilated Latin cross in relief. 

With a Bead on the edge of the Head and an equal- 
limbed Cross on the Back 

There are six examples of this type, which will be found at the 
following places : — 



C rowan 
Erth, St. 
Gwinear, No. 2 
Phillack, No. I 
Zennor, No. 2 



Clowance, Nos. i and 2. 
Battery Mill. 
In churchyard. 
In churchyard. 
In churchyard. 



Clowance No. i, Crowan 

Crowan, in the Deanery of Kerrier, is situated four miles south 
of Camborne. 

Clowance is the seat of the Rev. St. A. H. Molesworth St. 
Aubyn, M.A., J. P., and is only a few minutes' walk from Praze rail- 
way-station, on the branch line from Gwinear Road to Helston. 

The cross now stands near the edge of an island in a pond in 
these grounds. 

The late Mr. S. J. Wills, of St. Wendron, of whom I made inquiries 
respecting the original site of this cross, informed me that it once 
stood at Bold Gate, on Clowance Down, situated at the meeting of 
four cross-roads, and at the north-west angle of Clowance Park. Mr. 
Jolm D. Enys, of Enys, Penryn, whom I subsequently consulted, 



UNORNAMENTED CROSSES 



131 








agreed with Mr. Wills, and thought it was removed to its present site 
about the year 1850. 

The cross is in a very fair state of preservation. The head is 
beaded on the front 
only, and the surface 



surrounding the figure 
is gradually recessed 
from the inside line of 
the bead to the outline 
of the figure, in a 
similar manner to that 
on the cross in Gwen- 
nap vicarage garden. 

Dimensions. — Height, 3 ft. 6 in. ; width of head, i ft. 9 in. ; width 
of shaft : at the top 15^ in,, at the bottom 14! in. ; thickness, 8 in. 

Front. — Within the bead on the head is a grotesque and stunted 
little figure of our Lord. The large head is slightly inclined to the 
right, and the wide arms are at different levels. When it is noticed 
that the distance from the bottom of the feet to the under side of 
the arms is less than the remainder of the figure, comment on its 
proportion is needless. Immediately beneath the circular recess 
containing the figure, and following the curve, are six little round 
holes. 

Back. — On the head is an equal-limbed cross with expanded 
ends. 

Clowance No. 2, Crowan 

For locality of Clowance, see last. 

This monument stands near the northern boundary of Clowance 
grounds, adjoining the railway. 

Within the memory of elderly people it formerly stood at 
Binnerton ^ Cross, the meeting of four roads near the entrance to the 
farm of that name, where the road from Helston to Hayle is inter- 
sected — between Trewheal and Leedstown — by that from Binnerton 

^ Locally called ' Binner.' 

K 2 



n2 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



Farm to Binnerton Mine. The cross, when discovered by the Rev. 

St. A. H. M, St. Aubyn, formed part of a watercourse in connection 

with the mine. 

The portion of a base through which the bottom of the shaft 

passes belonged originally to a cross that once stood at Cattebedron, 

in Gwinear parish ; but 
the latter disappeared 
many years ago, and no 
person in the neigh- 
bourhood has any re- 
collection of its exist- 
ence. Previous to its re- 
moval the base formed 
part of a stepping-stile 
near Cattebedron. This 
cross and base were 
taken to Clowance for 
preservation about the 
same time as No. 3 
cross in these grounds, 
i.e. c. 1883. 

In shape the head 

resembles an elongated 

horseshoe, and the 

~* beads around it are 

The base is broken across one side of the 

mortice, leaving the bottom of the shaft exposed. 

Dimensions. — Total length of cross, 7 ft. 8 in. ; width of head, 

I ft. 9 in. The shaft is of a uniform width of 14 in. Thickness : at the 

bottom 14 in., at the neck i 2 in. The base is 3 ft. 6 in. wide and 

8 in. deep. 

Front. — Williin tlie horseshoe-shaped recess on the head is a 

rude and incomj)let(! rej)resentation of Christ, in very shallow relief, 

consisting of the u])]>er pr)rtion of the figure, extending to about the 

knees. The arms are very sliort and wide ; and the remainder of 




wide. Hat, and uneven. 



UNORNAMENTED CROSSES 



133 



the figure below is merely an oblong, without any attempt at syni- 
metry, a vertical incision alone indicating the short legs. 

Back. — Within the elliptical recess on the head is a wide and 
unequal-limbed cross, also in low relief, having expanded ends. 



Battery Mill,' St. Erth 

St. Erth, in the Deanery of Penwith, is situated two miles south 
of Hayle and one mile south-east of St. Erth reiilway-station. 

Battery Mill, in the occupation of Mr. Gilbert, lies about half a 
mile west of St. Erth church, on the other side of the river Hayle. 

This cross was removed 
some thirty years ago {c. 
i860), by Mr. Gilbert's sons^ 
from a spot not far from its 
present position, and was by 
them built into a wall of their 
garden for preservation. A 
pear-tree has since been 
planted in front of it, which 
has now grown sufficiently to 
almost conceal the cross. 

Dimensions. — Height, 2 ft. 10 in. ; width of head, i ft. 8 in. ; width 
of shaft, 1 2^ in. ; thickness, 7 in. 

Front. — The manner in which the feet of the rudely executed 
figure of our Lord are worked into the bead of the head, and are 
carried right round, is very remarkable. 

Back. — The back'- of the cross, being placed against the wall, is 
not visible. 

' Since the above was written this cross has been taken out of the wall and placed as a 
tombstone o\er the Gilbert grave, on the north side of St. Erth churchyard. 

- The back of the head proves to be rather mutilated, especially at one side of the shaft, 
which has a large piece broken off. The head is surrounded by a bead, but is not, however, 
of ([uite the same shape as the front. On it is a cross in relief having a considerable incli- 
nation to the left, the shaft of which is only slightly longer than the other limbs. 




~P^ 




134 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 






Gwinear, No. 2. In the Churchyard 

Gwinear, in the Deanery of Penwith, is situated three miles east 
of Hayle and one mile from Gwinear Road railway-station. 

This monolith now stands in the churchyard near the south porch. 

Originally it stood at the junc- 
^^ tion of the roads from Lanyon and 
Carnhell Green, which intersect 
about a quarter of a mile east of 
Gwinear churchtown, the church 
itself being about half a mile west 
of the village. The cross was 
removed many years ago {c. i860) 
by the then vicar, the Rev. H. T. 
Rodd, and placed in the churchyard, 
near the north-east angfle of the 
building,^ where it remained until 
some time between 1870 and 1880, 
when it was again moved, and 
placed in its present position. 
In plan the stone is an irregular parallelogram, the four sides 
being of uneven width ; apparently, it has at some time been used as 
a gatepost, since there are two deeply sunk holes in the front, to 
receive the iron lugs to which the gate was hung. The head is 
beaded, and a slight entasis is noticeable on the right side of the shaft. 
Each surface of the stone is very smooth, and the angles are nearly 
square. Its previous usage probably accounts for the top of the 
stone being in such a mutilated condition, while the sculpture on the 
front and back is almost obliterated. 

Dimensions. — Height, 5 ft. 6 in, ; width of head, i ft. 8^ in. ; width 
of shaft, 14 in. ; thickness : at the neck i i in., at the bottom \2\ in. 

Fi'ont. — On the head is the figure of our Lord, but so much 
worn that it is barely traceable. 

J)ack. — On the head is an e(|ual-limbcd cross having expanded ends. 

' The l;ile Mr.S. J. Wills, of St. Wcndion, leiiicmljcrs llic cross bciny^ in this position 
in 1865, and supphcd inc with tlic aljovc iKirticulars. 




UNORNAMENTED CROSSES 



'35 




Phillack, No. i.' In the Churchyard 

Phillack, in the Deanery of Penwith, is situated six miles south- 
west of Camborne and one mile north of Hayle railway-station. 

Regarding the discovery of this cross, the Rev. Canon Hockin, 
of Phillack, says : ' This mutilated cross I dug out 
with my own hands from the churchyard wall to the 
westward of the church, where it had been inserted 
as a mere building-stone.' 

It is in a most mutilated condition, but there is 
sufficient still left to show part of a very rude repre- 
sentation of our Lord's figure, extending only to 
the waist. The head is considerably inclined, and ^:;i^'--^ 
rests on the left arm. The back of the cross is 
quite plain, and bears no indications of ever having been worked. 

Di77iensions. — Height, 2 ft. loin. ; width of head, i3in. ; width 
of shaft, 9 in. 

Zennor, No. 2. In the Churchyard 

Zennor, in the Deanery of Penwith, is situated on the north coast, 
seven miles north-west of Penzance, and four miles west of St. Ives 
railway-station. 

There are two little crosses in this churchyard, which are now 
fixed, one at either end, on 
top of a large flat tombstone 
erected to the memory of the 
Rev. William Borlase, M.A., 
late Vicar of Zennor, who died 
in 1888. It is needless to add 
that this combination of ancient and modern work is not a success. 

The Rev. S. H. Farwell Roe, the present vicar, has, after some 
trouble, kindly ascertained for me particulars regarding the three 
crosses in this parish. 

' This is the only monument of its kind which is without a cross on the back, and is 
inckided here to avoid a separate sub-division. 





136 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 

That now under consideration was found by Mrs. Borlase, of 
Castle Horneck, who is niece by marriage to the late vicar. It was 
in the hedge of a field situated about half a mile north-east of the 
church, and close to Tregarthen. On removal to the vicarage 
garden it was placed on a rockery, where it remained until again 
moved and fixed on the west end of the above-mentioned tombstone. 

It is only a very small cross-head, the shaft of which is missing, 
and is in a very fair state of preservation. A bead surrounds the 
head on front and back, and on the latter it is gradually increased in 
width towards the bottom. 

Dimensions. — Height, i ft. 8 in. ; width of head, i ft. 9 in. ; thick- 
ness, 9^^ in. 

Front. — Part of a rude representation of the Saviour, abruptly 
terminated just below the hips, where the commencement of the legs 
rests on the inside edge of the surrounding bead. In this instance the 
neck is omitted, so that the head rests directly on the shoulders. 
Both arms are raised somewhat higher than is usual. 

Back. — An equal-limbed cross in relief, with widely expanded 
limbs, very similar to that on the cross at the other end of the 
tombstone (p. 146). 

Similar to those last described, but with a Latin Cross 

ON THE Back 

There are four examples of this type, which will be found at the 
following places : — 

Camborne .... Pendarves, No. i. 

Treslothan . . . Near village. 

Levan, St. ... Trebehor 

Ludgvan .... White Cross 

Pendarves No. i, Camborne 

Camborne, in the Deanery of Carnmarth, is situated twelve miles 
south-west of Truro, and has a railway-station on the main line. 



UNORNAMENTED CROSSES 



137 



Pendarves, the seat of William Cole Pendarves, Esq., J. P., D.L., 
is situated about a mile and a half south of Camborne. 

Mr. Pendarves informed me thfit this cross was found in a ditch 
on his estate, and that he had it removed for preservation, and 
mounted, near the house, on a granite base of two steps. 

It is in so well preserved a condition that it bears the appearance 
of having been re-cut. The manner in which the head of the cross 
is gently curved on to the small and diminishing shaft is very singular, 
the latter being wider at the top than at the bottom. As will be seen 
by the dimensions, the same peculiarity exists in the thickness of the 
stone. A bold bead of variable width is carried round the edge of 
the head, on the front, and is stopped above the ends of the legs of 
the figure ; but on the back the bead is omitted. 











Dimensions. — Height, 2 ft. 7 in. ; width of head, i ft. 7 in. ; width 
of shaft at the bottom, 8^ in. ; thickness : at the bottom ^Ww., at 
the top 7 in. 

The sculpture on front and back is in high relief, and is as 
follows : — 

Front. — On the head is the figure of our Lord, the features being 
quite distinct. Both arms are slightly raised ; the legs are wide 
apart, and reach to the edge of the stone, but no attempt to show the 
feet has been made. 

Back. — On this face is a wide-limbed Latin cross which has 
splayed edges and projects an inch, the upper portion of the emblem 



138 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 

being much wider than the lower. The upper Hmbs are carried to 
the edge of the head, and the shaft to within a few inches of the 
bottom. 

Treslothan.^ Near the Village 

Treslothan is a modern parish formed out of Camborne. It is 
situated in the Deanery of Carnmarth, and is one and a half miles 
south of Camborne town. 

A cross which once existed at Treslothan has now disappeared. 
Its history is somewhat conflicting, but, so far as I have been able to 
gather, the late Mr. Nicholas Hare, of Liskeard, appeared to know 
more about it than anyone else. A few years ago he contributed 
an article to ' Illustrations' entitled 'Ancient Cornish Crosses,' and, 
amongst others, gave a sketch of the cross at Treslothan, then on top 
of a wall, showing the front of the stone, with the figure upon it, and 
some few inches of its shaft. 

On making inquiries in the neighbourhood, I was told it was at 
a place called Killavose, but there is no cross there. Others said it 
had been taken to Pendarves. This is also incorrect, as will be seen 
by referring to the cross there just described. 

I communicated these reports to Mr. Hare, and sent him a sketch 
of the Pendarves stone. Replying in December 1889, he enclosed a 
sketch, and after saying that he had visited the spot in the previous 
year, only to find that the cross was gone, says : 'It originally stood 
at a three-lane end on the road from Camborne to Treslothan, on top 
of a stone wall. On the reverse was a cross, the lower limb of the 
same length as the others. I first sketched it in 1856.' 

The late Mr. S. J. Wills, of St. Wendron, in reply to my 
inquiries, said : ' I remember seeing it on the wall when a boy, but 
have not been there for years.' 

Certainly the figure is very like that at Pendarves ; but Mr. Hare's 
assertion n'garding the cross on the back, and Mr. Pendarves's state- 

' To assist the reference it has Ijeen considered best to pLace the account of this stone 
next to that with wliich it has been confused, instead of with those defined on p. 130, to which 
sub-division it Ijclongs. 



UNORNAMENTED CROSSES 



139 





ment as to where the one at his place was found, clearly show that 
they cannot be the same. 

At any rate, we have the evidence of two well-known anticiuaries 
that a cross such as that described did once exist in this neighbour- 
hood. 

Trebehor, St. Levan 

St. Levan, in the Deanery of Penwith, is situated eight miles 
south-west of Penzance. 

Trebehor is a small hamlet situated about a mile and a half north 
of St. Levan church. 

The cross now stands on top 
of the boundary-hedge of a 
cottage-garden in the tenancy of 
Mr. Albert Davey. 

A bead is carried round the 
edge of both head and shaft on 
the front ; but on the back it is omitted. 

Dimensions. — Height, 2 ft. 2 in. ; width of head, i ft. 6 in. ; width 
of shaft, ii^in. ; thickness, 1 1 in. 

Front. — On the head, and extending some way below the neck, 
is one of the most curious little representations of our Lord's figure 
in the county. The head is very small, and both arms are curved 
slightly downwards — a unique treatment ; the hips are very wide, 
and the legs are of uneven length, the right, which is vertical, 
being the longer, whilst the left slopes a litde outwards. 

Back. — A Latin cross in relief, nearly the full height of the 
monument. 

White Cross, Ludgvan 

Ludgvan, in the Deanery of Penwith, is situated three and a half 
miles north-east of Penzance, and one mile north of Marazion Road 
railway-station. 

What is left of this monument stands on the left-hand side of the 
road, about midway between Ludgvan churchtown and St. Erth 
railway-station, and one mile from the latter. 



I40 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



Like that at White Cross, St. Breock, this cross also is kept white- 
washed, and the small village near it, consisting of a few cottages, 
receives the name of * White Cross ' from the monument. 

This is a wayside cross, and as such is likely to be in situ. The 
shaft is missing and the head is now fixed crookedly in the rough 
old base. The head is not circular, but of uneven horseshoe shape, 
and is surrounded on the front by a very wide, fiat bead, and on 
the back by one still wider, while the recesses containing the sculp- 
ture are very deeply sunk. 

Dimensions. — Height of head, 2 ft. 2 in. ; width, 2 ft. 4|in. ; 
thickness, 10^ in. The base is about 4 ft. 6 in. long. 

Front (facing the hedge). — Another very curious figure of our 
Lord is here found and, like many others, is incomplete, since it only 



c<lJ&75r:-^ 




extends a short distance below the hips, where it rests on the edge ot 
the bead surrounding it. The head has a marked inclination to the 
right, and the neck is unusually thick. Both arms are raised and 
curve upwards, the right being the higher, and the curves of the 
body are unusually developed. 

Jiack (facing the road). — A Latin cross in relief, the surface 
of which is fiush with the wide surroundin": bead, on the bottom of 
which the lower limb of the cross rests. 



ILWING TIIK ImGUKE AND CkOSS CONTAINED IN A PkAR-SIIAPED 

Recess similar to those on Pp. 69 and 70 

The architectural peculiarity of this class consists in the form 
iA the sinking on the head, which contains the figure on the front, or 



UNORNAMENTED CROSSES 141 

cross on the back, in relief. Instead of the usual round or horse- 
shoe background, the lower portion of the recess is continued, and 
contracted for a short distance below the neck, and finished square 
at the bottom, giving it a pear-shaped appearance. The bead on 
the edge of the head follows this line, and is stopped on the bottom 
of the sinking. By this method of treatment a larger area is made 
available for the sculpture. 

There are six examples of this particular variety, which will be 
found at the following places : — 

Day, St. . . . Scorrier, No. i. 

Gulval .... Rosemorran. 
Lelant, Nos. 2 and 3 . In cemetery. 
Stythians . . . Repper's Mill. 

Zennor, No. 3 . .In churchyard. 



Scorrier No. i, St. Day 

St. Day, or St. Dye, is a modern parish formed out of Gwennap. 
It is situated in the Deanery of Carnmarth, and is two miles east of 
Redruth. 

Scorrier House is the seat of George Williams, Esq., J. P., D.L., 
and is situated about a quarter of a mile from Scorrier Gate railway- 
station. 

It is supposed that this cross was removed to these grounds for 
preservation many years ago, but all inquiries have failed to elicit 
any particulars regarding its previous site or history. 

Evidence of its use as a gatepost is supplied by the hole in the 
front of the head, in spite of which, however, it is in a very good 
state of preservation, though slightly chipped in places. 

The angles of the shaft are chamfered, and die off on to the head. 
This is usually considered a sign of late work. 

Dimensions. — Height, 4 ft. 11 in. ; width of head, i ft. S in. ; 
width of shaft : at the neck 12 in., at the bottom 13 in. ; thickness : 
at the bottom \o\ in., at the neck 9^ in. 



142 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



Front. — On the upper portion is a very remarkable representation 
of the figure of Christ. The head inchnes considerably to the right, 
and is supported by the right hand, the arm being bent at right 
angles ; the left arm is straight, and slightly raised. The body and 




legs are upright, the latter being terminated with indications of 
feet, brought down to a point just below the lower line of the recess. 
Back. — In a similar position to that occupied by the figure is a 
wide-limbed Latin cross in relief. 



Rosemorran, Gulval 

Gulval, in the Deanery of Penwith, is situated one mile north- 
east of Penzance railway-station. 

Rosemorran Farm is about one mile north-west of Gulval. 

The cross stands on the top of a high hedge on the left-hand side 
of the road, a little above the farm. 

The cross is roughly and irregularly executed throughout. 

Dimensio7ts. — Height, 3 ft. 3 in. ; width of head, i ft. 7 in. ; width 
of shaft, 12 111. ; thickness, 9 in. 

Front. — On the lujad is a rude representation of our Lord's 



UNORNAMENTED CROSSES 



143 



figure. Both arms are slightly raised. The head is very large, and 
out of all proportion to the small body and still smaller lei^s which, 
without feet, rest on the bottom edge of the sinking containing the 
figure. 

Back. — On the head is a cross of very curious form. The larger 
and upper portion consists of an equal- limbed cross having widely 





expanded arms ; flush with, and much narrower than, the lower 
limb is the short shaft, resting on the lowest edge of the sinking. 
The only other instance of a cross of this shape occurs on a monument 
in Lelant cemetery, which is the next to be described. 



Lelant, No. 2. In Cemetery 



Lelant, in the Deanery of 
Penwith, is situated three 
and a half miles south-east 
of St. Ives. Lelant railway- 
station is on the branch line 
from St. Erth to St. Ives. 

The monolith formerly 
stood in its base outside the 
churchyard wall, but some 
years ago it was removed, 





144 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



and placed in the cemetery,^ near the western entrance, probably at 
the same time as No. 3, described below. The base is now concealed, 

Di77iensions. — Height, 4 ft. 2 in. ; width of head, i ft. 5 in. ; width 
of shaft, II in. ; thickness : at the bottom 10 in., at the top 9 in. 

Fi'-ont. — On the head is the figure of our Lord, but it is incom- 
plete, being terminated a short distance below the body. The head 
is slightly inclined to the right, and the body in outline is like that of 
a draped female. 

Back. — On the head is a cross exactly like that on the stone at 
Rosemorran. last described. 



^-^^: 



Lelant, No. 3. In Cemetery 

For locality of Lelant, see last. 

This very fine monolith originally stood in Lelant Lane, between 

the churchtown and St. 
Ives. 

It now stands in the 
middle of the cemetery, 
which is opposite the 
church. A circle of willows 
planted round the cross 
have grown so much that 
the monolith is now almost 
concealed. 

It is rather chipped in 
places, especially at the 
top, and the workmanship 
generally is decidedly rude. 
The head, instead of being 
round, is very much flat- 
tened, and the bead on 
the <i<\<i^Q. varies consider- 
ably in width. On the back the bead is carried down the angles 

' I have been unaljlc lo ascertain when this cross and tliat \vhi( li follows were removed 
to the cemetery. 









UNORNAMENTED CROSSES 



H5 



of the shaft to the bottom, in the same manner as on the crosses in 
Withiel rectory garden and Penzance market-place. The entasis 
on the shaft shows on the back only. 

Dimensimis. — Height, 6 ft. 9 in. ; width of head, 2 ft. 2^ in. ; 
width of shaft, i6| in. ; thickness : at the bottom 9 in., at the neck 
10 in., and at the top 12 in. 

Front. — On the head, and carried some distance down the shaft, 
is an extraordinary figure of our Lord in relief, 2 ft. 9 in. high, the 
space surrounding it being deeply sunk. This is by far the largest 
example of a figure which occurs on any of the wheel crosses. The 
head has a great inclination to the right, and both arms are slightly 
raised. But the most curious features are the distended shape of the 
upper portion of the body and the narrow hips. The legs are very thick, 
and the immense feet turn outwards and slope slightly downwards. 

Back. — A Latin cross in relief, the shaft of which extends some 
way below the neck. 

Repper's Mill,' Stythians 



Stythians, or Sti- 
thians, in the Deanery 
of Carnmarth, is situ- 
ated four miles south- 
east of Redruth and 
three miles south-west 
of Perran railway- 
station. 

Repper's Mill is 
about half a mile east 
of Stythians church. 







' The more correct name 
of this mill is Sewrah i\Ioor 
Corn Mill. Sewrah Moor is 
a valley on Sewrah estate ; 
but as a man named Repper 
was formerly the miller, the 
place obtained the local 
appellation of 'Repper's Mill,' which it still retains. 





146 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



The cross stands in the garden, near the stream. 

It is a very good example of the variety under consideration, and 
is in an excellent state of preservation. The spaces within the 
beads on both front and back are sunk a full inch, and the shaft 
is remarkable for the absence of entasis. 

Dimensious. — Height, 6 ft. i in. ; width of head, i ft. i li in. ; width 
of shaft, I 5 in. ; thickness, 1 2 in. 

Within the recesses on the front and back of the head is the 
following sculpture : — 

F7'ont. — A very fair representation of our Lord's figure in relief, 
which is, perhaps, chiefly remarkable for being the only one in which 
any successful attempt has been made in the proportion of the feet. 
It will be noticed that additional care has been taken to indicate them 
by cutting away a small piece of the stone beyond the toes. 

Back. — A wide-limbed Latin cross in relief. 



Zennor, No. 3. In the Churchyard 

For locality of Zennor, see p. 135, where, in the account of 
No. 2 cross at this place, further particulars relating to this one 
will be found. 

This cross is now fixed on the east end of a large flat tombstone 
erected to the memory of the Rev. William Borlase, M.A., late vicar 

of Zennor, who died in 1888. 

When discovered it formed 
part of the stone flooring in a 
room at Bridge Cottage, Zennor, 
then inhabited by a man named 
Boase. About forty years ago 
(c. 1850) the late vicar caused it 
to be taken up and placed in his garden, where it remained until 
moved and fixed on his tombstone in 1888. 

Unfortunately, a large piece has been chipped off one side, and 
no doubt the greater part of the shaft is missing. 

Dimensions. — Height, 2 ft. 4-^- in. ; present width of head, i ft. 7 in.; 
width of shaft, i 3 in. ; thickness, 13 in. 





UNORNAMENTED CROSSES i}; 

Frout. — On the head is sculptured a curious little figure of our 
Lord in relief The head has a considerable inclination to the right, 
and both arms are slightly raised, though the right springs from an 
unnatural position on the body, and at a lower level than the left, 
giving a deformed appearance to the figure. The short legs rest on 
the bottom of the recess, but the feet are omitted. 

Back. — Unlike the front, the recess is circular, and contains a 
cross having equal and widely expanded limbs. 

With a Cross i^ relief on the Shaft, beneath the Figure 

There are three examples of this type, which will be found at the 
following places : — 

Constantine . . . Trevease. 

Gwennap, No. i , .In vicarage garden. 

St. Michael's Mount . On west side. 



Trevease, Constantine 

Constantine, in the Deanery of Kerrier, is situated six miles east 
of Helston and seven miles south-west of Falmouth. There is a 
railway-station at each of the last-named places. 

Trevease Farm is about two and a half miles north of Constan- 
tine churchtown. 

The cross, which is in a very good state of preservation, stands 
in its roughly circular base, in siht, by the side of a small and name- 
less tributary of the Hel, which runs just below Trevease farmhouse. 

Particular interest is attached to it, owing to the unique form of 
the cross on the front, a description of which will be found on the next 
page. The surrounding bead of the head gradually disappears at the 
neck, and the shaft has entasis on the left side only. 

Dimensions. — Height, 5 ft. 5 in. ; width of head, i ft. 8 in. ; width 
of shaft: at the top 14 in., at the bottom 15 in. ; thickness: at the 
bottom 7.yin., at the neck 6 ^^ in. The base is about 3 ft. 6 in. in 
diameter, but is now covered. 



148 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



Front. — On the front is the figure of our Lord, The outstretched 
arms, although in a hne, are not horizontal, the left being slightly 
raised and the right lowered ; while the head and general pose of the 
body incline to the right. The legs, without feet, rest on the top 
of a cross of which kind only one other similar instance is at present 
known to exist in Cornwall. It is of the form known as ' patriarchal,' ' 
having two cross bars, but in this case is without the top limb, which 



y-:^- 





^>mM»W!MP^- 



may, however, be concealed by, or merged in, the feet of the figure. 
The shaft of the cross is slightly curved, and carried to within a few 
inches of the bottom, where it is rather wider than at the top. 

Back. — On the back is a Latin cross in relief, the upper limbs 
contained within the head, its shaft being similarly treated to that on 
the front. 

Gwennap, No. i. In the Vicarage Garden 

()wenna|), in the Deanery of Carnmarth, is situated three miles 
south-east of Redruth town and railway-station. 

' The late Mr. S.J. Wills, of.St. Wendron, suj^^cstcd ihnt, as the adjoining lands formed 
a portion of the cndowinent of St. John's Hospital, established for the entertainment of 
wounded Crusaders, this cross was erected in connection with that Order ; and he thus 
accounted for the special shape both of this cross and of an incised example in the 
churchyard of Temple, near Bodmin. 



UNORNAMENTED CROSSES 



149 





Writing in September 1890, Canon Rogers, vicar of Gwennap, 
informed me that this cross was removed to his garden, nearly fifty 
years ago, by the late Canon Phillpotts, then vicar, from a corner of 
the glebe, near the site of a former chapel which has given its name 
to a field still called ' Chapel Moor.' 

The cross consists of the upper part of what was probably a much 
taller monument, and is a very interesting example. On the front 
the head is completely sur- 



rounded by a bead, with part of 

the lower portion of its outer 

circumference cut horizontally 

across the shaft. The bead 

on the back of the head is 

carried straight down the angles 

of the shaft in the same manner 

as on the crosses at Tremoor, 

Trebehor, and Withiel. The clever way in which the bold relief of 

the figure is managed should be noticed. This effect is obtained by 

sinking the space surrounding the figure gradually from the bead on 

the head inwards, causing the main portion, or body, to appear in 

high relief, whereas the front of the body and enclosing bead are on 

the same level. The two lower corners of the shaft have evidently 

been purposely cut off, but for what reason is not apparent. 

Dimensions. — Height, 3 ft. i in. ; width of head, i ft. 9 in. ; width 
of shaft, \2\ in. ; thickness, 7 J in., diminishing at the top of the head. 

Front.- — On the head is a very curious figure of our Lord, the 
head of which, as in many other cases, is very large. The grotesque 
features are quite distinct, and the neck and feet are omitted, the 
lower portion of the legs dying into the bead. On the shaft, imme- 
diately beneath this bead, is a Latin cross, the shaft of which is carried 
to the bottom of the stone. 

Back. — On this face is a hardly perceptible, broad-limbed Latin 
cross, the upper limbs contained in, and occupying nearly the whole 
surface of, the head, while its shaft is the full width of the stone be- 
tween the beads on the angles. 



1^0 



OLD CORXISH CROSSES 



St. Michael's Mount 



St. Michael's Mount, in the Deanery of Penwith, is situated three 
miles east of Penzance and one mile south-east of Marazion railway- 
station. 

The cross stands in its circular base on the western side of the 
island. 

It is a well-preserved monument, and is interesting alike from 
the fact of its having three crosses in relief upon it, as well as for the 

singular position occupied 
by the smallest repre- 
sentation of our Lord's 
figure on any of the 
Cornish stones. The 
head of the cross is cir- 
cular, and the tapering 
shaft is widest at the 
bottom. 

Dimensions. — Height, 
6 ft. 2 in. ; width of head, 
I ft. \o\ in. ; width of 
shaft : at the neck 14^ in., 
at the bottom 1 7 in. The 
base is 4 ft. 6 in. in dia- 
meter. 

Front. — Within the 
bead on the head is an 
equal-limbed cross, the 
left arm of which is tilted slightly upwards. On the shaft, im- 
mediately beneath, is an elliptical sinking, in which is the small figure 
just mentioned. Both arms are raised higher than usual ; the legs, 
without feet, are spread widely apart, and rest on a rounded projec- 
tion formed beyond the line of the sinking. Below the figure is a 




UNORNAMENTED CROSSES 151 

Latin cross extending to the bottom of the stone, the horizontal limbs 
being the full width of the shaft. 

Back. — A wide-limbed Latin cross, the upper limbs contained 
within the head, and the shaft carried to the bottom of the stone. 



Transitional Monuments of semi-Gothic ^ character 

Both of the crosses about to be described are excellent examples 
of this type, and although really more Gothic than early, are given 
here, first, to illustrate the transition, and secondly, to show the diffi- 
culty of attempting to draw a distinctive line between the two styles. 
Both figures on these crosses are of the early, rigid form, and the 
shape of the St. Feock monument is also of an equally early style. 
On the other hand, the St. Erth cross is obviously a rude form of the 
ornate lantern crosses, and has also a Gothic base ; while the cross 
on the back of the St. Feock stone is exacdy like those found on 
thirteenth-century slabs. 

The two examples of this type will be found at the following 
places : — 

Erth, St., No. I . .In churchtown. 

Feock, St. . . . In churchyard. 

St. Erth, No. I. In the Churchtown 

St. Erth, in the Deanery of Penwith, is situated two miles south 
of Hayle and about one mile south-east of St. Erth railway- 
station. 

The monolith stands near the centre of the churchtown, and is 
supposed to be in situ. It was, until recently, enclosed by a wall 
within the grounds of the Wesleyan meeting-house, in which 
position the base and some twelve inches of the shaft were buried 
beneath a mound of earth. Lately, however, the boundary-wall of 
the above building has been set back and the mound removed, so 

' See footnote, p. i. 



152 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



that the entire cross and base are now exposed, the work having 
been carried out without disturbing the position of the monument. 
After these alterations had been effected the cross was, on November 
2nd, 1 89 1, with some ceremony, handed over by Lord St. Levan to 



the care of the good folk of St. Erth. 




Hiis cross is enlirely different from any other in the county, 
owing principally to the remarkable shape of the head, which for 
explanatory purposes might be described as an oblong wider at the 
top than at the bottom, and with the upper angles rounded. In 
general appearance it resembles a rude lantern cross. On the front 
the head slightly overhangs the shaft, its lower line sloping down- 
wards from right to left ; while on the back its surface is flush with 



UNORNAMENTED CROSSES . 153 

that of the shaft. The angles of the shaft are chamfered on the 
front only. 

Dimeiisions. — Height of cross, 7 ft. gin. ; width of head : at the 
top 18^ in., at the bottom 17 in. ; width of shaft, 15 in. ; thickness of 
shaft, 1 1 in. ; thickness of head, 13^ in. The base is 3 ft. 9 in. x 3 ft. 
I in., and 15 in. thick. 

Front. — The head is bordered by a wide flat bead, and within 
the recess is sculptured a small figure of our Lord. The neck is 
omitted, both arms are slightly raised, and the legs are very short. 
The feet are scarcely indicated, and rest on the splayed edge which 
forms the bottom of the recess. 

Back. — The cross from this point of view appears like a wedge- 
shaped shaft, since the lower outline of the head is barely indicated. 
On the upper portion are four deep rectangular sinkings having 
splayed edges. The lower two are much longer than those above, 
and thus form between them a Latin cross having slightly expanded 
limbs. 

St. Feock. In the Churchyard 

St. Feock, or Feock, in the Deanery of Powder, is situated four 
miles and a half south of Truro. 

The cross stands near the south porch, and is mounted on a 
modern base. 

The foliated cross and mouldings upon it prove that this is a 
Gothic monument of, probably, the thirteenth century, to which 
period it must be assigned. It has, however, other characteristics, 
such as its shape and the rigid pose of the figure, which belong to 
the earlier forms, and show that it is an interesting example of the 
transition between the earlier crosses and those which are entirely 
Gothic. 

The angles of the head and shaft are beaded, the latter being 
moulded on the front and back, as shown in the plan. 

Dimensions. — Height, 4ft. ; width of head, i ft. 6\m. ; width of 
shaft, ii^in. ; thickness, lo^ in. 

Front. — On the head is a crowned figure of our Lord, extending 



154 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



a short distance down the shaft ; unfortunately, the diadem is now 
much mutilated, thouQ;h enough still remains to enable it to be traced. 
Both arms are considerably elevated ; the legs appear to terminate at 
the knees, on a wide central fillet between the inner beads on the 
shaft. The face of this fillet bears some undistinguishable markings, 
as if it had once been decorated. 




«»<'«'•" ^^!v__iliii'' 



Back. — On the head, within the bead, is a foliated Gothic cross 
of beautiful design and careful execution. The mouldings of the shaft 
consist of a bead on both edges and an ogee on either side of a 
central fillet ; the three inner members are stopped at the top against 
the lower limb of the cross, but at the bottom they run out to the 
extremity of the stone. 



UNORNAMENTED CROSSES 



WHEEL CROSSES WITH PROJECTIONS AT THE NECK 

OR ON THE HEAD 

WHEEL CROSSES WITH PROJECTIONS AT THE NECK 
This type of cross exhibits the first development in the introduc- 
tion of an architectural feature to a plain wheel cross, whereby the 
form of its outline is changed. 

The projections consist of a bold bead running from front to back 
of the stone on either side of the neck, i.e. the junction of the head 
and shaft. It is a quaint and curious characteristic, and, being 
peculiar to the county, a monument so enriched may be called par 
excellence ' the Cornish Cross.' 

There are altogether twenty-eight examples of this type, an 
inclusive list of which is given below. Some of them, however, 
possess certain additional characteristics which place them in other 
groups, and to distinguish these from those now under notice 
they have been marked with an asterisk. 

Geographical Distribtttion 

Eastbourne (^Sussex).* 

In Manor House grounds. 

Eglosliayk.* 

' Three-hole Cross.' 

Gwinear.* 

On Connor Down. 



Altarnon. 

Trekennick. 
Boconnoc, No. 2. 

Druids' Hill. 
Bodvmi.* 

Carminnow Cross. 
Camborne, No. 2.* 

Outside the Institute. 
Cleer, St.* 

Longstone. 
Clcther, St. 

On Basil Barton 4, viz. — 
By Inney bank ; 
Near Basil farmhouse : 
Cross-Gates. 
Near Tarret Bridge. 
Davidstoiv. 

Trevivian. 
Day, St.* 

Scorrier, No. 2, in grounds. 



Gzvythian. 

In churchyard. 
J idiot, St., No. 2. 

In churchyard. 
Laneast. 

On Laneast Down. 
Lanteglos-by- Camel ford, Nos. 2 and 3. 

In rectory garden 
Lesnezuth. 

In churchyard. 
Lewannick. 

Holloway Cross. 

Trelaske.* 
My lor.* 

In churchyard. 



156 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



Penzance* 

In Market-place. 
Pcrrancabuloe. * 

On Perran Sands. 
Phillack, No. 2. 

In a field. 



Roche, No. 2* 

In churchyard. 
Wendron, St.* 

In Merther Uny old church- 
yard. 



Those crosses contained in the foregoing list which will now be 
dealt with have, for purposes of classification, been arranged in three 
sub-divisions. 

With a Bead on the edge of the Head and an equal-limbed 
Cross in relief with expanded Ends on the Head 

There are seven examples of this type, which will be found at 
the following places : — 

Altarnon . . . Trekennick. 

Clether, St. . . . On Basil Barton 4, viz. — 

No. I, by Inney bank. 
No. 2, near Basil farmhouse. 
No. 3, Cross-Gates. 
No. 4, near Tarret Bridge. 
Trevivian. 
In a field. 



Davidstow . 
Phillack, No. 2 



Trekennick, Altarnon 

Altarnon, in the Deanery of Trigg Major, is situated eight miles 

south-west of Launceston, and five miles 
south-west of Egloskerry railway-station. 

Trekennick is a farm situated about 
one mile west of Altarnon church. 

The cross-head is built into the foot of 
a hedge by the roadside ; the field adjoin- 
, ing belongs to Trekennick Farm. 

Only a small j)ortion of this monu- 
ment now remains, consisting of the head and one of the projections 
at the neck. 




UNORNAMENTED CROSSES 



157 



Dimensions. — Height, 2 ft. 4 in. ; width of head, 2 ft. 3 in. 

Within a deep recess of the head, and surrounded by a bold 
bead, is a cross, the upper limb of which is rather longer than the 
others. 

Crosses on the Barton of Basil, St. Clether 

St. Clether, in the Deanery of Trigg Minor, is situated on the 
banks of the river Inney, and is nine miles west of Launceston and 
three miles south-west of Tresmeer railway-station. 

The Barton of Basil, or Trebasil, is about a quarter of a mile 
south of St. Clether church, and in the valley between them runs 
the river Inney. There are four crosses on this Barton, all of which 
are very similar in design. 



Basil, No. I. By the Inney Bank 

This cross stands on sloping ground 
near the right bank of the river, and 
immediately below the farm. It is no 
doubt in situ, and appears to be deeply 
sunk in the ground. 

The most noticeable feature is the 
position of the projections, usually placed 
at the neck ; in this instance they are 
much below it, and are somewhat larger 
than generally found. 

Dimensions. — Height, 7 ft. ; width of 
head, 2 ft. i^ in. ; width of shaft : at the 
neck I ft. 5 in., at the bottom i ft. 7I in. ; 
thickness: at the bottom 8|in., at the 
neck 6 in., tapering to the top of the 
head. 

The crosses on front and back of the head are alike. That on 
the front slopes slightly to the left, while that on the back inclines 
considerably to the right, and its lower limb is widely expanded. 







1^8 



OLD CORXISH CROSSES 



Basil, No. 2. Near Basil Farmhouse 






This cross stands on top of a hedge 
about a quarter of a mile west of Basil farm- 
house, on the right-hand side of the road 
leadino- to Trevellian's Gate. 

It is rather chipped, especially on one 
side of the head. The projections at the 
neck are small, and that on the right side is 
rudely pointed. 

Dimensions. — Height, 4 ft. loin. : width 
of head, 2 ft. ; width of shaft : at the neck 
18 in., at the bottom 19 in. ; thickness: at 
the bottom 9 in., at the neck 7^ in. 
The crosses on front and back of the head are alike. 








Basil, No. 3. Cross-Gates 

About a mile and a quarter, in a westerly 
direction, beyond No. 2 cross, last described, 
the road is intersected at Cross-Gates by 
that from Altarnon to Hallworthy. The 
cross stands on a hedo^e on the riij^ht-hand 
side, just before turning to the right. 

The projections at the neck are slightly 
recessed from the face of the stone, and there 
seems to be an accidental entasis on the left 
side, while the right side is slightly concave. 

Dimensions. — Heic^ht, 5 ft. 10 in. ; width 
of head, 2 ft. 2 in. ; width of shaft, i8in. ; 
thickness, 7 in. 

The crosses on front and back arc alike. 



U NORN A MEN TED CROSSES 



159 







'; "^^' 






w 








Basil, No. 4. Near Tarret Bridge 

This cross is now built horizontally into a rough stone wall which 
forms an artificial bank on the right side of the river Inney, about a 
gunshot below the bridge. 

With the assistance of Mr. E. J. K. Venning, of Basil, who showed 
me this cross, and of a friend who accompanied me, we were able to 
move the cross outwards, and the 
water in the stream being low, an 
inspection was comparatively easy. 
The cross proved to be a slate 
monolith nearly 10 ft. long. Some 
of the stone has shaled off, and a 
piece is broken off one of the 
lower corners. Mr. Venning, as 
well as others in the parish, has 
been aware of its existence for 
some years, but how long it has 
served its present purpose is not 
known. All agree, however, in 
thinking that it must have occupied 
its present position for a consider- 
able time. Steps are soon to be 
taken for its erection near the spot 
where it now lies. 

Dimensions. — Length, 9 ft. 1 1 in.; 
width of head, i ft. Sin. ; width of jj-'^'- ,.^^,\ 
shait at the neck, 14 m., mcreasmg «•'->•••'- ■■ k-'^.-^s 
to about 18 in. near the bottom. 
It is of a uniform thickness of about 
6.} in. 

The upper face of the monolith 
as it now lies has part of a cross in relief on the head, the upper 
portion of which has been split off, and is missing. 



i6o 



OLD CORXISH CROSSES 



On the lower face, or back of the head, there is a curious curved 
sinking, and on either side of the lower end is a small hole about an 
inch deep, and just large enough to admit an ordinary drawing- 
pencil. It may be suggested that possibly the sinking and holes 
were made to secure a metal plate of some kind which has now dis- 
appeared. This portion of the stone is quite smooth, which seems 
to indicate that something was fixed against it, instead of a cross 
being cut upon it in the usual manner. 

N.B. — Since the above was written Mr. Venning has informed 
me that, with the help of his brother and one of the farm-hands, he 
has taken the cross out of the bank and erected it in the field near the 
spot from which it was taken. Owing to the length of the stone the 
work was rather formidable, but was successfully accomplished in the 
spring of 1893. But for Mr. Venning's laudable energy in effecting 
the recovery of the cross, it might in time have been lost sight of in 
its out-of-the-way position. 



Trevivian/ Davidstow 

Davidstow, in the Deanery of Trigg Minor, is situated thirteen 
miles west of Launceston, and one and a half miles south of Otterham 
railway-station. 

The Rev. Richard Parker, vicar of Davidstow, kindly communi- 
cated with me regarding this cross-head, as I was previously unaware 

its existence. 

It faces north-west and south- 
east, and stands on a piece of waste 
ground about two hundred yards 
from Trevivian village, on the 
north side of a cross-road running 
east and west from Trevivian to 
Davidstow Moor. 
Only the head of the cross now remains, and ibis is loosely 
inserted in the socket of its large oblong base. Owing to the loss of 









\:^: 



m^^ 







' This is the only instance in which the bead on the head is omitted, and it is classified 
here because the crosses uj)on it arc similar to those in this sub-division. 



UNORNAMENTED CROSSES 



i6i 



the greater part of one of the projections at the neck, the head leans 
shghtly over. Judging from the size of the base, the cross when 
entire was probably a tall example. 

Dimensions. — Height, and width of head, i ft. i i in. Thickness : 
at the bottom 8 in., at the top 5 in. The base is 5 ft. 2 in. long and 
3 ft. 5 in. wide. 

On both front and back of the head is a cross in relief with 
expanded limbs. That on the front slopes slightly to the right, 
while the inclination of that on the back is much greater. 

Phillack, No. 2. In a Field 




Phillack, in the Deanery of Penwith, is situated six miles south- 
west of Camborne and one mile north of Hayle railway station. 

This cross lay for some time in the schoolyard. The following 
account of it has been given me by the Rev. Canon Hockin, rector 
of Phillack :— 

' The one which I showed you in the yard 
was originally a wayside cross, and until twenty 
years ago stood in the middle of a field belong- 
ing to me about quarter of a mile to the 
west of the church. It was necessary to remove 
it, and I intended re-erecting it on the north 
side of the church, so as to bring it as near 
as possible into the same line of route as it was 
before, viz. in a line between Gwythian church, 
and Lelant ferry, and Lelant church. Near 
the latter churchyard there was another way- 
side cross, not facinof west as usual, but north- 
west, pointing towards another on the high-road to St. Ives.' 

The Canon has since written to say that the cross has been fixed 
against a rough stone hedge forming one of the boundaries of the 
same field from which it was taken. 

The cross is made of Pentewan stone. The head is of horseshoe 
form, and beaded, but is rather chipped at the top. The entasis on 










1 62 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



the shaft is very marked on the right side, but appears to have been 
chipped off on the left, as it is somewhat broken at the angle. 

Dimensions. — Height, 4 ft. 9 in. ; width of head, i ft. 5 in. ; width 
of shaft : at the neck and bottom 13 in., in the middle about 15 in. ; 
thickness, 8| in. 

In the centre of the cross, on the front, is a small circular hole, 
rather above the middle. The back is quite plain. 

Miscellaneous Examples having different Forms of Crosses 
upon them to those already described 

There are five examples of these varieties, which will be found at 
he following places : — 

Juliot, St., No. 2 . . .In churchyard. 

Laneast . . . . .On Laneast Down. 

Lanteglos-by-Camelford, No. 2 In rectory garden. 
Lesnewth . . . .In churchyard. 

Lewannick .... Holloway Cross. 







St. Juliot, No. 2. In the Churchyard 

St. Juliot, in the Deanery of Trigg 
Minor, is situated seven miles north of 
Camelford, and two and a half miles north- 
west of Otterham railway station. 

The cross stands by the south-west 
entrance to the churchyard, and is considered 
to be in situ. 

Not only is the cross in a splendid state 
of preservation, but it is also the most care- 
fully executed and well-proportioned ex- 
ample of the type it represents. The head 
is slightly i)ointcd at the top ; the shaft has 
an entasis on the right side only, the left 
being slightly concave ; and, as will be seen 
^WiM^^~i!Mi^^--' below, the stone is thickest at the top. 







UNORNAMENTED CROSSES 



163 



Dimensions. — Height, 6 ft. ; width of head, i ft. cjl in. ; width of 
shaft, 16 in. ; thickness : at the bottom 7 in., at the neck 8^ in., and 
at the top 10 in. 

Within the circular recess of the head, on both front and back, 
is an equal-Hmbed cross in high relief and of unique shape, its surface 
projecting beyond that of the shaft and head. The limbs consist of 
four triangles, the outer sides of which are concentric with the bead 
on the head, and the points of the interior angles do not quite touch 
in the centre. 



Laneast Down 

Laneast, in the Deanery of Trigg Major, is situated seven miles 
west of Launceston, and three miles south of Tresmeer railway-station. 

This cross stands in an exposed position on the Down near High 
Hall, and is probably in sittt. 

It is remarkable for being made of Poly- 
phant stone instead of granite. Another 
peculiarity is the shape of the head, which is 
elliptical, its longer diameter being vertical. 
A bead is carried round the head, the outside 
line of which passes over the unusually square 
projections at the neck, and forms the inside 
line of the bead on the angle of the sh?ft, 
down which it is, however, only carried about 
halfway. 

Dimensions. — Height, 6 ft. 6 in. ; width of 
head, i ft, 11 in. ; width of shaft, i ft, 9 in. ; 
thickness. Sin. 

Within the elliptical recess on both the 
front and back of the head is a Latin 
cross. 








Lanteglos-by-Camelford, No. 2. In the Rectory Garden 

Lanteglos-by-Camelford, in the Deanery of Trigg Minor, is 
situated one and a half miles south-west of Camelford. 

-M 2 



164 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



' It is probable, says Maclean ^ of this cross, ' that its original site 
was at the cross-roads at a place called " Valley Truckle," about half 
a mile west of Camelford. It was found set in the ground, with its 

head downwards, at a smith's 
shop immediately contiguous 
to the supposed site. It had 
been in this position for 
years, and had been used for 
the purpose of binding the 
ties of wheels, for which pur- 
pose a part of the shaft had 
been rounded off' Two holes 
were also pierced right 
through at this part, and a 
large portion broken out. 

The monolith is rudely 
executed, and is remarkable 
for the great size of the 
1^ head, as well as for the large 
projections at the neck ; and 
the shaft is much wider at the top than at the bottom. The head is 
surrounded on front and back by an exceptionally wide bead, and the 
circular space within is recessed. 

Dimensions. — Total height when found, 7 ft. 6 in. It now stands 
6 ft. 2 in. above the ground. Width of head, 2 ft. 6 in, ; width of 
shaft : at the neck i ft. 7 in., at the ground-line 1 ft. 5 in. ; thickness : 
at bottom 8 in., at head 6 in. 

On both the front and back of the head is an cqual-1 imbed cross, 
each being inclined considerably to the right. This form of cross 
with limits of equal width is very uncommon in Cornwall. 

The drawing of the lower portion of the back of the cross is given 
to show the mutilation effected to make the stone suitable for the 
purpose to which it was put. 

' Diii/ioy of Trigir M/'/ior, \()1. ii. p. 282. 




UNORNA MEN TED CROSSES 



165 




Lesnewth. In the Churchyard 

Lesnewth, in the Deanery of Trigg Minor, is situated fifteen miles 
west of Launceston, and two miles west of Otterham railway-station. 

The cross-head has been mounted on a modern shaft and base 
raised on a mound of earth on 
the south side of the church, 

Maclean ' considers this to be 
the missing cross-head belonging 
to the Waterpit Down shaft. My 
reasons for disagreeing with him 
on this point are stated in my 
description of that monument. 

Like the cross-head in the 
vicarage garden, Altarnon (p. 
84), this one has been hollowed 
out at the back, and previous to 
its recovery was used as a pigs'- 
trough. 

Dimensions. — Height of 
monument, 7 ft. 5 in. ; height of 
head, 2 ft. 5 in. ; width of head, 
2 ft. 2^ in. ; thickness : at the top 
7 in., at the bottom 8 in. 

The head has a double bead 
round it, and the cross within is 

similar"- to those defined on p. 76. It is inclined a good deal to 
the right, and the horizontal arms are carried over the inside bead, 
which stops against them. The top of the upper limb is missing ; 
at any rate, its absence is remarkable, since there seems no particular 
reason for its omission or removal afterwards. 







' Deanery of Trigg Minor., vol. ii. p. 400. 

"^ A cross-head having a similar cross upon it is preserved in the Adel Museum, near 
Leeds. 



1 66 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



Holloway Cross, Lewannick 

Lewannick, in the Deanery of Trigg Major, is five miles south- 
west of Launceston. 

Holloway Cross is situated at the junction of three roads, about 
a mile and a half north of Lewannick churchtown, on the Launceston 
road. 

This interesting example stands in a cottage-garden at the fork 
of the roads above mentioned, and is now in a similar position 
to that occupied by the Waterlake cross, St. 
Winnow. 

It is said to have been found in the hedge 
nearly opposite to its present site, where it was 
removed for safety many years ago by, I believe, 
the late Colonel Archer, of Trelaske. 

The projections usually at the neck are here 
kept rather below it, and are larger than those 
generally found, and the bead on the angles of 
the shaft is stopped beneath them. 

Dimensions. — Height, 3 ft. 7 in. ; width of 
head, i ft. 10 in. ; width of shaft, 15^ in. ; thick- 
ness : at the bottom \o\ in., at the neck 9^ in., at the top 6 in. 

On both the front and back is a very peculiar cross in relief. The 
upper portions are upon the rounded head of the stone, and in each 
case have an inclination to the right, and consist of an equal-limbed 
cross with concave and widely expanded limbs, the outer sides of 
all, except those at the bottom, being concentric with the outline of 
the head. From the square end of the lower limb the cross- 
shaft is carried to the bottom of the stone, and, being narrower than 
the extremity of the limb above, leaves a projecting shoulder on 
either side. 




UNORNAMENTED CROSSES 167 

With a Boss or Bosses 

There are three examples of this type, which will be found at 
the following places : — 

Boconnoc, No. 2 . . . On Druids' Hill. 

Gwythian . . . .In churchyard. 

Lanteglos-by-Camelford, No 3. In rectory garden. 

Boconnoc, No. 2. On Druids' Hill 

Boconnoc, in the West Deanery, is situated seven miles north of 
Fowey and three miles north-east of Lostwithiel railway-station. 

Druids' Hill is situated about one mile north-east of Boconnoc 
church. 

The original portion ^ of this cross was removed from Lanlivery 
in 1846, and erected on a modern shaft and massive pedestal raised 
on three steps. It is known in the neighbourhood as 'The Monu- 
ment.' On the pedestal is the following inscription : — 

ON THIS HILL 

ONCE THE SITE OF DRUtD IDOLATRY 

AND IN LATER TIMES 

THE SCENE OF CIVIL BLOODSHED 

THIS ANCIENT SYMBOL 

OF THE HOLY RELIGION OF THE REDEEMER 

IS ERECTED 

IN GRATEFUL ACKNOWLEDGMENT 

OF THE BLESSINGS OF A PURE FAITH 

AND OF A PEACEFUL COUNTRY 

MDCCCXLVI 

Judging by the size of the head, this cross must originally have 
formed part of a very fine monolith. 

The head is outlined by a bead ; the inside line or incision form- 
ing it is carried completely round, and the projections are of a 
curious shape, being in this example kept rather above the neck, 
especially on the left side. 

1 The ancient part only of this monument has, for distinction, been hatched in the draw- 
ings, the modern portion being left in outline. The larger drawing of the ancient part is to 
the same scale as all the other crosses. The smaller-scale drawing is only given to show the 
whole monument, in which, however, by an oversight, the central boss has been omitted. 



i68 



OLD CORXISH CROSSES 



Di?Jiens2ons. — The total height of the monument is about i8ft. 
The ancient portion is 4 ft. 7 in. high. Width of head, 2 ft. 6 in. ; 
width of shaft, i ft. 6 in. 




The crosses on front and back are aHke, except that the 
former has a central boss and the latter a conical hole. The limbs 
are slightly expanded at the ends, and the two lower limbs, in each 



case, are much larger than those aibovc. 



Gwythian. In the Churchyard 

Gwythian, in the Deanery of Penwith, is situated three miles 
north-easl of llayle railway-staLi(;n. 



UNOR NA MEN TED CROS SES 



169 



The cross stands on the south side of the churchyard, and is said 
to be /;/ silu. 

It is in a very good state of preservation. 
The angles of the shaft are almost s(|uare, and 
the projections at the neck are very small. 

Dimensions. — Height, 4 ft. 8 in. ; width of 
head, i ft. j\ in. ; width of shaft, 12 in. ; thickness : 
at the bottom 10 in., at the neck 7! in., at the 
top 5 1 in. 

On both the front and back of the head, and 
extending to the bead on the edge, is an equal- 
limbed cross — a form most uncommon in 
Cornwall. 








Lanteglos-by-Camelford, No. 3. In the Rectory Garden 

Lanteglos-by-Camelford, in the Deanery of Trigg Minor, is situ- 
ated one and a half miles south-west of Camelford. 

For a long time this cross-head, with its remnant of shaft, ' crowned 
a little rocky island of a fishpond ' in this garden, but about the 
year 1877 it was fixed in its present incongru- 
ous position, on top of the Saxon inscribed 
stone which stands a few yards from the pond. 

The bead surrounding the head does not 
cut through the ends of the limbs, and is 
curiously curved inwards just above the neck 
projections. 

Dimensions. — Height, 2 ft. ; width of head, 2 ft. ; width of shaft, 
1 5 in. ; thickness, 6 in. 

On both the front and back of the head is an equal-limbed cross 
with expanded ends, having in the centre a small boss. Instead of 
the other four bosses being on the limbs, they are placed in the 
triangular recesses between the limbs and the bead, a remarkable 
departure from the usual custom. The only other instance in which 
the bosses are thus distributed is on the inscribed and ornameated 




I/O 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



cross at Trevena, Tintagel. It may be pointed out that where 
five bosses occur the crosses are ' four-holed.' 



SIMILAR TO THOSE LAST DESCRIBED, BUT WITH A RECT- 
ANGULAR PROJECTION ON TOP OF THE HEAD 

There is only one specimen of this type, which is a very interest- 
ing example, since it seems to form a connecting-link or transition 
between the last-described and following styles. 



'^^^'^^l 



New Park, St. Clether 

St. Clether, in the Deanery of Trigg Minor, is situated nine 
miles west of Launceston, and three miles south-west of Tresmeer 
railway-station. 

This cross-head now stands on the waste piece of ground at the 
bifurcation of the road at New Park, near Trevellian's Gate. I 

remember seeing it, some years ago, lying 
at the foot of Rough Tor. About the year 
1885 it was brought in from the moors 
and placed in its present position. No 
doubt this was originally a wayside cross, 
forming one of the guides or landmarks 
over the moors. 

A bold bead surrounds the head, and 
the projections at the neck are placed 
somewhat higher than is usual. The most 
remarkable feature is the single projection at the top. There are 
no remains whatever of any projections on the sides, the stone being 
smoothly worked at these places. 

Dimensions. — Height, 2 ft. 11 in. ; width of head, 2 ft. 7 in. ; 
width of shaft, i ft. 9 in. ; thickness, 10 in. 

Within the deep recess on both the front and back of the head 
is an equal-limbed cross having expanded ends and slightly splayed 
edges. 







UNORNAMENTED CROSSES 171 



WHEEL CROSSES WITH CRUCIAL PROJECTIONS 

The distinctive feature of this type of monument consists in the 
addition of three rectangular, or, as they may be called, ' crucial ' pro- 
jections extending beyond the rounded head of the ordinary wheel 
cross, viz. one on either side of and in a line with the horizontal 
limbs of the cross within, and a third at the top, 

A cross of this type, and probably of the same period, exists 
at Penmon, Anglesea ; while some of the West Highland crosses, 
of which, perhaps, Maclean's Cross, lona, and that at Kilchoman, 
Islay, are the finest examples, although similar in outline, have no 
crosses sculptured within the circle of the heads. These latter 
are evidently of a later date, as they are enriched on all sides with 
late foliated sculpture of probably the fourteenth or fifteenth 
century. 

It is remarkable that the four specimens which represent this type 
in Cornwall are all more or less different from each other, and are 
confined to two adjoining parishes, as follows : — 

Blisland .... St. Pratt's Well. 

,, .... Peverell's Cross. 

Cardynham, No. i . . In churchyard. 

,, ... Treslea Cross. 

St. Pratt's Well, Blisland 

Blisland, in the Deanery of Bodmin, is situated five miles north- 
east of Bodmin town. 

St. Pratt's Well stands about a quarter of a mile east of Blisland 
village, on the left-hand side of the road to Bodmin. 

' The cross formerly stood over the Holy Well of St. Prothus 
(Pratt), but having been wantonly thrown down about thirty years 
ago (c. 1840), was, for safety, sunk in the earth nearly to the neck a 
few yards from its original site. The total height was between 4 ft. 



1/2 



OLD CORXISH CROSSES 




.^^'. 



•'^-~- 




and 5 ft.' ^ The foregoing will probably account for the mutilated 

condition of the stone, which was no doubt damaged whilst in that 

,^::^, position. 

The crucial projection on the right side of the 

head is very much longer than the others. 

Diviensions. — Present height, 2 ft. o^ in. ; 

width of head, i ft. 11 in. ; width of shaft, 14 in. ; 

thickness, 8 in. 

Within the surrounding bead of the head, on 

both front and back, is an equal-Hmbed cross 

having expanded ends and a slight inclination in both cases to the 

right. 

Peverell's Cross, Blisland 

For locality of BHsland, see last. 

' Peverell's Cross, so called with reference, probably, to some 

member of the distinguished family of 
that name which for a long time was 
seated at Park, Egloshayle,' is situated"- on 
Trehudreth Down, near the intersection 
of the great road through the county and 
the ancient track between Warleggon and 
Blisland. It is believed to be in situ, and 
within a recent period, by the enclosure of 
the common, has been walled into the 
stone hedge. . . . From exposure in a 
very bleak situation ... it is very much 
abraded, and as it stood on the boundary 
separating the manors of Trehudreth and 
Barlandew, it was used as a landmark, and 
has been defaced by the letter G [for 
Gilbert] being cut on the Icnver limb of 
the cross.' "' 

' Sir Jolin Maclean, Deanery of Tr7i^^g Minor^ vol i. p. 25. 

-' J. T. lili^ht, in Ancient Crosses and Antiquities ofCormva//, p. 25, describes the locality 
of this cross as bcinj,' 'near J'oiinds Cause.' 

' Sir John Maclean, Deanery of Trigg Minor, vol. i. p. 25. 



UNORNA MEN TED CROS SES i ; 3 

Little need be added to the al3f)vc interesting account, except 
that the nioiuiment, as will be seen, differs considerably from others 
of this type, principally on account of the absence of a recess and a 
bead on the head, which was the cause of so much additional labour 
in the formation of a cross, as already pointed out on pp. 35, 36. 

Dimensions. — Height, 6 ft. ; width of head, 2 ft. 2 in. ; width of 
shaft, I5ln. ; thickness, 12 in. 

On the head is an equal-limbed cross with expanded ends. 
The back of the cross, being against the hedge, is not visible. 

Cardynham, No. i. In the Churchyard 

Cardynham, in the Deanery of Bodmin, is situated four miles 
north-east of Bodmin town. 

This cross now stands on the w^est side of the south porch, and, 
like the other cross in this churchyard, was also built into the 
east wall of the chancel. The particulars 
relating to its removal will be found in the ■"'JZ s^^ l: 

description of No. 2 cross in Cardynham •" i':i'pR%ft.'^^\-^ 

churchyard. ^f^lsil^i^iJ*^^ 

It is the best-preserved example of its \/^^^;^(ii'' 

type, and the projections are much longer %k^:^k--- ■''^,r.\ 

than those found on other examples. Judging mf^E^-- * -''^ 

from the absence of the shaft common to ^'^^^^^i^^^^^^^^^. 
all other crosses there can be little doubt 

that this is a gravestone, the place of the shaft being taken by 
a rectangular foot of the same thickness as, but much wider than, 
the head itself, and projecting two inches farther on one side than 
on the other. At the junction of the head with the lower portion 
are two curious little rounded props, as it were, worked on the stone 
and slightly recessed, which were evidently intended to strengthen 
the monument at its weakest part. 

Dimensions. — Heio^ht, 2 ft. 10 in. ; width of head, 2 ft. ; in. ; dia- 
meter of head, i ft. 10 in. ; width of shaft, 2 ft. ; thickness, 9 in. 

Within the deep recess on both the front and back of the head 
is an equal-limbed cross with expanded ends and splayed edges. 



1/4 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



Treslea Cross, Cardynham 

For locality of Cardynham, see last. 

Treslea, sometimes spelt Treslay, is a small village about half 
a mile east of Cardynham churchtown. 

This is a well-proportioned and effective monument, but is now 

rather mutilated, owing, no doubt, to its 
having at some period been used as a 
gatepost, evidence of which can be seen 
in the hole at the back for receiving one 
of the hooks to which the gate was hung, 
the chipped condition of the stone sur- 
rounding the hole being caused by the 
jarring. 

Dimensions. — Height, 5 ft. ; width of 
head, i ft. 10 in. ; diameter of head, i ft. 

7 in. ; width of shaft: at the neck 15 in., 
at the bottom i8in. ; thickness from the 
bottom to the neck, 9 in., and at the top, 

8 in. 

The principal difference between this and the other examples of 
this type is the manner in which the crosses on front and back are 
executed. The circular portion of the head is in relief as compared 
with the crucial projections, and has a narrow stem on the shaft, also 
in relief ; not, however, quite central, but placed rather to the 
left, and in both cases carried to the bottom of the stone, where it 
is rather wider than at the top. On the head arc four triangular 
sinkings, an inch deep, with curved sides. 







UNORNAMENTED CROSSES 175 



MISCELLANEOUS FORMS OF UNORNAMENTED CROSSES 

It will be seen that the three specimens contained in this division 
are wholly unlike any other crosses which are dealt with in Class A. 

They all possess certain architectural features which are absent 
in those already described, consisting either of projecting bands, 
bosses, or portions of beads. 

There are three unclassified examples, which will be found at the 
following places : — 

Blisland, No. i . .In village. 

Day, St. . . . . Tregullow, No. i. 

Gluvias, St. . . . Penryn. 

Blisland, No. i. In the Village 

Blisland, in the Deanery of Bodmin, is situated five miles north- 
east of Bodmin town. 

The cross stands on the village green, close to the junction of the 
roads from Tregenna and Tresarret, and is said to be iii sitti. 

This is a most curious little cross, its outline ^^^ 

being entirely different from that of any other in 
the county. It consists of a wedge-shaped stone 
wider at the top than at the bottom. The upper 
portion, or head, might be described as an oblong 
with sloping sides and an elliptical top, and 
within, on both front and back, is a deep recess. 

It is bordered by a bold bead, which projects 
before the face of the shaft. This bead is much 
wider at the top, and overhangs the sides, where 
it is terminated by a rounded edge. 

Dimensions. — Height, 3 ft. 6 in. ; width of shaft : at the bottom 
II in., at the top 13I in. 

In each recess is a cross, the upper and lower limbs being longer 
than the transverse ; but all are of equal width. 




1/6 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



Tregullow No. i, St. Day 

St. Day. or St. Dye, in the Deanery of Carnmarth, is a modern 
parish formed out of Gwennap. It is situated two miles east of 
Redruth, and about a mile and a half south-west of Scorrier Gate 
railway-station. 

Tregullow is the seat of Sir William R. Williams, Bart., and is 
situated between the railway and St. Day churchtown. 
The original site of this cross is not known. 

The head is much broken 
^/ii?.4& ,'1^^',*' Ar. at the top, and just beneath 

it, on either side of the 
chamfered shaft, are two 
little bosses. One boss is 
sometimes found in this 
position, but this is the only 
instance in which there are 
two. 

Perhaps the most notice- 
able feature is the wide 
projecting and chamfered 
band surrounding the shaft, 
near the bottom. Two other 
instances of a band occur, 
but not in the same position. 
At St. Dennis it is placed at the neck, and at St. Blazey, round the 
middle of the shaft. 

Dimensions. — Height, 5 ft. 9 in. ; width of head, i ft. S in. ; width 
of shaft, 15 in. ; thickness: at the bottom 12 in., and at the neck, 
10! in. 

Froiit. — On the front is a wide-limbed Latin cross, the bottom 
of its shaft resting on the projecting band just mentioned. 

Back. — On the back is a Latin cross in high relief with expanded 
limbs, the shaft of which is terminated about six inches below the neck. 




UNORNAMENTEI) CROSSES 177 



Penryn, St. Gluvias 



Penryn is a town and horouo-h sitUcitctl on an arm of Falmoutli 
harbour. It is in the Deanery of Carnmarth, and inckidtts parts of 
other parishes besides St. Gluvias, in which the cross stands. Penryn 
railway-station is two miles north-west of Falmouth, on the branch 
line from that place to Truro. 

Inquiries have failed to elicit any information as to where this 
little cross-head originally came from. For many years it could be 
seen built into the old fish-market at Penryn, which has 
recently been pulled down. It was then in the middle ,;^'!<',J^*i 
of the low wall which supported the slate stall on which ^' '•^|1 
the fish were placed. Mr. John D. Enys, of Enys, isii^^,*,^^ 
Penryn, has supplied me with particulars relating to the 
steps which have been taken for its future preservation. He says : 
' The corporation having taken down the fish-market, the cross which 
was built into it was removed. I came forward and offered to orive a 
pedestal, and to erect the cross in a safe place. The corporation 
accepted this offer, and in April [1895], ^^e granite pedestal having 
been provided, the cross was mounted upon it and placed near the 
east end of the Town Hall, on the north side of the portico, where 
it shows down the street and is out of the way of traffic' 

What little remains of this cross is a portion of the head, which 
has a semicircular top and upright sides ; but it is quite impossible to 
give any idea of its original form or purpose. Across the lower 
portion is a wide projecting bead, a feature not found on any other 
stone. 

Dimensions. — Height, 1 ft. 4 in. ; width. 12^ in. ; thickness, about 
6 in. 

On the front is a cross with expanded limbs, but there is nothing- 
worked at the back. 



178 



OLD CORXISII CROSSES 



HOLED CROSSES 

By Holed Crosses is meant those which have holes pierced 
through the stone between the arms on the head, instead of the 
cross being brought into relief by mere sinkings. The number of 
holes varies in the different instances, being either two, three, or four. 
With the exception, however, of the crosses at Egloshayle and 
Perranzabuloe, which both have three holes, and the cross at Phillack 
(No. 6), which has only two holes, all have four holes, and are locally 
called ' Four-hole Crosses.' 

There are altogether twenty-seven examples ; and, following the 
method previously adopted, the holed crosses will be divided into 
those without ornament and those with ornament. 

The following is a complete list of all the holed cro^.ses in 
Cornwall. Those without ornament will be described here, but 
those with ornament are included in ' Class B,' which deals with the 
' Ornamented Crosses.' 



UNOR^'AMENTED HcLEI) CrOSSES 

Geographical Distribution 



BiDjan, St., No. 2. 

In churchyard. 
EglosJiaylc. 

' Three-hole Cros.s.' 

I'cncarrow. 
/:/■///, S/., No. 2. 

In churcli} ard. 
LiViliydrock. 

Trcffry Cro.s.s. 
iMivhilto?!. 

Trcnifflc. 
Lewanniik. 

Trclaskc. 



MicJiaelstoiv. 

In churchyard. 
Pad stow, No. I. 

In old vicarage garden 
Paul, St., No. 2. 

On churchyard wall. 
Perran::ahHloe. 

Perran Sands 
Tudy, St. 

Trcvcnning Cro.s.s. 
Wend ran, St. 

In churchyard. 



[ 'NORN A MEN TED CR OSSES 



K'J 



Oknamknted Holkj) Crosses 
Geograph ica I D islribittio n 



Bodmin. 

Carminimw. 
Br cage, St. 

In church)'ard. 
B reward, St. 

In cemetery. 
Cardjnhajn, No. 2. 

In churchyard. 
Colli in b Major, St. 

In churchyard. 
LanJiydrock. 

In churchyard. 
Lanivet, No. 2. 

In churchyard. 



Mawgaii-in-Pydcr. 

Lanhcrnc. 
Minver, St. 

In St. Michael's churchyard. 
Neot, St. 

' Four-hole Cross.' 
Padstoiv. 

Prideau.x Place. 
Phillack, No. 6. 

In churchyard. 
QuetJiiock. 

In churchyard. 
Tenth, St. 

In cemetery. 



THREE-HOLED CROSSES 

This class of monument is represented by two examples, which, 
so far as I have been able to ascertain, are the only specimens at 
present known to exist in Great Britain ; they are, therefore, of addi- 
tional interest as being peculiar to Cornwall. 

In- outline they are similar to ' Wheel Crosses with Projections at 
the Neck,' a type which has already been described on p. 155. On 
the head is a central boss, around which, and equidistant from it, are 
three pierced holes, one on either side and one above, each being tri- 
angular in outline, and having concave sides and rounded angles. 
Below the boss is a sinking of the same shape as the holes, and it is 
difficult to .suggest any explanation why this sinking was not pierced 
similarly to the three holes above. 

An examination of the drawings will show that the three holes 
and the sinking are placed differently to those corresponding on a 
four-holed cross ; the result of this arrangement is the formation of a 
diagonal cross with expanded limbs, instead of one of the usual kind. 

^■ 2 



i8o 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



It is, however, difficult in these cases to determine whether the holes 

or the spaces between them are intended to represent the cross. 

The two examples of this type will be found at the following 

})laces : — 

Egloshayle . . ' Three-hole Cross.' 

Perranzabuloe . . Perran Sands. 



'r< 



^% 



r^ 






' Three-hole Cross,' ' Egloshayle 

Egloshayle, in the Deanery of Bodmin, is situated half a mile 
south-east of Wadebridge, on the north side of the river Camel, and 
is six and a half miles north-west of Bodmin. 

The ' Three-hole Cross ' stands on the high- 
road from Wadebridge to Camelford, about two 
miles north-west of the former place and a mile and 
a half north of Egloshayle, at the intersection of 
the ancient road from Kilbury Castle. 

In the year 1871 it was thrown down and 
broken, but has since, by the care of Mr. Edward 
Pollard, been re-erected, as nearly as possible on 
its old site, immediately opposite the ' Three-hole 
Cross ' turnpike-gate, which takes its name from 
this stone. 

Dimensions. — The total length of the stone is 

7 ft. 4 in., but as it now stands against the hedge 

it is 5 ft. 5 in. above the ground. Width of 

; width of shaft, t 2 | in. ; thickness, 9 in. 

It is a most quaint and irregularly executed monument, and the 

surface of the stone is rounded. The sinking in this instance is not 

immediately beneath the boss, but to the left side of it. 




Perran Sands, Perranzabuloe 

Perranzabuloe, or Si. Piran in-the-Sands, in the Deanery of 
I'owder, is situated seven miles north-west of Truro. 



' In some old maps it is railed ' Tlirct-liolcs Cross,' which was, no (If)ubt, its early name. 



UNORNAMENTED CROSSES 



i8i 



This splendid monolith stands in its base, in silu, amongst the 
towans, or small sandhills, near the coast, and not far from the ruins 
of St. Piran's Chapel. 




Di?Uinsions. — Height, 8 ft. lo in. ; width of head, 2 ft. ; width of 
shaft : at the neck i ft. 2 in., at the bottom i ft. 9 in. ; thickness at the 
bottom. 18 in., tapering to 7 in. at the top ; width of base, 4 ft. i in. 

Owing to the exposed position of the stone and the coarse and 
perishable nature of the granite used, the decoration which appears 



1 82 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 

to have originally existed upon it is now obliterated.^ Even a careful 
rubbing has failed to disclose anything further than some faint indi- 
cations suggestive of interlaced work ; but they are all too much 
worn to identify, while only slight traces of the beads on the angles 
and those dividing the panels on the shaft remain in one or two 
places. Under these conditions it was thought best to classify this 
cross with that at Egloshayle, since they so much resemble each 
other. 

FOUR-HOLED CROSSES 

In monuments of this type the expanded limbs of the cross are 
connected by a ring, which is slightly recessed from the face of the 
cross, and is kept within the extremities of the limbs. The four 
holes characterising this kind are pierced within the triangular spaces 
left between the expanded limbs of the cross and the inside line of 
the ring. These holes, however, do not always correspond in size 
or shape to the triangular spaces surrounding them, being in most 
cases circular. As a rule the sides of the spaces are first splayed 
inwards for a short distance from front and back, and the remaining 
portion is pierced through. 

The lower limb of the cross, in all cases, is larger than the others. 

FouR-iiOLED Crosses having no Beads on the Head 

There are two examples of this type, which will be found at the 
following places : — 

Lanhydrock . . Treffry Cross. 

Tudy, St. . . . Trevenning Cross. 

' It has been suggested that the defacement may in a great measure be due to the action 
of sand driven by the wind. This is by no means improbable, as the cross has been covered 
on more than one occasion by the sand. 



U NORN AMR N run CROSSILS 1S3 



Treffry Cross,' Lanhydrock 




Lanhydrock, in the Deanery of Bodmin, is situated two miles 
south of the town of Bodmin, and one mile and a half west of Bodmin 
Road railway-station. 

This fragment lies at the foot of a hedge near the north angle of 
the four cross-roads at Treffry turnpike-gate, and close to the western 
entrance to Lanhydrock Park. 

It was brought to light through the instrumentality of the Rev. 
W. lago, of Bodmin, who informed me that many years ago he 
remembered having seen part of a .,./'^^-<^:>., 

four-holed cross built into a hedgfe / ■'^'^^'r^c ■ '-#-;«^ 

at the spot above mentioned. .» # Tfi-'-^ wr§. 

This beinsf the only four-holed '■} ^J^^H^^^l^"--^''^'^ 

cross of which I had not secured a 
drawing, Mr. lago readily volunteered 
to assist me in having it unearthed. He accordingly applied to Lord 
Robartes — on whose property the cross stands — for permission to 
search for it. His Lordship at once consented, and also sent a man 
to perform the necessary digging. Mr. lago superintended the 
work, and, having pointed out the exact spot in the hedge, the cross 
was found almost immediately. 

The result, however, was somewhat disappointing, as the monu- 
ment proved to be but a small and mutilated fragment of what was 
once a very large cross. It now consists of a little more than half 
of the upper portion of the head. There was no ornament of any 
kind, but some markings — or fractures — at the sides have the appear- 
ance of beads. 

Dimensions. — Height of the fragment, i ft. Sin. ; width, 2 ft. Sin.; 
thickness : at the bottom 9 in., at the top 7 in. 

' Since the above was written Lord Robartes has had the cross-head completed, under 
Mr. lago's supervision, by the addition of the missing lower portion, and it is now mounted 
on a tall granite shaft erected in an elevated portion of Lanhydrock Park. 



1 84 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



Trevenning Cross, St. Tudy 

St. Tudy, in the. Deanery of Bodmin, is situated seven miles 
north of Bodmin town and two and a half miles north-east of St. 
Kew Highway railway-station. 

The cross stands by the roadside, about one and a half miles 
north-east of St. Tudy churchtown, on the left-hand side of the 
highway from Bodmin to St. Teath, and opposite the junction of 
the road to Camel ford. 

To Mr, J. R. Collins, of Bodmin, the preservation of this ancient 
relic is due. It was, I believe, found in the hedge immediately 

.., ., behind its present position. Mr. Collins informs me 

;^&-U'v^3^^ that some years ago he obtained an old granite base 




,v:j^„^v^\ -.^;:j from a spot situated about half a mile north of a 
place called Tregawn Gate, in the parish of Michael- 
stow, and had the cross fixed into it for security. 
Before the base ^ was provided the cross was merely 
sunk in the ground, and was constantly being pushed 
over. 

It is very much injured ; the top of the head has been knocked 
off, and since this drawing was made the cross has been wilfully 
thrown down, with the result that a large piece has been broken out 
of the left side, now leaving only one of the holes entire. This is 
still more unfortunate as it was a much more carefully executed 
example than many others. The four holes were circular — a rather 
uncommon feature — while what remains of the ring shows that it 
was only very slightly recessed. 

Dimensions. — Height, 2 ft. 6 in. ; width of head, 1 ft. 1 i in. ; 
width of shaft, 13 in. ; thickness, 6 in. 

The crosses on front and back are alike, each having slightly 
expanded limbs, which i)roject about an inch beyond tlie ring. 

' The base wab added after this drawing was made. 



U NORN A MEN TED CR OSSES 



185 



FouR-noLEU Cross wnii Bkads on tiik Head and Projections 

AT THE Neck 

The following is the only instance of this type : — 




Trelaske, Lewannick 

Lewcinnick, in the Deanery of Trigg Major, is situated five miles 
south-west of Launceston. 

Trelaske is the residence of Charles Archer, Esq., J. P., who 
was, however, unable to give me any information regarding the 
previous history of the cross, beyond the fact 
that it had been in the grounds for many years. 

The cross-head stands on the south side of the 
house, and was probably at one time a very fine 
specimen. The head is double beaded, and, with 
its projections at the neck, is all that now remains ■•"•iSit' 
of the monument. This and the Carminnow 
Cross are the only four-holed crosses which have projections at the 
neck. 

The spaces between the limbs and ring are deeply splayed, and 
then pierced, the holes being irregularly shaped. 

Dimensions. — Height, i ft. 11^ in, ; width of head, 2 ft. 

The cross is alike on front and back. Within the surrounding 
beads is an equal-limbed cross with expanded ends and central 
boss. 

Four-holed Crosses with an Abacus 

There are only two crosses of this type, which are apparently of 
a later date than others of the four-holed class. 

The distinguishing feature is the abacus, or greatly projecting 
bead surrounding the neck, a variety not found out of this county. 
Moreover, the four holes in the head are very large, and occupy 
the whole of the space between the ring and the equal-limbed 
cross within, a peculiarity which is confined to these two crosses. 



1 86 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



It may here be pointed out how often it is the case that crosses 
with pecuhar characteristics are Hmited to certain localities. In this 
instance the crosses are within twelve miles of each other. 

The two examples of this type will be found at the following 
places : — 

Lawhitton . . . Treniffle. 

Michaelstow . . .In churchyard. 



Treniffle, Lawhitton 

Lawhitton, in the Deanery of Trigg Major, is situated two and 
a half miles south-east of Launceston. 

Treniffle is three-quarters of a mile north of Lawhitton church. 

This cross was formerly built into the 
wall of an old barn at Tregada Farm. 
About the year 1883, when this barn was 
pulled down, the cross was purchased by 
the late Mrs. Morshead for ten shillings, 
and placed for preservation in her garden 
at Treniffle, where it now stands. 

Dimensions. — Height, 2 ft. ; width of 
head, 1 ft. 7 in. ; width of shaft below 
abacus, 13^ in. ; thickness of head, ']\ in. 
The only difference between this and the other example, at 
Michaelstow, is that it has a central boss, and the head is somewhat 




pointed at the top. 



Michaelstow. In the Churchyard 



Michaelstow, in tlie Deanery of Trigg Minor, is situated nine 
miles north of Bodniin and three miles east of Port Isaac Road 
railway-station. 

This tall monument now stands on a modern basc! neiu" the south- 
west angle of the churchyard. 



UNORNAMENTED CROSSES 



187 



Its original site is not kncjwn, but for many years the shaft, with 
a small portion of the head at- 
tached, formed the lowest of a 
flight of steps ^ leading from the 
village green up to the western 
entrance of the churchyard. 
When it was removed, in the 
autumn of 1883, prior to being 
re-erected, a part of the head 
was found close by, and the 
remainder of the missing por- 
tion has been very well re- 
stored. 

The angles of the shaft 
are beaded, and its other cha- 
racteristics will be found in 
the preceding remarks on 
crosses of this type on pages 
185-6. 

Dimensions. — Height, 1 1 ft. 
3 in. ; width of head, 2 ft. 2^ in. ; 
width of shaft : below the 
abacus 14 in., at the bottom 
1 7 in. ; thickness : at the bot- 
tom I ft. 2^ in., at the top 
6 in. 

The only difference between 
this and the other example is 
that, in addition to being much 
higher, it is without a central ^ 
boss and has a circular head. 




Sir John Maclean, Deanery of Ti-igg Minor ^ vol. ii. p. 558. 



1 88 OLD CORXISH CROSSES 



FouR-noLED Cross having Five Bosses on both Front 
AND Back of the Head^ 

The following is the only instance of this type: — 



St. Wendron, No. i. In the Churchyard 

St. Wendron, or St. Gwendron, in the Deanery of Kerrier, is 
situated two and a half miles north of Helston. 

The cross now stands by the hedge opposite to the eastern end 
of the church, but a proposal is on foot to erect it on a base by the 
south porch. 

I am indebted to the late Mr. S. J. Wills, of St. Wendron, for 
the following particulars relating to the discovery of this cross : — 

' There was at one time a stile at the north-east en- 
trance to the churchyard, the path from which joined 
that on the east side of the church at a point nearly 
opposite to the north-east angle of the chancel. By 
an Order of Council about thirty years ago, and 
during the incumbency of the Rev. G. B. Boraston, 
some parts of the churchyard were levelled. While 
this work was in progress the cross was discovered, 
buried beneath the surface, near the south angle of the junction 
formed by the two paths already mentioned.' 

The damage to this stone appears to be more the result of 
deliberate mischief than that which might have been caused by time 
or weather. A piece has been broken off one side, with the result that 
one of the bosses on the front and one on the back have been removed, 
and those on the back are much chipped. 

The four holes are circular — an unusual feature — and the bosses 
have a very bold projection. Instead of having a tenon worked at 
the bottom of the shaft, a socket five inches deep is sunk in it. 

' The cross at Lantcglos-by-Camelfoid, No. 3, as well as tlic Carminnow Cross, liave 
five bosses on the front and back, but the monuments arc not four-hokd. These, with the 
above, are the only examples which are thus treated. 




[/NO/^A'A MIL XT HI) CROSSES 1 89 

Ih'nici/sioJis. — Ileii^ht, 2 ft. jl in. ; width of shaft, 13.! in. ; thick- 
ness, 8 in. 

This is the only four-holed cross of this type which has, or 
rather had, five bosses on both front and back of the head. 

FouR-noLEiJ Crosses with the Figure of Our Lord on the 
Front and Five Bosses on the Back 

There are altogether five examples of this type ; those now under 
consideration will be found at the following places : — 

Buryan, St., No, 2 . . .In churchyartl. 

Erth, St., No. 2 . . .In churchyard. 

Paul, St., No. 2 . . . On churchyard wall. 

The remainino; two are ornamented crosses, viz. : — 

Mawgan-in-Pyder . . . Lanherne 

Phillack, No. 6 , . .In churchyard 

St. Buryan, No. 2. In the Churchyard 

St. Buryan, or Burian, in the Deanery of Penwith, is situated 
six miles south-west of Penzance. 

The monument stands on the south side of the church, near the 
porch, and is doubtless the churchyard cross. 

It consists of a fine four-holed head in a very good state of pre- 
servation, the shaft of which when entire was probablv much lonQ^er, 
since it is extremely unlikely that so large a base would hav^e been 
erected for so short a cross as that which now remains. The limbs 
of the cross and angles of the ring are beaded on all external faces, 
and the small portions between them are deeply splayed inwards, 
and then pierced by a small circular hole. 

The base on plan is almost square, and is built of large pieces of 
roughly wrought granite, forming a flight of five steps, which, owing 
to their unevenness, are in some places wedged up with small stones. 
In the top step is the mortice ; it is not central, but is sunk some fi\e 



I90 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 

inches to tlie southward ; and though formerly it received the tenon 
of the shaft, it is now just large enough to take the present remnant 
of the shaft itself 

Dwie7isions. — The total height of the monument is 7 ft. 5 in. ; 
height of the cross, 2 ft. 8 in. ; width of head, 2 tt. 2 in. ; width of 
shaft, 12 in. ; thickness: at the bottom 10 in., and at the top Sin. 
The lowest platform of the base is 14 ft. 6 in. x 14 ft. 3 in,, and the top 
one is about 3 ft. 8 in. square. Height of the stepped base, 4 ft. 9 in. 

The cross faces east and west. 

West Front. — The method of finishing the lower limb of the 
head is rather curious. Instead of carrying it round in the usual 
manner, as on the east front, its outline is sloped downwards and 
inwards from the external angles, in a similar manner to the cross on 
the churchyard wall at St. Paul, and is then taken horizontally across. 
By this treatment more depth is secured for the completion of the 
legs and feet of the figure, members which are so often curtailed for 
want of sufficient space. The bead on the outline of the cross is 
abruptly stopped at the bottom of the lower limb, and a second bead 
adjoining it is commenced below the arms of the figure, and carried 
completely round the lower portion. On the head is the figure of 
our Lord, represented with a nimbus; the only other instances of this 
occur on the crosses in the churchyards of Sancreed and St. Paul. 
The arms are very long, and are expanded at the ends, illustrating 
the sleeves of the tunic, the bottom of which is terminated above 
the knees ; and the much-exaggerated feet are turned outwards at 
right angles. 

East /^Vont. — The lower llml) of the cross is convex at the end. 
A double bead is carried right round the outline, and five bosses 
boldly project from the face in their usual positions. 

JVoT'th and South Sides. — The ends of the arms are beaded, and 
the ring has a bead on both edges. 

Note. — Mr. Byam Shaw has very kindly drawn the figures 
on the Plate of this cross for me. By their insertion an idea of 
the size of this monument is given. 



UNORNAMENTIiD CROSSES 



191 



St. Erth, No. 2. In the Churchyard 

St. Erth, in the Deanery of Penvvith, is situated two miles south 
of Hayle, and about one mile south-east of St. Erth railway-station. 

The cross-head is mounted on a deep and rounded base, and stands 
on the south side of the churchyard, by the right-hand side of a 
short flight of steps leading from the lower to the higher part of the 
churchyard.^ I have been unable to ascertain any particulars re- 
garding its previous history,' beyond the fact of its having been 
where it is now for a great number of years. This may once have 











30. 



been the churchyard cross, but all that now remains is the four-holed 
head, with about three inches of the shaft, and perhaps the base. It 
has suffered very considerably from the ravages of time, as well as 
from mutilation. No remains of the usual beads on the head now 
exist, and the sides are quite plain. It is, in fact, one of the most 
abraded monuments in Cornwall. 

' This churchyard, b}- the way, is most beautifully kept, and has more the appearance of 
a well-ordered garden, possessing as it does an abundance of flowers and shrubs— a pleasure 
to behold, and reflecting the greatest credit upon the responsible authorities. 

-' The old lady who looks after the church was good enough to inform me that the monu- 
ment was a ' Grick cross, cum from (Jrick.' Someone, I suppose, had told her that it was a 
Greek cross, so she was able to locate it- on her own account. 



192 



OLD C ORNISH CROSSES 



Divicnsions. — Height. 2 ft. 3 in. ; width of head, 2 ft. 4 in. ; width 
of shaft, 15 in. ; thickness, gin. 

Front. — On the head is an extraordinary representation of the 
upper portion of our Lord's figure, extending to about the waist. 
From the manner in which it is stopped, and from the fact that the 
extreme outHne of the lower hmb of the cross is distinctly shown, 
it is evident that an entire representation of the figure was not 
contemplated. The neck is remarkable for its length and thickness ; 
both arms are slightly raised, and expanded at the ends, suggesting 
the sleeves of the tunic. 

Back. — On the head are five bosses, which project about half 
their diameter ; they are all arranged at different distances from each 
other, and of the upper one very little remains. 

St. Paul, No. 2. On the Churchyard Wall 

St. Paul, or Paul as it is now called, is in the Deanery of Penwith, 
and is situated two and a half miles south of Penzance. 

This cross-head is now cemented on to the top of a large piece 
of granite which forms a portion of the boundary-wall between the 
churchvard and the road. 





>^-^ 






All that now n;inaiiis of this monument is a fmc; fourholcxl head. 
It is a most curi(;us example, and possesses the following remarkable 
f{!atures, to which attention should be called : (i) Vhc unusual width 
of the limbs, which reduces the intervening spaces to such an extent 
that x'cry little room is left loi" ilie connecting-ring; (2) the lour 



UNORNAMENTED CROSSES I93 

holes of the head are smaller than will be found on any other monu- 
ment of this class ; and (3) the manner in which the beads are worked 
on the lower limb of the cross on the front. 

Dimensions. — Height, 2 ft. 3 in. ; width, i ft. iij in. ; thickness, 
7 in. 

Front. — The lower limb of the cross on the head, instead of 
having a segmental termination like the others, and like the corre- 
sponding one on the back, is here brought down almost to a point from 
the angles at its extreme width, the legs of the figure filling the inter- 
vening space between the beads on the edge. A single bead is 
carried round the outline of the upper portion of the head, and stops 
abruptly at the bottom of the horizontal limbs. The bead which 
completes the outline of the lower portion starts from beneath the 
arms of the figure, and inside the one just described, so that on this 
portion the beading is double. The figure consists of a rude repre- 
sentation of the Saviour. The head is very large, and has some 
remains of the features. Like the examples in the churchyards of 
St. Buryan and Sancreed, the head is surrounded by a nimbus. 
Both arms are slightly raised ; the legs are short, and there are no 
feet. 

Back. — The limbs of the cross are double-beaded, and five boldly 
projecting bosses appear in their usual positions. That in the centre 
has indications of an encircling bead at its base, and from that on 
the right arm a large piece has been broken off 



Four-holed Crosses with Cusps in the Openings 

Crosses thus enriched differ from others of the four-holed class 
in having the additional architectural feature of three cusps, if they 
may be so called, in each of the four holes in the cross-head, present- 
ing the appearance of trefoils. These cusps are formed by rounded 
rolls or beads, running from front to back of the stone, and projecting, 
one from either limb, and one from the ring. In no cases are the 
cusps ever pointed like those in Gothic architecture, although they 
are often erroneously so shown in illustrating the Cornish examples. 

o 



194 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 

This treatment of the holes is another peculiarity confined to 
Cornwall, On some of the Irish crosses, as at Monasterboice, a 
single rounded projection is found on the inside of the ring, but 
those on the limbs themselves are always omitted. 

There are altogether six examples of this type. Those now under 
consideration \n\\\ be found at the following places : — 

Egloshayle . . . Pencarrow. 

Padstow, No. I . . . In old vicarage garden. 

The remaining four are ornamented crosses, viz. : — 

Breward, St. . . .In cemetery. 

Columb Major, St., No. i . In churchyard. 

Padstow, No. 3 . . . Prideaux Place. 

Quethiock . . .In churchyard. 

Pencarrow, Egloshayle 

Egloshayle, in the Deanery of Bodmin, is situated on the north 
side of the river Camel. It is six and a half miles north-west of 
Bodmin, and about half a mile south-east of Wadebridge railway- 
station. 

Pencarrow, lately the residence of Lady Molesworth, is situated 
about two miles east of Egloshayle and about four miles north-west 
of Bodmin. 

This cross, which is the largest specimen of its type, is mounted 
on a large block of rough granite, and stands at the fork of two paths 
in a rockery near the house. 

Mr. Richard Oliver, of Trescowe, Bodmin, has kindly supplied 
me with the following particulars relating to its discovery. Writing 
in February 1890, he says : — 

' About twenty years ago a labourer was repairing a fence adjoin- 
ing one of the fields in my occupation which was formerly a part of 
the Pencarrow Deer-park, when I noticed a piece of granite in the 
centre of the hedge, and told the man to dig farther, and sec what it 
was. We soon found it was a cross, and I had it taken out. By 



UNORNAMENTED CROSSES 



195 



request of the late Lady Molesworth it was afterwards removed to the 
grounds of Pencarrow and set up on a large rock. Unfortunately, we 
have not been able to find the shaft of the cross. It is supposed that 




originally the cross was placed to mark the boundary of a laro-e 
manor, formerly held by the Peverells, of which Pencarrow was a 
part, and I believe there are other Peverell crosses in the district. 
The hedge in which the cross was found is a very high and wide one, 

o 2 



196 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 

built with stone and earth in the old Cornish style, to keep in the 
deer.' 

Dimensions. — Height, 3 ft. 5 in. ; width of head, 2 ft. io\ in. ; dia- 
meter of ring, 2 ft. 7 in. ; thickness at the bottom, gin., tapering to 
6 in. at the top. 

The cross has a bead on the edge of the head, and the ring is left 
square at the angles. On both the front and back is a large central 
boss ; that on the latter is encircled by a bead at its base. 

Padstow, No. I. In the Old Vicarage Garden 

Padstow, anciently Petrocstow, in the Deanery of Pyder, is 
situated eleven ^ miles north-west of Bodmin, and eight miles north- 
west of Wadebridge railway-station. 

The garden in which the cross stands adjoins the eastern 
boundary of the churchyard, and occupies the site of the old vicar- 
age. It is now rented by Dr. Marley, 
through whom I am able to give the follow- 
ing particulars regarding the cross. Writing 
-miL-^£- '^^ February 1888, he says: — 'The Rev. 
Richard Tyacke has been vicar of Padstow 
for fifty-one years, and having made in- 
quiries about the cross, he told me it was 
there when he came, and imagines that Mr. 
Rawlings, the former vicar, had it placed 
where it now is for preservation. It w^as supposed to have been 
taken from the churchyard.' 

Another old inhabitant to whom I applied said that he was just 
able to remember the old vicarage, and corroborates the above 
statements. 

The cross is built into the boundary-wall ^ on the south side of the 
garden, about three feet from the ground, so that the front only is 
visible. It was evidently used as a mere building-stone in the con- 

' This distance is as the crow flics ; local directories state it to be sixteen miles. 
'■* In this wall there are also two little Gothic gable crosses, both of which, as far as I can 
recollect, are on the north side of that now being described. 




UNORNAMENTED CROSSES 197 

structlon of this wall, since the four holes are filled up with small 
stones, bits of brick, and mortar. 

It is made of grey el van, ^ and is the smallest four-holed cross in 
Cornwall. The shaft, of which only some three inches remain, has 
part of a bead on the right edge, but all that on the left has been 
broken off. 

Dimensions. — Height, i ft. 11 in. ; width across the arms, i ft. 
8^ in. ; diameter of ring, i ft. 7 in. ; thickness (ascertained by the 
removal of an adjoining stone), 10 in. 

On the exposed face is a central boss, with an encircling bead at 
its base. The limbs of the cross are outlined by a bead, and adjoin- 
ing the portions at each end is a double-beaded concentric arc, similar 
to, and a continuation of, those on the four quadrants of the ring, 
which in this instance is circular. 

Although there is now no ornament distinguishable on the exposed 
face, it is not unlikely that when the cross is taken out of the wall 
the back may prove to be ornamented with interlaced knots on the 
arms, similar to so many others of this type. The careful manner in 
which the cross has been executed, and the elaborate beadwork 
upon it, have suggested this theory. 



LATIN CROSSES 



Latin crosses are more numerous in Cornwall than in any other 
part of Great Britain. A few are to be met with in the west of 
Ireland, and a few also in Scotland, but, as a rule, their occurrence 
elsewhere is rare. 

With regard to the Cornish examples, it is Interesting to follow 
their gradual development from the plain, and probably earliest, form 
to the later and elaborate Gothic styles. 

Of course it is very difficult to say where one style ends and the 
other begins, or, in other words, to determine which are Gothic and 

' See p. 15. 



198 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 

which are not. The reason, therefore, for giving certain specimens 
of the later types at the end of this section is merely to illustrate 
this gradual change of style ; it should, however, be mentioned 
that all the Latin crosses known to me in Cornwall, except those 
with incised crosses ^ or ornament, are included in the subjoined list, 
with the omission of several very small examples which are in all 
likelihood only gable crosses. 

The chief characteristics of the plain Latin crosses are : — (i) In 
most instances the upper limbs are slightly tapered towards their 
extremities ; (2) in some the horizontal arms are tilted upwards, and 
(3) in others they are narrower than the upper one — peculiarities 
which, I believe, are confined to Cornwall. As soon as any de- 
parture from this type takes place the tendency towards Gothic is 
apparent. The first innovation seems to be the chamfered^ angle, 
which was gradually increased in width until the section of the stone 
became octagonal. In the next stage the octagonal limbs were 
slightly expanded at the ends. Then apparently followed, first, 
the addition of cusps between the limbs, as at Tresallan, St. 
Merry n ; and afterwards a still more ornate treatment, as on the 
cross in Lamorran churchyard. Thus, step by step they evolved, 
until the elaborate Gothic lantern crosses were reached, ^ with their 
cut bases and tapering, octagonal shafts, crowned by a canopied head 
having its four sides filled with sculptured figures. 

Some of the simpler Gothic crosses of Latin shape have a hollow 
mouldino- on the angles instead of a chamfer, instances of which will 
be found on a cross in Mousehole Lane, and on one recently found 
at Kerris, both places being in the parish of St. Paul. 

The Latin crosses of obviously early form will first be described ; 
the other examples follow, for the reasons already given. But the 
object of the present work only requires that the Latin crosses 
should be dealt with as far as the last example (at Cross Park, Blisland) 
which has chamfered and expanded limbs. 

' See p. 251. 

" Attention has already been called to the occurrence of a chamfer on the shafts of some 
of the wheel crosses previously described. 

■' See Hit of Gothic Crosses at end of Class C. 



UNORNAMENTED CROSSES 



199 



Geographical Distribution 



Altarnon. 

Near St. Vincent's Mine. 
Blisland. 

Lavethan, No. i. 

Cross Park. 
Buryan, St. 

Chyoonc Cross. 
Cardynhain. 

Pinchla. 
Cleer, St. 

St. Clecr's Well. 
Coluinb Major, St. 

Black Cross. 
Davidstow. 

Lambrenny. 
Germans, St. 

Carracawn. 
GodolpJiin. 

Spernon Cross. 
Keyne, St. 

In churchyard. 
Lelant. 

Lelant Lane. 
Ludgvan, No. 2. 

In churchyard. 



Madron. 

Tremathick or Trereifife Cross. 
Mawgan-in-Pyder. 

Mavvgan Cross. 
Minver, St. 

In churchyard. 
Neot, St., No. I. 

In vicarage garden. 
Newlyn (^Penzance). 

Near church. 

Paul, St. 

Carlankan. 

Hahvyn. 

Paul Down. 
Pinnock, St. 

Bosent Cross. 
Sheviocke. 

Crafthole. 

At four cross-roads. 
Stephen' s-by-SaltasJi, St. 

Trematon. 
Temple, No. i. 

In churchyard. 
Tresmeer. 

In churchyard. 



Plain Latin Crosses 

There are ten examples of this type, which will be found at the 
following places : — ■ 

Altarnon .... Near St. Vincent's Mine. 

Cardynham . . . Pinchla. 

Germans, St. . . ^ Carracawn. 

Minver, St. . . • In churchyard. 

Neot, St., No. I . . In vicarage garden. 



200 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



Paul, St. 



Sheviocke . 
Temple, No. i 



Carlankan. 

Halwyn. 

Paul Down. 

Crafthole. 

In churchyard. 



Altarnon. Near St. Vincent's Mine 

Altarnon, in the Deanery of Trigg Major, is situated eight miles 
south-west of Launceston, and five miles south-west of Egloskerry 
railway-station. 

The cross stands on top of a hedge about a 
mile and a half from Five Lanes, on the left- 
hand side of the road to Bodmin, nearly opposite 
?%^ to St. Vincent's Mine. 

It is of the usual Cornish form ; the hori- 
zontal limbs slope upwards, and the upper one is 
tapered. 

Dimensions. — Height, 2 ft. 4 in. ; width,' i ft. 
II in. ; width of shaft, 12^ in. ; thickness, gin. 










t%^ 






"h^ 



Pinchla, Cardynham 

Cardynham, in the Deanery of Bodmin, is situated four miles 
north-east of Bodmin town. 

Pinchla Park is one and a half miles south-west of Cardynham 
churchtown. It was formerly a deer-park. 

All that now remains of this cross stands in its base on the 
hedge by the left side of the Pinchla Lodge entrance. 

With the exception of some three inches the shaft is missing, as 
well as the u[)per limb. 

Dimensions. — Height, i ft. 4 in. ; width, 2 ft. 4 in. ; thickness, 5^ in. 



' In all Latin crosses the width is taken across the horizontal arms. 



UNORNAMENTED CROSSES 



20 1 



Carracawn, St. Germans 



St. Germans, In the East Deanery, is 
situated eight miles south-west of Saltash, 
and has a railway-station on the main line. 

The cross stands on a hedge near Carra- 
cawn turnpike-gate, about two and a half 
miles west of St. Germans. 

It is chiefly remarkable for the narrow- 
ness of its arms, and for being contracted 
at the neck. 

Dimensions. — Height, 4 ft. 6 in. ; width, 
2 ft. 7 in. ; thickness : at the bottom 9 in., at 
the top 5^ in. 




St. Minver. In the Churchyard 



mm 



St. Minver, in the Deanery of Bodmin, is situated ten miles 
north-west of Bodmin town, and four and a half ..,,^., 

miles north-west of Wadebridge railway-station. " 

The cross stands on the south side of the 
church. It was removed, some years ago, from 
Treglines Farm, situated about a mile and a half 
north-west of the churchtown. 

Dimensions. — Height, 3 ft. ; width, i ft. 7 in. ; 
thickness at the bottom, 6| in., and tapering 
slightly to the top. 




St. Neot, No. I. In the Vicarage Garden 



St. Neot, in the West Deanery, is situated six miles north-west 
of Liskeard and three miles north-west of Doublebois railway-station. 

There are three Latin crosses in this garden, all near each other, 
two of which will be described under ' Incised Work.' 



202 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 






The original site of this cross does not appear to be known, but 

one very similar to it formerly stood by 
the Crow's Pound,' on Gonzion Down, 
about three-quarters of a mile west of 
the churchtown, an illustration of which 
will be found in the Gentleman s Maga- 
zine and CatJiolic Miscellany, referred to 
on p. 30. It is not improbable that this 
is the same cross. 

It is a rather massive example, and 
the limbs are much wider than is usual. 

Dimensions. — Height, 3 ft. 4 in. ; width, 
2 ft. 5 in. 




Carlankan, St. Paul 

St. Paul, or Paul, in the Deanery of Pen- 
with, is situated two and a half miles south of 
Penzance. 

Carlankan estate adjoins that of Kerris, 
and is situated one and a half miles west of 
St. Paul. 

The cross lies on a waste piece of land at 
the bottom of the hill, on the left-hand side, 
before commencing the ascent towards Kerris." 

It is fractured across the shaft just beneath 
the horizontal limbs, and has in some way 

^ The legend accounting for the name given to an ancient 
earthwork situated on Gonzion Down, about a mile west of the 
churchtown, has been sent me by Mr. Charles Cawrse, of St. 
Neot. It appears that St. Neot had remonstrated with the 
farmers for their irregular attendance at church on Sundays. 
They excused themselves by stating that the crows committed 
such depredations on their corn-fields whenever they were 
absent that continual watching and driving them away was the 
only means of saving their crops. St. Neot was equal to the 

occasion, and directed his parishioners to attend church as usual, and to enable them to do 

so he impounded all the crows in the earthwork during the services. 

* Since the above was written the cross has been removed and fixed up in Kerris village. 




U NORN A MEN TED CR OSSES 



203 



become much chipped at the bottom. The shaft tapers more 
than usual, and its whole length seems to be greater than many 
others, except, perhaps, that on Paul Down. 

Dimensions — Length, 6 ft. 9 in. ; width, 2 ft. ; width of shaft : at 
the neck 11^ in., at the bottom i8in. ; thickness: at the bottom 
12 in., at the neck 8 in., at the top 6 in. 



Halwyn, St. Paul 

For locality of St. Paul, see last. 

Halwyn P^arm is situated about half a mile south of St. Paul 
churchtown. The cross is built into a hedge a little north of the 
farm. 

When making inquiries of Mr. Tregenza as to the position of 
the cross on St. Paul Down, he told me he had seen another one on 
the previous day, and, although 
in the habit of passing the place 
constantly, he had never noticed 
it before. 

It now forms part of a rubble 
stone hedge, in which it is slightly 
recessed from the surrounding 
masonry. The lower portion is 
buried, so it is not possible with- 
out removing the stones and excavating to give the dimensions ; but 
the width across the arms is about 2 ft. 5 in., which is greater than 
is usual in monuments of this type, and shows that the cross was 
originally a large one. 







'^^'M.^ 



St. Paul Down, St. Paul 

For locality of St. Paul, see p. 202. 

The cross stands against the hedge of a narrow lane which 



204 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 




traverses the Down ^ and is intersected near the 
cross by a footpath. Some part of the lower 
portion is buried, but apart from this it is one 
of the tallest examples of this type. 

Dimensions. — Height, 6 ft. ; width, i ft. 
1 1 in. 

Crafthole, Sheviocke 

Sheviocke, in the East Deanery, is situated 
three and a half miles south of St. Germans 
railway-station. 

Crafthole is about one mile south of the 
churchtown. 

The cross is mounted on a modern circu- 
lar base of two steps. The upper limb has been knocked off. 
Dimensions. — Height, 3 ft. ; width, i ft. 9 in. 



-^^ 





WkSmmxim 






' Paul Down is the name of an extensive and once open tract of land, Ixit in recent 
years a great portion of it has been enclosed by the neighbouring farmers. 



UNOKNA MENTRD CROSSES 



205 



Temple, No. i. In the Churchyard 

Temple, in the Deanery of Boclniin, is situated six miles north- 
east of Bodmin town. 

There are no less than eight little crosses in this churchyard, 
all being more or less mutilated. Most of them are ranged against 
the south wall, and are probably gravestones of a very early date. 
All are illustrated by the Rev. W. lago in a small pamphlet^ 
published in 1883. 

Seven have incised or sunk crosses upon them, and will there- 
fore be found under Class B. The one now under notice is a very 
small example, and has lost its upper limb. 

Dimensions. — Height, i ft. 9 in. ; width, i ft. 2 in. ; thickness, 3 in. 



Latin Crosses slightly varied in Form from those 

LAST described 

There are six examples of this type, which will be found at the 
following places : — 



Blisland 

Columb Major, St. 
Davidstow . 
Godolphin . 
Ludgvan, No. 2 . 
Madron 



Lavethan, No. i. 

Black Cross. 

Lambrenny. 

Spernon Cross. 

In churchyard. 

Tremathick or Trereiffe Cross. 



Lavethan No. i, Blisland 

Blisland, in the Deanery of Bodmin, is situ- 
ated five miles north-east of Bodmin town. 

Lavethan is the seat of Capt. W. Moorshead, 
J. P., and is only a few minutes' walk in a westerly 
direction from Blisland churchtown. 

The cross stands on top of a hedge in these 
grounds. 






,^ 




' History of Toiiple C/iinr/i, near Bodmin^ Corniuall {built by the Knights Templars), 
by the Rev. J. R. Brown, rector of Helland. 



206 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



It differs from the foregoing examples in having the upper Hmb 
expanded. 

Dimensions. — Height, 2 ft. ; width, i ft. 11 in. ; thickness, 6 in. 

Black Cross, St. Columb Major 

St. Columb Major, in the Deanery of Pyder, is situated sixteen 
miles north-east of Truro, eight south-west of Wadebridge, and 
two and a half north of St. Columb Road railway-station. 

Black Cross is a small village three-quarters of a mile north of 
the railway-station, on the road to St. Columb churchtown. 

This little cross is built into a boundary-wall of one of the 
cottages on the right-hand side of the road. It is painted black, and 
the village or hamlet takes its name from the stone. 

Dimensions. — Height, i ft. 4 in. ; width, 12 in. 

The cross is very irregularly shaped, all the limbs being of 
different widths. 

Lambrenny, Davidstow 

Davidstow, in the Deanery of Trigg Minor, is situated thirteen 
miles west of Launceston, and one and a half miles south of Otter- 
ham railway-station. 

Lambrenny Farm is about two miles west 
of Davidstow church. 

The cross faces south-east by east, and is 
probably in situ. It stands on a waste piece 
of ground situated about halfway between 
Lambrenny and Trelay, at the side of the old 
church path through the fields. The Rev. 
R. G. Parker informs me that this spot has 
been used as a place for private prayer within 
the memory of people who are now living, 
and also that it is along this path a corpse 
is carri(;d from Lambrenny to the church. 

Dimensions. — Height, 5 ft. 6 in. ; width, 
13 in. ; width of shaft : at the top 9 in., at the 
bottom 14^ in. 




UNORNAMENTED CROSSES 



207 



The head is much worn and chipped, and die shaft, which is 
ahiiost circular in plan, tapers considerably. 

Spernon Cross, Godolphin 

Godolphin is a modern parish formed out of St. Breage. It 
is situated in the Deanery of Kerrier, and is four and a half miles 
north-west of Helston, and two miles south of Nancegollan railway- 
station. 

Spernon is about one mile south-west of Godolphin, and is rather 
less than halfway between the last-named place and St. Breage. 

This cross is built into a rubble stone fence, and has lost its 
upper limb. 

Dimensions. — Height, i ft. 9 in. ; width, i ft. 6 in. 






Ludgvan, No. 2. In the Churchyard 

Ludgvan, in the Deanery of Penwith, is situated three and a half 
miles north-east of Penzance. 

The cross stands just inside the south gateway 
of the churchyard, on the west side. 

It is very irregularly executed, the left arm being 
considerably higher than the right, and the angle 
formed at its junction with the upper limb appears 
to be unfinished. On the top of the stone there 
is a sinking of very curious shape, a sketch of 
which is given. 

Dimensions. — Height, 3 ft. ; width, i ft. 6| in. ; 
thickness, 10 in. 




Trereiffe or Tremathick Cross, Madron 

Madron, in the Deanery of Penwith, is one and a half miles 
north-west of Penzance. 

Trereiffe Cross is synonymous with Tremathick Cross. It is 
generally known as Tremathick Cross, because it is near the village 
of that name, where there is a road-crossing ; but it is on the 



208 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 








Trereiffe estate. A person living in the locality 
told me it was known by either of these names. 

' The cross stands on an artificial mound by 
the wayside from Penzance to St. Just. It was 
removed from Rose-an- Beagle, in the parish of 
St. Paul.' ^ Some say this mound is a tumulus. 
It is situated a mile and a half east of Penzance, 
and about the same distance south of Madron 
churchtown. 

The cross has a granite base, but only a small 
portion is visible, the rest being overgrown by 
the surrounding turf. 

Dimensions. — Height, 5 ft. 4 in. ; width, i ft. 
io| in. ; thickness, 14 in. 



Latin Crosses with a Cross or Crosses in relief on both 

Front and Back 

There are two examples of this type, which will be found at the 
following places : — 

Cleer, St St. Cleer's Well. 

Tresmeer . . . .In churchyard. 



St. Cleer's Well, St. Cleer 

St. Cleer, St. Clere, or St. Clare, in the West Deanery, is situated 
two and a half miles north of Liskeard, where there is a railway- 
station. 

St. Cleer's Well stands on the outskirts of the village. 

This very fine monolith stands in its base close to the Well, and 
is iji situ. In detail it is quite different from any other of its kind. 

Dimensions. — Height, 7 ft. 2 in. ; width, 2 ft. 6 in. ; thickn(;ss : at 
the bottom 12 in., at the neck 8^ in., at the top 7 in. The base is 
about 3 ft. square and 8 in. thick. 

' J. ']'. I)liglit, Amicnt Crosses and Antiquities 0/ Cormva!/, p. 45. 



UNORNAMENTED CROSSES 



20(J 



The front and back of the 
stone are aHke, each face having 
upon it two crosses in relief, 
one within the other. The outer 
cross is the same shape as the 
outHne of the stone ; and the 
inner consists of an approxi- 
mately equal-limbed cross with a 
narrowed stem ; the stems in each 
case being carried to the bottom 
of the stone. 



Tresmeer. In the Churchyard 










I' ^■^'■■Y\ 








Tresmeer, or Tresmere, in 
the Deanery of Trigg Major, is 
situated six and a half miles 
west of Launceston, and has a 
railway-station. 

Some years ago there was a - 
cross in Laneast churchyard. I, 

as well as many others, remember its existence as late, indeed, as 1886. 
On revisiting the churchyard in 1890 I found it gone, no one knew 
whither. So little, in fact, had it ever been noticed, 
that some declared there never was one in the 
churchyard ! Visiting Tresmeer a short time since, 
I noticed a cross, now at the head of the grave of 
a late vicar, who was buried just outside the chancel 
wall. In my opinion, this is the cross missing 
from Laneast ; it has an ancient appearance, and 
bears out my recollection of that monument. Moreover, it cor- 
responds very fairly with a cross illustrated by Blight,' who says, 
' This cross, which appears to be deeply buried, is near the site of 
the old parsonage house,' Laneast. 

1 J. T. Blight, Ancient Crosses and Antiquities of Cornivall, p. 54. 

P 




2IO 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



Dimensions. — Height, about 2 ft. ; width, i ft. 9 in. ; width of 
shaft, Z\ in. ; thickness, 6 in. 

The front and back are ahke, each having a Latin cross in rehef 
with very slightly expanded limbs. 

Latin Crosses with the Figure of Our Lord in Relief 

There are three examples of this type, which will be found at 
the following places : — 

Buryan, St. . . . Chyoone Cross. 

Mawgan-in-Pyder . . Mawgan Cross. 

Newlyn, Penzance . . Near church. 

The only one upon which the figure is at all perfect is at Chyoone. 






Chyoone ' Cross, St. Buryan 

St. Buryan, in the Deanery of Penwith, is situated six miles 

south-west of Penzance. 

The monument is considered to be in sittc, and stands transversely 
,-^--_ on the left-hand side of 

the road leading from 
St. Buryan churchtown 
to Boskenna, and about 
a mile south-west of the 
former place. Judging 
from the massive base 
and size of the head — 
which is the largest of 
its type in the county — 
it is very probable that 
the cross was at one 

time much higher. The ends of the limbs are rounded, and the 

upper limb tapers considerably. A small piece is broken off the 

lower angle of the right limb. 







' This name is variously spelt Chfin, Chyoone, Chywoon, or Chywoone. The Cornish 
derivation is chy-an-oon ^ the house on the down. 



UNORNAMENTED CROSSES 



21 I 



io|in 



Dimensions. — Height, 2 ft. 6 in. ; width, 2 ft. 7 in. ; thickness, 
The base is about 4 ft. square and 1 2 in. thick. 

Front. — On the head is sculptured a grotesque little figure of 
our Lord, and it is difficult to imagine one that 
could be more primitive and severe in execution. 
The little round head inclines slightly to the 
left — an unusual direction ; the arms are long, 
thin, and perfectly straight ; while the hips are 
more like those of a female. The legs are 
very short in proportion, and are terminated 
with immense feet, which turn outward at right angles. 

Back. — On the head is a small Latin cross in relief, having an 
inclination to the right. 



•■A 






Mawgan Cross, Mawgan-in-Pyder 

Mawgan-in-Pyder, in the Deanery of Pyder, is situated three miles 
north-west of St. Columb Major, and five and a half miles from 
St. Columb Road railway-station, on _ 

the branch line from Par to Newquay. i^;:^^^ ^^^^? - - 

Mawgan Cross is a small hamlet 
which, like White Cross, Ludgvan, 
and others in the county, takes its name 
from the adjacent monument. It is 
situated about a mile south of Maw- 
gan church, on the road to St. Columb ^S^ 
Minor, which is here intersected by 



that from St. Columb Major to Tre- ^^%4^ 
vorrian. 

This little cross stands in its base on top of a hedge at the north- 
east angle of the four cross-roads. It is very much worn, and may at 
one time have been higher. 

Dimensions. — Height, 15 in. ; width, I2|^in. 

On the front is rudely sculptured part of the figure of our Lord, 

extending to about the waist, and both arms are slightly elevated. 

I' 2 




212 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 






Newlyn, Penzance. Near the Church 

Newlyn is a modern parish formed out of Madron and St. Paul ; 
it is in the Deanery of Penwith, and is situated one mile south- 
west of Penzance. 

The Rev. W. S. Lach-Szyrma, vicar of Newlyn, told me that the 
cross was dug up, some twenty years ago {c. 1870), from a field on 

the Trereiffe estate, owned 

/?•■:-'/- .,' i 

*• 'Ji'i'' .jj. I 



by the late C. D. N. Le 
Grice, Esq., J. P., who re- 
moved it to his grounds, 
where it remained for some 
considerable time. Ulti- 
mately he gave it to the vicar of Newlyn, to be placed in the 
church, churchyard, or grounds. Mr. Lach-Szyrma fixed it on a 
rock over a cave which is situated by the side of the road that 
runs past the south side of the church, and to which the cave is 
nearly opposite. 

Blight^ illustrates a cross 'in the garden at Trereiffe,' and men- 
tions that it was ' removed there for preservation.' Acting on this 
information, the late Mr. S. J. Wills, of St. Wendron, and I visited 
Trereiffe in search of this stone, but were unable to find it. Mr. Wills 
afterwards suggested that in all probability it was the identical cross 
we had previously seen at Newlyn. Taking into consideration the 
facts above mentioned, and also that an ultimate reference to Blight's 
drawing showed that his measurements and those taken by us of the 
cross at Newlyn practically corresponded, there can be no doubt but 
that this theory is correct, and that in Blight's probably hasty sketch 
the figure was overlooked, owing, perhaps, to the cross being in such 
a position that it could not be seen. 

The cross is unevenly worked and very crude, while its great 
thickness is remarkable. 

Dimensions. — Height, i ft. 6 In. ; width, i ft. ; thickness at 
widest part, 14 in. 

' J. T. Blight, Ancient Crosses and Antiquities of Cornwall, p. 40. 



UNORNAMENTED CROSSES 213 

Front. — Part of the figure of our Lord, extending to the lower 
portion of the body. The head is inclined considerably to the right, 
and both arms are raised. 

Back. — On this face is a Latin cross, the ends of the limbs of 
which are slightly rounded. The lower portion of the stone is 
cut back about two inches, terminating the bottom limb in a seg- 
mental end. 

Latin Crosses of semi-Gothic Character with Chamfered 

Angles 

There are five examples of this type, which will be found at the 
following places : — 



Keyne, St. 

Lelant 

Pinnock, St. 

Sheviocke 

Stephen's-by-Saltash,. St. 



In churchyard. 
Lelant Lane. 
Bosent Cross. 
At four cross-roads. 
Trematon. 



St. Keyne. In the Churchyard 

St. Keyne, in the West Deanery, is situated three miles south of 
Liskeard, 

The stone is figured in Blight,^ who says : ' This cross stands 
near the southern entrance to the churchyard. Height, 4 ft. 6 in.' 



Lelant Lane, Lelant 

Lelant, in the Deanery of Penwith, is situated three and a half 
miles south-east of St. Ives. 

This little cross is built into a hedge immediately round a corner 
on the right-hand side of the road from Lelant to St. Ives, and about 
a mile from the former place. 

' J. T. Blight, Ancient Crosses and Antiquities of Cornivall^ p. 50. 



214 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



Most of the upper limb is broken off; the angles at the inter- 
section are rounded, and the edijes chamfered. 
Diinensions. — Height, 2 ft. ; width, i ft. 6 in. 

Bosent Cross, St. Pinnock 

St. Pinnock, in the West Deanery, is situated five miles west of 
Liskeard. 

About a mile and a half east of St. Pinnock churchtown, and near 
the two farms called North and South Bosent, the road from St. 
Pinnock to Liskeard is crossed by that from Duloe to St. Neot. 
The cross stands at the south-east angle of the intersection. 

This is probably the same cross as that illustrated by Blight,^ 
and called ' Persent Cross, Duloe,' but no dimensions are given. 



Sheviocke. At Four Cross-roads 



Sheviocke, in the East Deanery, is situated three and a half miles 
south of St. Germans railway-station. 




^ J. 'l. Bliglit, Ancient Crosses and Antiquities of Cornwall^ p. 51. 



UNORNAMENTED CROSSES 



21=; 



The cross stands on a mound at the junction of four roads 
between the churchtown and Crafthole. 

Blight^ says it is ' known by the name of " Stump Cross." ' 

Like the last monument described, this one is almost octagonal in 
section. But for a piece chipped out of the left arm it is in a very 
good state of preservation. 

Dimensions, — Height, 5ft. gin. ; width, 2 ft. 7 in. 



Trema.ton,'^ St. Stephen's-by-Saltash 

St. Stephen's^by-Saltash, in the East Deanery, 
is situated one and a quarter miles south-west of 
Saltash railway-station. 

The cross stands at a junction of roads be- 
tween Trematon village and castle. 

It is almost octagonal in section. 

Dimensions. — Height,. 2 ft. 5 in. ; width, 15 in. 







A Latin Cross of semi-Gothic Character with Chamfered 
Angles and expanded Limbs 

The example taken to illustrate this type is at 

Cross Park, Blisland 

Blisland, in the Deanery of Bodmin, is situated five miles north 
of Bodmin town. 

Sir John Maclean^ says : ' This cross, although of more modern 
date than those already described, possesses no less interest, it having 
been the village cross. Its head is now set up on a common rubbing- 
post in one of the meadows of the glebe, which from it has derived 

^ J. T. Blight, Ancient Crosses and Antiquities of Cornwall^ p. 49. 

' Sometimes called Trevane Cross. 

•'' Sir John Maclean, Deafiery of Trigg Minor, vol. i. p. 25. 



2l6 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 




the name of "The Cross Park." The 
shaft of this cross, of the same octagonal 
form in section, and made of the same 
materia], until within a very few years 
remained standing in the centre of the 
beautiful village green, which is one of 
the most picturesque in the county. It 
was raised on a base of three steps, 
and w^as known as " the dial," probably 
in consequence of a sun-dial having 
been set up on it after the head had been 
removed. It was found, about seventy 
or eighty years ago, when digging for the 
foundations of a barn at the parsonage. 
The monument was probably thrown 
down by the Puritans in the seventeenth 
century.' 

Dimensions. — The height of the 
cross-head is 2 ft. 4 in., and its width, 
2 ft. I in. 



MISCELLANEOUS MUTILATED AND OTHER EXAMPLES, 

NOT ILLUSTRATED 

In addition to the crosses already illustrated, there are several 
others which are so defaced that the sculpture once upon them has 
now entirely disappeared, nothing more than plain stones being left, 
which are identified as crosses of some kind merely by their shape. 

Others, again, are partially buried, either with their heads down- 
wards — and in this position are in use as gateposts — or built hori- 
zontally across openings in hedges, and form parts of stepping-stiles. 

Besides the crosses, there are a few instances of cross-bases having 
parts of their shafts remaining in them, as well as some separate 
cros.s-shafts in use for different purposes ; but there is not sufficient 
detail on these stones to enable them to be classified. 



UNORNAMENTED CROSSES 



217 



Lastly, several crosses have entirely disappeared, having been 
either broken up and used as building material, or altogether lost. 
Since, however, there should be some notice of their existence, the 
present opportunity of placing them on record has been embraced. 

All, therefore, that can be done in connection with the greater 
number of the monuments in this section is simply to mention their 
locality and give any available particulars regarding them. By 
drawing attention to those of whose existence we are certain, there 
is some hope that one day they may be rescued from their present 
ignominious positions, and, should anything be found upon them here- 
after by which their type can be determined, they may then be added 
to the different sub-divisions to which they belong. 

It is proposed to arrange these Miscellaneous Monuments in the 
following order : — 

1. Defaced or mutilated crosses. 

2. Partly buried crosses. 

3. Parts of cross-shafts in bases. 

4. Cross-shafts. 

5. Missing crosses. 



DEFACED OR MUTILATED CROSSES 

Geograph ical Distribiition 
Allen, St. 



Breward, St. . 
Columb Major, St. . 
Erth, St. 
Lelant, No. 4 
Madron . 

Mawgan-in-Meneage 
Perranzabuloe 
Phillack, No. 3 
No. 4 



Tolcarn. 

Trefronick. 

Trevalsa. 

Penvorder. 

Black Rock. 

Tregenhorne. 

In churchtown. 

Parc-an-Growze. 

Trelowarren. 

St. Piran's Well. 

Bodriggy. 

In rectory garden. 



2i8 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



Tolcarn Cross, St. Allen 

Mr. Thomas Clark, of Truro, gives the following description of 
this cross : — 

' It was a plain cross of Pentewan stone — shaft, arms, and head. 
The shaft . . . served for many years as a gatepost, and afterwards 
was cut in two to make door-sills for piggeries, but we found the said 
doorways so deeply embedded in manure as to prevent our approach- 
ing them. The arms of this cross were some years ago used as 
quoins in building a house at Tolcarn, but this house has been burnt 
down since my last visit, and all trace of them is lost. Two of the 
corner-stones of the base were used in a building at Trefronick, near 
Tolcarn ; but a part of the wall has been taken down, and one of the 
stones removed, no one knows whither ; but the other we found in 
the north-east corner of the dwelling-house, in a good state of pre- 
servation, about three feet from the ground. Another part of the 
base is serving as a doorstep to the mill at Lanner.' ^ 

Trefronick, St. Allen 

Mr. Thomas Clark, of Truro, says : ' At [the farmhouse] Tre- 
fronick is a granite cross serving as a step at the back entrance.' '^ 

Trevalsa, St. Allen 

Trevalsa is about one mile north of St. Allen. 

The above-named author notices a third cross, and says : ' In a 
meadow at Trevalsa, near Trerice-watcr, a granite cross is being- 
used as a gatepost.' "' 

It is to be hoped that these three crosses will soon be placed in 
St. Allen churchyard for preservation. 

' Journal^ Royal Instilution of Cornwall^ vol. x. (1890), p. 301. 
' Ibid. vol. X, p. 301. ' Ibid. vol. x. p. 301. 



UNORNAMENTED CROSSES 219 



Penvorder, St. Breward 

Mr, J. R. Collins, of Bodmin, has communicated with me regard- 
ing this cross. 

Penvorder is situated about a mile south of St. Breward. 

The cross stands in a lane, by the side of a hedge, and is near a 
cottage. 

It has been ' trimmed ' for a gatepost, and the sides of the head 
have been chipped off to make it more suitable for this purpose. 

It is much mutilated, and appears from Mr. Collins's rough sketch 
to have an equal-limbed cross in relief with expanded limbs similar 
to those described on p. 54. 

Black Rock, St. Columb Major 

Mr. J. R. Collins, of Bodmin, informs me that there is the round 
head of a cross built into a hedge near this place. 

Tregenhorne, St. Erth 

Tregenhorne is a farm situated one mile east of St. Erth. 

Canon Hockin, rector of Phillack, has kindly procured for me 
excellent sketches, by his son-in-law, of this cross, and of two others 
at Phillack, described in this section on pp. 221, 222, all of which 
were new to me. Careful dimensions and historical particulars relat- 
ing to the stones were also sent, enabling me to record three more 
crosses hitherto unnoticed. 

The Tregenhorne cross is built into a stone fence, and only one 
surface is visible. One side and the top of the head have been 
knocked off, and the remaining side is upright. This portion appears 
to have been hollowed out, and a round hole is pierced in the middle, 
which seems to suggest that it has been used as a gatepost at some 
time or another. 

Dimensions. — Height, 3 ft. ; present width of head, g\\i\. ; width 
of shaft : at the top 7 in., at the bottom 9| in. 



220 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



Lelant, No. 4. In the Churchtown 

This Httle cross-head, attached to a few inches of its shaft, stands 
in its base in a recess of the hedge opposite to the ' Praed Arms 
Inn.' 

Dimensions. — Height, i ft. 9^ in. ; width of head, i ft. 9 in. ; 
width of shaft, 1 2 in. ; thickness, 1 1 in. The base is 3 ft. square and 
1 1 in. thick. 

Parc-an-Growze, Madron 

This cross stands against a hedge by the right-hand side of the 
pathway leading from Parc-an-Growze farmhouse to the St. Just 
road. 

The exposed face is plain, and I am told by people in the neigh- 
bourhood that there is nothing on the back. 

Dimensions. — Height, 2 ft. 11 in. ; width of head, i ft. 8 in. ; width 
of shaft : at the top 13 in., at the bottom 10 in. 

The head of the cross is somewhat similar to that at St. Piran's 
Well, described below. 

Trelowarren, Mawgan-in-Meneage 

The late Mr. S. J. Wills, of St. Wendron, sent me a sketch of a 
cross-head which is now fixed over one of the entrances to Trelo- 
warren grounds. 

It is somewhat mutilated, but has a fairly distinct cross in relief 
of the usual kind. 

St. Piran's Well, Perranzabuloe 

Mr. Thomas Clark, of Truro, has kindly sent me a sketch of this 
cross, with dimensions, as well as particulars relating to it. 

' The cross stands near St. Piran's Well, in the parish of Perran- 
zabuloe, and is situated on the boundary of the manor called Nans- 



UNORNAMENTED CROSSES 221 

meelyn. It is now used as a boundary-stone of this manor, and 
under the western shoulder are the letters 

NANS 
MEE 
LYN 

There are remains of other letters on the northern face, but not in 
sufficient preservation for me to distinguish what they are.' 

Dhnensions. — Height, 4 ft. 6 in. ; greatest width of head, 2 ft. 
3 in. ; width of shaft : at the top i ft. gin., at the bottom i ft. 2 in. 

The stone is of a very peculiar shape : the head is pointed at the 
top, and its rounded sides are curved suddenly inwards at the neck. 
The shaft is also very curious, both sides being concave. 

Phillack No. 3, Bodriggy 

Bodriggy estate has long been the property of the Hockin family. 
It is situated between Hayle railway-station and Copperhouse. 

'The cross,' says Canon Hockin, ' was formerly used as a gate- 
post at the entrance to the farmyard at Bodriggy. It now stands 
as a doorpost at the entrance to the schoolroom-yard in Phillack 
churchtown. About half a dozen years ago, having occasion to alter 
the entrance into the farmyard, I took down the gateposts, and let 
them lie in the lane for two or three years. Wanting a doorpost at 
the entrance to our schoolyard, I sent for one of the posts, but not 
until some months after it had been fixed did I discover what it was.' 

Dimensions. — Height above ground, 7 ft. 2 in. (its total length is 
about 9 ft.). The shaft is 14^ in. wide at the bottom, and rather less 
at the top ; it is 12 in. thick at the bottom and 9 in. at the top. 

As will be seen from the dimensions, this was once a very fine 
monument, but is now much mutilated. It has, of course, two or 
three holes in it, with the irons for hanging the gates remaining. 
The head appears to be about the same width as the shaft, and has 
upon it very distinct remains of a cross in relief with expanded 
limbs. 



222 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 

Phillack, No. 4. In Rectory Garden 

This fragment of a small circular cross-head is in a most dilapi- 
dated condition. Canon Hockin tells me he found it ' near by, used 
as a stepping-stone over a stile leading on to the common, about 250 
yards from the rectory house.' 

There now only remain faint indications of a cross with expanded 
limbs on both front and back. 

Dimensions. — Height, i ft. 3^in. ; width, i ft. 3 in.; thickness, 
6^^ in. to 71^ in. 

PARTLY BURIED CROSSES 
Geographical Distribution 

Allen, St. . . . . Lower Town. 

Dominick, St. . . . Eastcot. 

Enodor, St. . . . Near Fraddon. 

Lelant, No. 5 . . . Near the church. 

Lower Town, St. Allen 

Lower Town is a farm situated near Zelah. 

This cross is now used as a gatepost in the gateway leading from 
the road into a field called ' Twelve-o'Clock Meadow.' It is buried, 
head downwards, to a depth of about half its height. 

Mr. Thomas Clark, of Truro, informed me of its existence, and 
afterwards very kindly had it excavated for me, and with sketches and 
dimensions supplied by Mr. R. A. Gregg, also of Truro, I am able 
to give the following information regarding this stone. 

The upper hanging of the gate has been effected by an iron pin 
arranged in a peculiar manner. A hole was drilled in the front of 
the cross about twelve inches from the upper end of the stone, in its 
inverted position, and the lower end of the iron bent into it ; the iron 
was then carried up and bent over the top, the end being turned 
upwards to form the hook for hanging the gate. In spite of the stone 
being a cross, the idea was certainly ingenious, as it would otherwise 
be too short for the purpose to which it has been put. 



UNORNAMENTED CROSSES 223 

The monument had projections at the neck/ only one of which 
now remains. The shaft has a very pronounced entasis, and is wider 
at the top than at the bottom, and there is a tenon worked at its 
extremity. A large portion of the head on one side has been chipped 
off, but on the still intact side is the bead on the edge. 

Dimensions. — Total height, 4 ft. 7 in. The original width of the 
head appears to have been about 18 in. The width of the shaft is, 
at the top, 10 in., and about an inch more in the middle. 

Front. — On the front is a Latin cross in relief of somewhat 
peculiar and very irregular shape, the shaft of which is carried nearly 
to the bottom of the stone. 

Back. — On the head is a cross in relief, its surface being flush 
with the face of the stone and the background recessed. The upper 
limb is the shortest and the lower is the longest ; in the centre is a 
small circular hole. 

Eastcot, St. Dominick 

Eastcot is about two and a half miles south-east of Callington. 

The stone will be found on the left-hand side of the lane leading 
through Ashland to St. Dominick. 

It is used as a gatepost, the head being buried in the ground 
and the tenon uppermost. 

The shaft is tapered, and stands about five feet above the 
ground. 

Near Fraddon, St. Enodor 

' By the side of the high-road leading from the churchtown to 
Fraddon, and near the former place, is a wayside cross, its head fixed 
in the ground, and its basement standing on its edge by the side 
of it.' 2 

Lelant, No. 5. Near the Church 

This cross will be found by following the hedge on the west side 
of the churchyard in a southerly direction. I came upon it quite 

' See p. 155 for description of monuments of this type. 

' A Complete Parochial History of the County of Corniuall^ by Polsue, 1867, vol. i. p. 343. 



224 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 

accidentally. It is built sideways into the hedge a short distance down 
the lane which is contiguous to the road. A large piece is broken 
off the top, and there is a hole in the side of the head, showing that 
the cross was probably used as a gatepost at some time. 

Dimefisions. — Height, 3 ft. 9 in. ; thickness, 10 in. 

By getting my hand between the stones and feeling I found 
rounded, projecting surfaces on the head of the stone, which may 
possibly be parts of a figure similar to so many in this district. The 
adjoining stones were too close to the other face of the cross to allow 
of any inspection whatever. 

PARTS OF CROSS-SHAFTS IN BASES 

Geograph ica I D ist7'ib 71 f 2 on 

Dominick, St. ... Westcot. 

Just-in-Penwith, St. . . Leswidden. 

Kea . . . . .In churchyard. 

Tintagel . . . .In churchyard. 

Westcot, St. Dominick 

Westcot estate is two miles west of St. Dominick, and one and a 
half miles south-west of Callington, on the road to St. Mellion. 

The monument stands on the right-hand side of the road above 
mentioned. It consists of the stump of a cross-shaft fixed in its 
base, the whole being slightly above the level of the road. The 
back of the base is built into the hedge. 

Dimejisions. — Height of cross-stump, about i ft. 7 in. ; width of 
same, 15-I in. ; thickness, 6 in. The base is about 3 ft. 6 in. square 
and I 2 in. thick. 

The surface of the shaft, facing the road, is smooth, but on the 
back there are some deep and wide depressions, the meaning of 
which is not apparent. 



UNORNAMENTED CROSSES 



Leswidden, St. Just-in-Penwith 

Leswldden is about two miles east of St. Just. About twenty 
yards from the entrance to Leswidden Farm is a curious stone which 
may be the stump of a cross. It is much larger at the top than at 
the bottom, and is most rudely shaped. On the top is an incised 
cross, but for what purpose it was cut is not known. 

The Rev. R. Basset Rogers, vicar of Sancreed, says the stone 
stands between the three m.anors or estates of Leswidden, Bartinney, 
and Carnglaze, about halfway between St. Just and Sancreed, and 
may be a boundary-stone between the three manors. 

Kea. In the Churchyard 

The only portion of the old church at Kea which remains stand- 
ing is the now-dilapidated tower. A small modern church has been 
erected, in the churchyard, and opposite the south door is the 
monument. 

It consists of a cylindrical shaft about five feet high, with a 
marked entasis, firmly fixed in its massive and square granite base. 

Tintagel. In the Churchyard 

What appears to be the stump of a cross is still standing near 
the north-west angle of the church, and seems to be fixed in a base.^ 

CROSS-SHAFTS 

Geogi^aphtcal Distribution 

Cardynham, No. 2 . -By churchyard-wall. 

Egloshayle . . . Trescowe. 

Liskeard .... Near Cricket-field. 

' There is another base in this churchyard, nearly opposite the south door. It is about 
twelve inches high, and is built of small stones, and has a slate top about 4 ft. 8 in. square, in 
which is cut a square hole. It was probably the stand for a sun-dial, which has now disappeared. 



226 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 

Cardynham, No. 2. By Churchyard-wall 

What appears to be a cross-shaft is now leaning against the 
churchyard-wall, near the south-east corner. 

It consists of a massive piece of granite, which has been wrought 
and worked to a taper on all faces. The narrow end rests on the 
roadway, and a large piece has been broken off the side. The angles 
at the wider end are rounded, but there does not seem to be any 
remains of a tenon. 

Dimensions. — Length, lo ft. 7 in. ; width at the bottom, i ft. 8 in., 
which from the inclination of the sides would give i ft. i in. at the 
top ; thickness at the bottom, 18 in., and at the top, 13 in. 

Trescowe, Egloshayle 

Trescowe Farm is three miles east of Egloshayle. 

Mr. Richard Oliver, of Trescowe Farm, informs me that there 
is now the shaft of a cross standing in one of his fields which was 
probably the boundary of the manor, but the head is gone. 

Liskeard. Near Cricket-field 

The Rev. W. I ago, of Bodmin, informs me that he had noticed 
a cross-shaft at this place, in use as a gatepost, with the tenon upper- 
most. 

It is on the right-hand side of the road from Liskeard to Southill, 
and is opposite to the cricket-field. 

It appears to be 5 or 6 feet high. 

MISSING CROSSES 

Under this unsatisfactory heading are noticed certain crosses which 
from one cause or another have disappeared ; my information has 
consequently been derived either from books or communications 
from friends. This will account for the stones being described 
indiscriminately, instead of in the usual alphabetical order, as it is 
advisable to keep the authorities as much together as possible. 



UNORNAMENTED CROSSES 



227 



Geographical Distribution 
Bodmin, No. 4 . . -By roadside. 



Bradock 
Breward, St. 
Cleer, St. . 
C rowan 
Gwinear 
Lanhydrock 
Levan, St. 
Padstow, No. 
Southill 
Treslothan 



Kill-Boy Cross. 
Gamm Bridge. 
Near Trevorgy. 
Black Rock. 
Cattebedron. 
Re-Perry Cross. 
Chigwidden. 
In churchyard. 
In rectory garden. 
Near the villao-e. 



In the Westminster Bridge Road, London. 
A Cornish cross in Canada. 

The four following crosses are noted, among others, with a 
plate of illustrations, in the ' Gentleman's Magazine,' already men- 
tioned.^ These notes, with their accompanying numbers on the 
plate, are here given first. 

Bodmin, No. 4. By Roadside 

' No. 2. — About one mile from Bodmin, on the road from that 
place to Launceston. Height, 3 ft.' 

The drawing shows a round-headed stone, with an equal-limbed 
cross in relief on the head which has a considerable inclination from 
right to left. 

Possibly this may be the same cross as that (now lying over a well) 
illustrated and described on pp. 74-75, since its original position as 
there described approximates to that given above. 

Re-Perry Cross, Lanhydrock 

* No. 3, called Re-Perry Cross, stands by the roadside between 
Lanhydrock and Lanhivet {sic). Height, 3 ft. 11 in.' 

' See p. 30. These crosses are also given in the CatJioUc Miscellany. 

Q 2 



228 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 

The drawing shows a round-headed stone, with an equal-limbed 
cross in relief on the head having expanded ends. 
The base of this cross remains in situ. 

Near Trevorgy, St. Cleer 

' No. 5 is near Trevorgy, in the lane leading from that place to 
Tredinnic, in the parish of St. Cleare. Height, i ft. 6 in.' 

The drawing shows a round-headed stone with an incised Latin 
cross upon it. It is not surprising that so small a cross should have 
been lost. 

Kill-Boy Cross, Bradock (or Broadoak) 

' No. 8, called Kill-Boy Cross, on Bradoc Down, near the church. 
This cross is now broken down. Height (before the accident), 4 ft. 
6 in.' 

The drawing shows a Latin cross, the upper limb of which is 
missing. On the stone is what appears to be an incised Latin cross. 

After referring to this cross, John Britton, F.S.A.,^ says : ' Its 
name seems to imply the cause of its erection.' 



The late Mr. S. J. Wills, of St. Wendron, supplied me with 
notes regarding the three following crosses : — 

Black Rock, Crowan 

Writing me in 1889, Mr. Wills says : ' A cross found near Black 
Rock recently was broken up, and used in the building of a house.' 

Cattebedron Cross, Gwinear 

'The Cattebedron Cross, near Carnhell Green,^ is lost. It has 
not stood there within the memory of man. The base only is now at 
Clowance,'' near the railway.' 

' The Architectural Antiquities of Great Britain : Essay on ' Ancient Stone Crosses.' 
Vol. i. p. II. 

'^ Also mentioned by 151ight, Ancient Crosses and Antiquities of Cornwall, p. 57. 
^ Sec Clowance, No. 2, p. 132. 



UNORNAMENTED CROSSES 229 



Chigwidden, St. Levari 

Mr. Wills told me that he remembered seeing a cross at this place 
many years ago. As far as I recollect, he said that it was broken in 
two, and was used as the threshold of a cottage-door. 

The Rev. Paul D'O. Silvester, vicar of St. Levan, in reply to 
my inquiries about the stone, says : ' I have inquired of two old 
inhabitants, and they agree in stating that the cross at Chig- 
widden was broken up many years ago*' 

Blight ^ also mentions the existence of this cross. 



Gamm Bridge, St. Breward 

A footnote relating to this cross will be found on p. 23. Sir John 
Maclean says there is a cross-base ' on the side of the road leading 
from Gamm Bridge to Swallock.' "^ 

Padstow, No. 2. In the Churchyard 

It is locally asserted that when an old woman named Molly 
Waters was buried, some years ago, the coffin when low^ered rested 
on the head of a cross, which it was not then considered worth 
while to rescue. The grave is close to the spot where No. 4 cross 
in this churchyard was found. 

Southill. In the Rectory Garden 
A note relating to this cross will be found on p. 36. 

Treslothan. Near the Village 
An account of this cross has been already given on p. 138. 

^ Ancient Crosses and Antiquities of Corn-djail^ p. 58. 
^ Deanery of Trigg Minor, vol. i. p. 25. 



230 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



In the Westminster Bridge Road, London 

I have been told, on very good authority, that up to about 
twenty years ago there were two Cornish crosses in the garden of a 
house in the Westminster Bridge Road. My informant added that 
on going along the road a short time afterwards he noticed that they 
were gone. What part of Cornwall they came from, or where they 
are now, must remain a mystery, unless this brief note may be seen 
by 'one who knows.' 

A Cornish Cross in Canada 

In the ' Western Antiquary' of May, 1887, there was published 
under this heading some correspondence, of which I give the follow- 
ing extracts. The first writer says : — 

Some years ago the Rev. F. L. Osier was driving by a farm in the parish of St. 
Michael Penkivel, near Truro, when a granite font and cross were pointed out to him 
lying dirty and neglected on the ground. As no one on the spot seemed to set much 
value on them, he purchased them and sent them to Canada, where they were placed 
in the church at Dundas, Ontario, of which he was then rector. It appears that on the 
farm there was a field called Chapel Meadow. Possibly a chapel once existed there, 
and the font and cross may have come from that building. 

The second writer states that the font and cross belonged to a 
friend of Mr. Osier's, who gave them to him, and that 

they are really both in the church of West Fambro', near Hamilton, which, however, 
until some eight years or so ago, was part of Dundas parish, but has since then been a 
parish of itself. The cross is about two feet high, and is morticed into a base of 
Canadian .stone. Thus the present Canadian and the ancient English Church, are, as 
it were, pleasantly connected. 

In addition to the missing crosses just noticed, it must not be 
forgotten that there exist about thirty cross-bases which arc all 
that now remain of the original monuments. A list of these ' cross- 
bases ' will be found in Class C. : ' Miscellaneous Monuments.' 

This concludes Class A, in which has been given all thai I have 



UNORNAMENTED CROSSES 231 

been able to ascertain regarding the crosses which have so far been 
illustrated and described. 

There are still a few others which I have been unable to visit, 
and, not knowing what they are like, I have been compelled to 
omit any mention of them. Should particulars arrive in time for 
publication, it is possible I may give some notes upon them in an 
Appendix to this work. 



CLASS B 

ORNAMENTED CROSSES 

The Ornamented Crosses may be classified, according to the style 
and method by which the decoration is executed, as follows : — 

1. Monuments with Incised Crosses or with Incised Ornament. 

2. Monuments with Sunk Crosses or with Sunk Ornament. 

3. Monuments with Miscellaneous Ornament different in character 
from that of divisions i, 2, 4, and consisting chiefly of Beadwork 
or Emblems in relief. 

4. Monuments with Celtic or Hiberno-Saxon ornament. 

In many cases, however, more than one method of execution and 
style of ornament is used upon the same monument. Thus, incised 
work and sunk work are found together upon the crosses at Clowance 
(No. 3), Helston (No. 3), Scorrier (No. 2), and many others. Incised 
and miscellaneous ornament are also found together, e.g. on the 
cross in the old churchyard at Merther Uny, in the parish of St. Wen- 
dron. Incised work is used in combination with Celtic ornament on 
No. 3 cross in Sancreed churchyard. This monument has incised 
work on three sides, while on the fourth there is a Celtic key 
pattern exactly like that found on No. 4 cross in the same church- 
yard, which is decorated on all four sides Vvith Celtic ornament. 
Lastly, incised, sunk, and miscellaneous work occur on the cross at 
T rem bath. 

It will thus be seen that incised work occurs on some of the 
same stones on which other styles of decoration are employed. 



ORNAMENTED CROSSES 233 

By far the greater number of the stones, however, have incised 
work only upon them, and being, therefore, the only examples which 
are capable of separation on account of their style, it is proposed to 
deal with them first, under the heading of * Monuments with Incised 
Crosses or with Incised Ornament.' 

In all cases the various forms of crosses on the stones will be 
first described. 

MONUMENTS WITH INCISED CROSSES OR WITH 
INCISED ORNAMENT 

The simplest method by which it is possible to execute carved 
patterns is by means of incised or scratched lines on a smooth surface, 
and is, naturally, the first that would occur to man. This is seen in 
specimens of prehistoric art, as well as in the rude designs on 
weapons and pottery of the earliest period. 

In Cornwall, however, where incised work is so very common, 
the patterns are, with very few exceptions, most roughly executed, 
the hard and intractable nature of the stone being, perhaps, some 
excuse for the unsatisfactory results attained. 

The simplest forms of incised work in this county consist of 
straight lines, zigzags, curved lines, rude scrollwork, and the like. 
Straight lines are employed in some cases to indicate the shafts 
of crosses the upper portions of which are in relief, or they are 
used for enclosing panels which, in many cases, have no ornament 
upon them. 

The kinds of figures of which these are examples are not exactly 
patterns, but seem rather to be representations of objects, the most 
common being a parallelogram or a square, with diagonal lines from 
corner to corner. A figure more closely resembling an hour- 
glass than anything else is also found. Incised circles and other 
simple devices are also of frequent occurrence, but they are quite 
dissimilar to those found in other localities. By far the best 
example of incised work may be seen on No. 3 cross in Sancreed 
churchyard, which has on the front a design consisting of a lily 



234 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 

in a vessel, full particulars of which are given in the description of 
that monument. 

Of all the different devices which are employed in Cornwall to 
decorate a surface, the most common, and at the same time most 
curious, consists of a number of little conical holes, or dots. These 
being, I believe, peculiar to this county, deserve special notice. 
They are placed either in horizontal or diagonal rows, or are indis- 
criminately distributed over the surface, but are always close to- 
gether. As a rule they measure rather less than an inch in diameter, 
and are from half to three-quarters of an inch deep, and from an 
inch and a half to three inches from centre to centre. Two crosses 
are entirely decorated with these little holes ; one Is on Connor Down, 
Gwinear, and the other is in the Market Place, Penzance. On 
Connor Down the holes are best described as being placed ' any- 
how,' w4iile at Penzance they are arranged in regular rows in 
panels. The effect produced by these little holes, occurring, as they 
do, in such close proximity to each other, is really very rich, and 
their use as a background Is In many cases most effective. Dots 
are used for the same purpose in illuminated MSS., from which it is 
more than probable the Idea of applying a similar treatment to stones 
was borrowed. 

Up to the present I have found three examples in which the 
figure of Christ is incised, viz. Flushing, Trevilley, and Trevu No. 2. 
The only other example of an incised human figure of any kind 
occurs on No. i cross in Lanivet churchyard. This monument, it 
may be stated, is more richly decorated with incised work than any 
other, and Is described on pp. 295, 296, and 297. 



ORNAMENTED CROSSES 



235 



Geographical Distribution of Monuments with Incised Crosses 
or with Incised Ornament, but no other Class of Decoration 



On Wheel Crosses 



Altarnon. 

Tresmeake Bridge. 
Blisland. 

Lavethan, Nos. 2 and 3. 
Boconnoc, No. 3. 

In Boconnoc Park. 
B reward, St. 

Middle Moor. 
Deaconstow. 
Budock, Nos. I and 2. 
In churchyard. 
Buryan, St. 

Vellansajcr. 
Camborne. 

Pendarves, No. 2. 
Trevu, No. 2. 
CardynJiam. 

Higher Deviock. 
Carmnenellis. 

In churchyard. 
Constantine. 

Bosvathick. 
Merthen. 
Trewardreva. 
Cury. 

In churchyard. 
Day, St. 

Tregullow, No. 2. 
Dennis, St. 

In churchyard. 
Feock. 

Trelissick. 
Flushing. 

In churchyard. 
Gerrans. 

In churchyard. 
H els ton, No, 2. 

Cross Street. 



Hilary, St. 

In churchyard. 
Fues, St. 

Penbeagle. 
Just-in-Pemvitk, St., Nos. i and 2. 

In vicarage garden. 
L andewednack. 

Lizard Town. 
Lanivet, No. i. 

In churchyard. 
Lanteglos-by- Ca vielford. 

Trevia, No. 2. 
Levan, St., No. 2. 

In churchyard. 
Ludgvan. 

Crowlas. 
Madron. 

In churchyard. 
Michaelstozv. 

Trevenning, Nos. 2 and 3. 
Mullyon. 

Pradannack. 
Neot, St. 

Newtown. 
Phillack, No. 5. 

Copperhouse. 
Sancreed. 

Brane. 

Trenuggo Hill. 
Sennen. 

Trevilley. 
TyivardreatJi. 

Menabilly. 
Tregaminion, No. 2. 
Wendron, St. 

Boderwennack. 
Manhay-vean. 
Merther Uny Cross. 
Trcnethick. 



2^6 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



Ox Wheel Crosses with Projections at the Neck 

Givi}iear. 

On Connor Down. 



Camborne, No. 2. 

Outside the Institute. 
Cher, St. 

On St. Cleer Common. 
Eastbourne (Sussex). 

In Manor House grounds 



Penzance. 

In Market Place. 



On a Four-holed Cross 
Bodmin . . . Carminnow. 



On Latin Crosses 



Austell, St. 

In churchyard. 
Blisland. 

Lavethan, No. 4. 

Tregaddick. 
Godolphin. 

In churchyard. 
Lans alios. 

Higher town. 
Madron. 

Boscathnoe. 



Neot, St. 

In vicarage garden, Nos. 2 

and 3. 
Hilltown. 
In the village, No. 4. 

Northill 

Trebartha. 

Temple, Nos. 2, 3 and 4. 
In the churchyard. 



On a Cross-shaft 
Cleer, St. . . . South Trckeivc. 



Geographical Distribution of Crosses also having Incised Work, bnt 
in combination with either Sunk Crosses or Sunk Ornament, 
Miscellaneous Ornament, or Celtic or Hiberno-Saxon Ornament 

Breage, St. 

In churchyard. 
Buryan, St. 



NCin Carcg. 
Cleer, St. 

Rcdgate, No. 2. 
Constantine. 

Nanjarrow. 



Crowan. 

Clowancc, No. 3. 
Day, St. 

Scorricr, No. 2. 
Helston, No. 2. 

In a garden. 
Mabc. 

Hclland. 
Madron. 

Trembath. 



ORNAMENTED CROSSES 



237 



My lor. 

In church}'ard. 
Neot, St. 

* Four-hole Cross.' 
Roche, No. 2. 

In churchyard. 
Sancrecd, No. 3. 

In churchyard. 



Stythians. 

Trcvalis, No. 2. 
Tintagel. 

Trcvcna. 
Wendron, St. 

In Merthcr Uny old church- 
yard. 



The foregoing lists include all the monuments in Cornwall hav- 
ing incised work upon them, whether mixed with other kinds of 
ornament or not. The monuments with incised crosses or incised 
ornament only upon them are described in this section ; but where 
incised work is mixed with sunk, miscellaneous, or Celtic ornament, 
the examples are included in the sections dealing with those classes 
of decoration. 



INCISED CROSSES 

The different types of monuments having incised crosses of 
various forms, either alone or with their upper limbs surrounded by 
a circle, will now be described. 



EQUAL-LIMBED CROSSES AND LATIN CROSSES 
ON WHEEL CROSSES 

Geographical Distribution 



Blisland. 

Lavethan, Nos. 2 and 3. 
Breward, St. 

Middle Moor. 

Deaconstow. 
Budock, Nos. I and 2. 

In churchyard. 
Camborne. 

Pendarves, No. 2. 
Ives, St. 

Penbeacrle. 



Jtist-iji-Penwith, St., No. i. 

In vicarage garden. 
Michaelstow. 

Trevenning, Xos. 2 and 3. 
Neot, St. 

Newtown. 
PJiillack, No. 5. 

Copperhouse. 
Sancreed. 

Trenuggo Hill. 
Wendron, St. 

Boderwennack. 

Manhay-vean. 



238 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



As will be seen, there is a great variety in the forms of the incised 
crosses, and, with the exception of those in the first sub-division, 
given below, very few of them resemble one another. 



Equal-limbed Crosses formed by Two Incised Lines 

There are five examples of this type, which will be found at the 
following places : — 



Blisland 
Breward, St. . 
Just-in-Penwith, St., No. i 
Sancreed 



Lavethan, Nos. 2 and 3. 
Middle Moor. 
In vicarage garden. 
Trenuggo Hill. 



Lavethan No. 2, Blisland 

Blisland, in the Deanery of Bodmin, is situated five miles north 
of Bodmin town. 



h\jl>'i 








Lavethan, the property of Captain Morshead, R.N., is only a few 
minutes' walk in a westerly direction from Blisland churchtown. 

All that is known ^ of this monument is, that it was removed 

' Sir Jolm Maclean, Deanery of Trifrg Minor^ vol. i. p. 25, 



ORNAMENTED CROSSES 239 

many years ago from Blisland Moors, and placed for preservation 
over a well in Lavethan grounds. 

It consists of a small cross-head having upright sides and rounded 
angles. It is set in a base, which, however, does not appear to have 
belonged to the original cross. 

Dimensions. — Height, i ft. 3|^in. ; width, i ft. 5 in.; thickness, 7 in. 

On both front and back is a widely incised cross. The limbs of 
that on the back are approximately the same length, while the lower 
one of that on the front (shown in the drawing) is longer than the 
others. 

Lavethan No. 3, Blisland 

For locality of Lavethan, see last. 

This little cross stands in a field adjoining the garden at 
Lavethan, about ten yards from the plain Latin cross in these 
grounds described on p. 205. 

Dimensions. — Height, 2 ft. 2 in. ; width of 
head, i ft. 4 in. ; width of shaft, 1 1 in. ; thickness, 
7 in. 

On both the front and back of the head is a 
widely incised cross, the limbs being of approxi- .y^^t'iJP^^^^ 
mately equal length. On the front the upper 
limbs are carried to the edge of the stone ; on the back they are 
kept within it. 

Middle Moor, St. Breward 

St, Breward, or Simonward,^ in the Deanery of Trigg Minor, is 
situated seven miles north of Bodmin, and four miles east of St. Kew 
Highway railway-station. 

Sir John Maclean illustrates this cross, and describes it as being 
' beside the ancient track or road leading through Swallock to 
Rough Tor' and Brown Willy, which are the highest points in 

' Locally called ' Semmenward.' 




240 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



Cornwall. He adds : ' Like many, if not most others, it probably- 
served as a guide-post in crossing the moors.' ^ 

The stone is locally known as ' Mid Moor Post' For many 
years it lay on the ground beside its base, which is merely a rough 
piece of moorland granite in situ. Some time ago the cross was 
re-erected. 




.1//'') 



There is a tradition accounting for the fall of this cross which is 
still believed in by the children of the neighbourhood. It is to 
the effect that v^hcnever the cross heard the bells of ' Semmcn- 



' Dcniicry of Trig^ Minor, vol. i. p. 354. 



ORNAMENTED CROSSES 241 

ward ' ring It turned round, and did this so often that at last it 
tumbled down ! 

It is evidently a very old example, and is most rudely executed 
and somewhat mutilated. One side of the head is upright, and the 
other slopes slightly inwards towards the top. The shaft is of 
variable width, and is widest in the middle and narrowest at about a 
foot from the bottom, where the sides are contracted. 

Dimensions. — Height, 5 ft. 5 in. ; width of head, i ft. 8 in. ; width 
of shaft: at the top 15 in., in the middle I7|in., at the bottom 
20 in. ; thickness at the bottom, 8| in., with a slight taper towards 
the top. The base is 4 ft. 7 in. long and 3 ft. 10 in. wide. 

On both the front and back is a widely incised and equal- limbed 
cross, that on the back being rather smaller than the one here 
illustrated. 

St. Just-in-Penwith, No. i. In the Vicarage Garden 

St. Just-in-Penwith, in the Deanery of Penwith, is situated seven 
miles west of Penzance. 

There is no information obtainable regarding 
the original site of this cross ; it has been in this 
garden for a great many years. 

Dimensions. — Height, 2 ft. ; width of head, 

2 ft. 

On both front and back is a wide-limbed 
Latin cross in relief, having in the middle an 
incised cross. On the front both crosses are upright, and on the 
back they are both inclined to the right. 



Trenuggo Hill, Sancreed 

Sancreed, in the Deanery of Penwith, is situated four miles 
west of Penzance. 

The cross stands against the hedge by the right-hand side 

R 




242 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



and near the summit, of Trenuggo Hill, on the high-road from 
Penzance to St. Buryan. 

It is in a very good state of preservation, 
and is probably an early example. As will be 
seen, the head is not over the centre of the shaft 
but leans considerably to the left ; it is, con- 
sequently, lower at the neck on this side than on 
the other. 

Dimensions. — Height, 2 ft. 1 1 in. ; width of 
head, i ft. 9^ in. ; width of shaft, 1 3 in. ; thick- 
ness, 10 in. 

On the exposed side is an incised and equal- 
limbed cross, having a very considerable inclination to the left. 

An equal-limbed Cross with two Horizontal Cross-bars 




Phillack No. 5, Copperhouse 

Phillack, in the Deanery of Penwith, is situated six miles south- 
west of Camborne, and one mile north of Hayle railway-station. 

Copperhouse adjoins Hayle. 

Canon Hockin, of Phillack, kindly sent me a sketch and the 
following particulars relating to the discovery of this example. He 
says : ' In 1855 I dug this cross-head, propriis manibus, out of the wall 
of an old outhouse, where it was used as a building-stone, in the 
rear of a house on the opposite side of the parish which I occupied 
forty years ago. I preserved it, and have now inserted it over the porch 
of a chapel-of-ease which I am building near the place where it was 
found. I enclose a sketch. Note the second transverse line. It was 
placed over the arch of the porch of St. John's Chapel, Copperhouse, 
in 1895.' 

Dimensions. — Height, i ft. 9 in. ; width, i ft. 6 in. 

On the exposed face is a very remarkable cross having a second 
horizontal cross-bar. The example at i)rcscnt is unique. 



ORNAMENTED CROSSES 243 



An equal-limbed Cross with the Lines cut diagonally 

Deaconstow, St. Breward 

St. Breward, in the Deanery of Trigg Minor, is situated seven 
miles north of Bodmin, and three miles east of St. Kew Highway 
railway-station. 

Mr. J. R. Collins, of Bodmin, has kindly reported the discovery 
of another little cross-head, which came to light in the autumn of 
1894. 

He has been told that this monument was standing intact within 
the last seventy years. For the time being, as well as for preserva- 
tion, he has had the cross-head removed to Mr. W. Miller's farm- 
yard at Deaconstow, which is close to where the base lies. 

The base of the cross is on the south side of the road between 
Lank and Penpont, and close to fields called the ' Cross Parks.' 
The shaft is missing, and Mr. Collins thinks that it has been cut up 
and built into a barn at Great Lank. 

Dimensions. — The diameter of the head is 18 in., and the thick- 
ness 8 in. 

On both the front and back is a cross cut diagonally ; the lines 
which form them run out to the edge of the head. They are of the 
shape commonly called a St. Andrew's cross, and both are most 
rudely executed. Up to the present this is the only instance of an 
incised cross of this kind in Cornwall. 



An equal-limbed Cross with expanded Limbs 

Trevenning No. 2, Michaelstow 

Michaelstow, in the Deanery of Trigg Minor, is situated three 
miles south of Camelford, and three miles east of Port Isaac Road 
railway-station. 

R 2 



244 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



Trevenning is a quarter of a mile south of Michaelstow church- 
town. 

This cross is doubtless a very early example, and is the stone 
already referred to, on p. 6j, as having been brought in from Rough 
Tor by Mr. Bastard, of Trevenning ; further 
particulars relating to its recovery will be found 
on that page. 

Dwtensio7is. — Height, 2 ft. ; width of head, 
I ft. 6 in. ; width of shaft, 1 1 in. ; thickness, 7^ in. 
On both the front and back of the head is 
a widely incised, equal-limbed cross, slightly 
expanded at the ends, and having an inclination to the left. 







An equal-limbed Cross surrounded by a Circle 



Pendarves No. 2, Camborne 

Camborne, in the Deanery of Carnmarth, is situated twelve miles 
south-west of Truro, and has a railway-station on the main line. 

Pendarves, the seat of William Cole Pendarves, Esq., J. P., D.L., 
is situated about one and a half miles south of 
Camborne. 

In 1887, while one of Mr. Pendarves's men was 
turning up the soil in the kitchen-garden, he dis- 
covered this curious little cross-head. 

It is very similar to No. 3 cross at Trevenning, 
Michaelstow,^ inasmuch as its shaft is extremely narrow and the 
back of the stone quite plain. There is a bead on the edge, but 
unfortunately the shaft is missing. 

Dimensions. — Height, i ft. 8 in. ; width of head, i ft. 9 in. ; pro- 
bable width of shaft, 6}, in. ; thickness, 9 in. 

Adjoining the bead of the head, and concentric with it, is a deep 
and wide incision, running out at the bottom of the stone ; this, no 




See p. 249. 



ORNAMENTED CROSSES 245 

doubt, originally formed the shaft of the incised Latin cross, which 
would have been continued on the missing portion of the stone 
below. 

An equal-limbed Cross with expanded Ends, surrounded 

BY A Circle 

Budock, No. I. In the Churchyard 

Budock, or St. Budock, in the Deanery of Carnmarth, is situated 
two miles west of Falmouth. 

There are two little wheel crosses in this churchyard, which are 
very similar to each other. They 
will be found, one on either side 
of the path leading from the 
western entrance of the church- 
yard to the tower, and are nearly 
opposite each other. 

No. I cross stands on the 
north side of the path. It will be observed that the diameter of the 
head is only slightly greater than the width of the shaft. 

Dimensions. — Height, 2 ft. ; width of head, i ft. 6 in. ; width of 
shaft, 1 5^ in. ; thickness, 6 in. 

On both the front and back of the head, and some three or four 
inches within the edge, is an incised circle. 

Front. — Within the circle on the head is an incised cross. The 
limbs are very slightly expanded, and are terminated some distance 
within the circle. Across the neck is an incised line. 

Back. — Within the circle on the head are five little holes, ^ one 
central, and the other four coinciding in position with the terminations 
of the cross on the front and back of No. 2 cross in this churchyard 
(shown on next page). 

1 In the Antiquary of October, 1891, a correspondent draws attention to a number of 
these little holes in the Church of the Holy Rood, Stirling. He says : 'A strange peculi- 
arity of this church is that a very large number of the stones, both outside and inside the nave, 
are punctured with an arrangement of five minute circles that form a cross' (a sketch follows, 
showing five little holes like those at Budock ; but the crosses are much smaller, since he 





246 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



An equal-limbed Cross having a round Sinking at the End 
OF each Limb, and surrounded by a Circle 

Budock, No. 2. In the Churchyard 

For locality of Budock, see previous page. In the account of 
No. I cross, there given, further particulars relating to No. 2 cross 
ill be found. 

This cross stands on the south side of the 
path already referred to. 

Dimensions. — Height, 2 ft. 3 in. ; width of 
head, i ft. 7^ in. ; width of shaft, 1 5 in. ; thick- 
ness, 5I in. 

On both the front and back of the head is an 

incised circle, within which is an equal-limbed 

cross having circular terminations of a diameter greater than the 

width of the limbs themselves. These incised crosses are not 

upright, but have an inclination to the right. 

An incised cross similar to this occurs on the stone at Helland, in 
the parish of Mabe. 

Latin Crosses foraied by two Incised Lines 

There are two examples of this type, which will be found at the 
following places : — 

Neot, St. ... Newtown. 

Wendron, St. . . . Boderwennack. 

adds) : * These crosses vary in size from i \ inches to i inch. They are too well finished to 
be accepted as mere " mason's marks," and seem to have been incised after the stones were 
placed in position.' 

I have only seen one other instance. It occurs on a very early cross now in the ruined 
Chapter House at Margam, Glamorganshire, but, unlike the example at JJudock, the holes 
are all close to ether. 



ORNAMENTED CROSSES 247 



Newtown, St. Neot 

St. Neot, in the West Deanery, is situated six miles north of 
Liskeard, and three miles north of Doublebois railway-station. 

Newtown Farm is situated about a quarter of a mile north-east 
of St. Neot churchtown. 

The late Mr. Nicholas Hare, of Liskeard, was the first to notice 
this cross, and kindly communicated with me regarding his discovery. 

It will be found on the left-hand side of 
Newtown Lane, about half a mile beyond the i^'"^t' • 

junction of this lane with that leading- to Hill- I^ulC^ 

town Farm. The stone is now in use as a gate- """ i Li/ 
post, the gate at present being hung to the \/&-Jt .*■. » 

Opposite post. The hole in the shaft was pro- /M^^':^!' iij 

bably made at some earlier period, for the inser- aI1w -^^^ I 

tion of a 'lug,' or iron support for a gate. .^.^mki-^'k^^^ 

As may be imagined, the continual jambing 
has been the cause of serious injury to the monument. The sides of 
the head are broken off, and the chipped condition of the whole stone 
renders its classification most difficult. From what remains of the 
outline, however, it would appear to have originally been a round- 
headed cross having somewhat flattened sides. 

Dimensions. — Height, 2 ft. 7 in. ; width of head, about \2\m. ; 
width of shaft : at the neck 11 in., at the bottom 12 in. ; thickness. 
Sin. 

The drawing shows the front of the cross, which now faces the 
road. On it is an incised Latin cross, each limb being carried to 
the extremity of the stone. Most of the back is hidden, and the 
upper limbs of the cross upon it are not carried to the edge of the 
head. 

Boderwennack, St. Wendron 

St. Wendron, in the Deanery of Kerrler, Is situated two and a 
half miles north of Helston. 




248 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 

Boderwennack estate is situated south of St. Wendron church- 
town, and is bordered on the east by the Trevennen estate. 

This Httle cross-head was found by the late Mr. S. J. Wills, of 
St. Wendron, who wrote to me shortly after making his discovery. 
He informed me that on March 20, 1892, his attention was drawn 

to a peculiar-looking stone built side- 
^|f^*°l> ways into the right-hand angle of a 
|-^^i^;Pi:| hedge at the junction of the lane 
^^^^^^^ running past his house at Trevennen 
with that leading from St. Wendron 
to Helston, about one mile south of the churchtown. On the 7th 
of the following month he dug out the cross, and removed it to a 
place of safety. Shortly afterwards he found the base near the 
same spot, but broken in two. The accompanying drawing ^ is 
made from a rubbing he kindly sent me. 

Dimensions. — From the rubbing the cross would appear to be 
about 12 in. high and 15 in, wide. 

On the front is a small incised Latin cross. On the back is a 
cross in relief with expanded ends which, when entire, was probably 
equal limbed. 

Note. — Shortly after the death of Mr. Wills his wife removed 
to Wendron Street, Helston, taking the cross with her. 



A Latin Cross with expanded Limbs 

Penbeagle, St. Ives 

St. Ives, in the Deanery of Penwith, Is situated nine miles 
north-cast of Penzance, and has a railway-station. 

Penbeagle is a farm situated one mile south-west of St. Ives. It 
is ap|)roached by a lane which turns out of the left-hand side of the 
main road frf)in St. Ives to llalsctown. 

' Tliis is tlic only drawing in this work of a cross which I have not seen, and tliat has 
been made from any rubbings or sketches except my ou n. 



ORNAMENTED CROSSES 



249 



Urn.' m 



The cross stands on the grassy border of the lane, near the 
western angle formed by the junction of the road and lane. 

This cross has been considerably mutilated. 
All the left side of the head and parts of the angles 
of the shaft have been broken off. Enough, 
however, of the original shape remains to show 
that the cross belongs to the round-headed type. 

Dimensions. — Height, 3 ft. i in. ; present 
width of head, i ft. 5 in. ; present width of shaft, 
15 in. ; thickness, 8 in. 

On the front is an incised Latin cross with 
the ends suddenly expanded, the upper limbs 
being upon the head of the stone. On the back of the shaft is 
cut a reversed B (3), about nine inches high, showing that the cross 
has been adopted as a boundary-stone. 




A Latin Cross having the Upper Limbs surrounded by a 
Circle on the Head 



Trevenning No. 3, Michaelstow 

Michaelstow, in the Deanery of Trigg Minor, is situated three 
miles south of Camelford, and three miles east of Port Isaac Road 
railway-station. 

This is one of the crosses already referred to ' as having been in 
Mr. Bastard's garden at Trevenning for many years. 

The circular head surmounts a very narrow shaft, 
and in general appearance much resembles the cross- 
head at Pendarves (No. 2), Camborne, described on 
p. 244. 

Dimensions. — Height, i ft. 10 in. ; width of 
head, i ft. 6 in. ; width of shaft, 7^ in. ; thickness, 5 in. 

On the front is a widely incised circle, concentric with the outline 
of the head. Within this circle, and running into it, are the upper 

1 See No. i cross at Trevenning, Michaelstow, p. 67. 




Wi%-- 



250 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



limbs of an incised Latin cross, the shaft of which is carried through 
the circle to the bottom of the stone. The arms, which are usually 
horizontal, slope considerably upwards from right to left. The back 
of the stone is plain. 

A Latin Cross with the Upper Limbs expanded, and 

SURROUNDED BY A CiRCLE ON THE HeAD 



Manhay-vean^ St. Wendron 

St. Wendron, or St. Gwendron, in the Deanery of Kerrier, is 
situated two and a half miles north of Helston. 

Manhay-vean Farm is about a mile south-east of St. Wendron 
churchtown. 

This monument formerly stood by the four cross-roads, at a 

point equidistant from the 
villages of Manhay and 
Trevennen, where the 
road from Gweek to 
Redruth crosses the Hel- 
ston and Falmouth high- 
way. About the year 
1780 the cross was re- 
moved from its original 
site — which was probably 
the centre of the cross- 
roads — and appears to 
have subsequently been 
ruthlessly mutilated by being cleft longitudinally near the middle with 
wedges, the marks of which still remain. 

Some thirty years ago {c. i860) the larger of the two remaining 
portions was built horizontally into the bottom of the hedge at one of 
the adjacent angles of these roads, where it lay until the spring of 1 887, 
when it was discovered by the late Mr. S. J. Wills, of St. Wendron, 
to whom I am indebted for these particulars. After some search he 





ORNAMENTED CROSSES 251 

found the smaller piece, which had been broken from the side of the 
head, and, assisted by Mr. John Stephens, he fixed the remnants of the 
cross at a corner of the roads ; but a few days afterwards it was 
wantonly thrown down by some boys. Mr. Stephens then removed 
the two portions for preservation to his farmyard at Manhay-vean, 
where they now lie. 

The missing portions of the cross include a small piece from 
the top of the head, nearly half of the side, and probably two or 
three feet from the bottom of the shaft, as the uneven fracture 
clearly shows that it was once higher. 

Dimensions. — Height, 4 ft. 3 in. ; width of head, 2 ft. ; width of 
shaft when complete, about 16 in. ; thickness, Sin. 

Front. — On the head, and some three inches within the outline, is 
an incised circle, which contains the three upper limbs of a Latin 
cross, also incised, and having slightly expanded ends. Its shaft is 
of equal width, and is carried to the bottom of the stone. 

Back. — On the head is a projecting bead, the lower ends of which 
are stopped near the sides of the raised cross. Within, and carried 
to the inside edge of this bead, are the three upper limbs of a Latin 
cross in relief having expanded ends ; its shaft was probably carried 
to the bottom of the stone originally. 



EQUAL-LIMBED CROSSES AND LATIN CROSSES, 
ON LATIN CROSSES 



Geographical Distribution 



Austell^ St. 

In churchyard. 
Blisland. 

Lavethan, No. 4. 

Tregaddick. 
Godolphin. 

In churchyard. 
Lansallos. 

Highertown. 



Neot, St. 

In vicarage garden, Nos. 2 
and 3. 

Hilltown. 

In the village, No. 4. 
NorthilL 

Trebartha. 
Temple, Nos. 2, 3, and 4. 

In churchyard. 



2^2 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



Equal-limbed Crosses formed by two straight Lines 

There are two examples of this type, which will be found at the 
following places : — 

Blisland .... Tregaddick. 
Godolphin . . . .In churchyard. 

Tregaddick, Blisland 

For locality of Blisland, see p. 254. 

Tregaddick, the new residence of Sir Warwick Morshead, Bart., 
is situated about a mile north-west of Blisland churchtown, and is 
near Key Bridge. 

Mr. J. R. Collins, of Bodmin, who brought this cross to my 
notice, says he has been informed by a man who assisted at its 
removal that it was found near St. Pratt's Well, in this parish. 



r 






■ ■■■ 'o 



Godolphin. In the Churchyard 



"'-•''0&k Godolphin is a modern parish formed out 

V-V^f -A *f^^ of St. Breage. It is in the Deanery of 

^M0-KM. Kerrier ; the churchtown is situated four and 

St"?'. iiM ^ ^^^f miles north-west of Helston. 
^ "^^ '$^ The Rev. S. Rundle, vicar of Godolphin, 

^ W^U informs me that this cross was formerly used 

W'\'0'''''§ ^^ ^ gatepost on the Chytodden estate, but, 

i'?^ipr/rf;'^M ^y providing another stone in its place, he was 

i ' "^ allowed on March 2, 1886, to remove it to 

iV '.%'^^ ^he churchyard for preservation. ' The foot 

)' - If of the shaft is squared, as if for insertion in 

«^^;; * , 1^ a socket, of which there was no trace.' 
^^"■''^"^m '^'^^ cross is most irregularly executed, 

■V ''^"^P '^nd in section is nearly circular — a very 

■■-^^^^^^i^^:m^.. uncommon shai)e. 



ORNAMENTED CROSSES 253 

Dimensions. — Height, 6 ft. 6 in. ; width, i ft. 1 1^ in. The width 
of the shaft varies considerably, but at the top it is 13 in., and at the 
bottom about 1 2 in. 

On the upper portion of the stone is a small incised cross having 
limbs of about equal length. 

An equal-limbed Cross with expanded Limbs 

St. Austell. In the Churchyard 

St. Austell, in the Deanery of St. Austell, is situated fourteen 
miles north-east of Truro, and has a railway-station on the main 
line. 

I am indebted to the Rev. W. lago, of Bodmin, for the follow- 
ing historical particulars regarding this cross. 

The cross is now fixed in a modern base, and 
stands near the eastern end of the church. ' It was 
found by Mr. Edward Geach near the boundary-line 
of St. Austell and Luxulyan parishes, on the manor of 
Treverbyn, in the parish of St. Austell. The said 
spot is in a straight line from the site of the priory at 
Tywardreath and the ancient chapel at Treverbyn. 
It was about eighteen inches below the surface, and 
stood erect, facing east and w^est, and at the bottom was surrounded 
by a quantity of small stones.' 

Dimensions. — Height, 2 ft. 7^ in. ; width, i ft. 3 in. ; width of 
shaft, average, \o\ in. ; thickness, 7^ in. 

On the base is inscribed : — 

FOUND, 1879, ON THE MANOR OF TREVERBYN, WAS 
ERECTED HERE 1 89 1 

The manor of Treverbyn is situated three miles north-east of St. 
Austell. 




2 54 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



Incised Latin Crosses 

The only variety in these crosses is the extent to which the 
limbs are carried on the stones themselves. In some cases the 
shafts of the crosses are carried to the bottom of the stone, and in 
others they are stopped above it. 

There are seven examples of this type, which will be found at the 
following places : — 

Blisland ..... Lavethan, No. 4. 
Neot, St., Nos. 2 and 3 . .In vicarage garden. 

,,..... Hilltown. 
Temple, Nos. 2, 3, and 4 . .In churchyard. 

Lavethan No. 4, Blisland 

Blisland, in the Deanery of Bodmin, is situated five miles north- 
east of Bodmin town. 

Lavethan, the property of Captain Morshead, R.N., is only a few 
minutes' walk in a westerly direction from Blisland 
churchtown. 

This cross is said to have been removed from 
Blisland Moors for preservation.^ The stone 
is broken across near the bottom. 

Dimensions. — Height, 2 ft. 3 in. ; width, 14 in. ; 
^''^^^^^^M^ width of shaft, 9 in. 

On both the front and back is an incised 
Latin cross, the shaft in each case not being carried to the bottom 
of the stone. 

St. Neot, No. 2. In the Vicarage Garden 

St. Neot, in the West Deanery, is situated six miles north-west 
of Liskeard, and three miles north-west of Doublebois railway- 
station. 

' Sir John Maclean, Deanery of Trt\og Minor, vol. i. p. 25. 




ORNAMENTED CROSSES 



2i 



SMSmMu 






Like most of the Latin crosses in Cornwall, this one is very 
irregularly executed. It will be seen that the left limb is much wider 
than the right, and that the upper one has 
been broken off; while the shaft is rather 
chipped in places. 

Dimensions. — Height, 2 ft. 5 in. ; width, 
2 ft. 7 in. ; thickness, 8 in. 

On both the front and back is a cross ; 
the upper limbs of each appear to be the 
same length, and are rather longer than 
usual, and the shafts are carried to the bottom of the stone 




St. Neot, No. 3. In the Vicarage Garden 

For locality of St. Neot, see last. 

In this case the horizontal limbs are 
much narrower than the others, and the 
upper one is rather chipped at the top. 

Dimensions. — Height, 4 ft. 9 in. ; width, 
2 ft. 3 in. ; width of shaft : at the neck 
13^ in., at the bottom I4|in. ; thickness: 
at the bottom 1 1 in., at the neck 8 in., at 
the top 6 in. 

On both the front and back is an in- 
cised cross. The upper limbs are very 
short, and the shaft is carried to the 
bottom of the stone. 




pr 




Hilltown, St. Neot 



For locality of St. Neot, see p. 254. 

Hilltown Farm is situated about half a mile west-north-west 
of St. Neot churchtown. 

The cross stands on top of a high, rough stone hedge on the 



256 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



north side of the farm-buildings, and was brought to my notice by 

the late Mr. Nicholas Hare, of Liskeard. 

It is^ irregularly executed and somewhat 
chipped. 

Dhnensions. — Height, 2 ft. 6 in. ; width, 1 ft. 
9|^in. ; width of shaft, 13 in. ; thickness : at the 
bottom 9 in., at the top 8 in. 

On both the front and back is an incised 
cross, the limbs of which appear to have origin- 
ally extended to the edges of the stone. Each cross has a marked 
inclination to the right. 






Temple, No. 2. In the Churchyard 



Temple, in the Deanery of Bodmin, is situated six miles north- 
east of Bodmin town. 

As already mentioned, on p. 205, there are several 
crosses in this churchyard. No. 2 being the smallest. 
Dimensions. — Height, 18 in.; width, 12^ in. 
On both the front and back is a cross, the upper 
limbs of each being rather longer in proportion to those usually found. 




Temple, No. 3. In the Churchyard 



For locality of Temple, see last. 

This cross is somewhat similar to the one just described. 

The upper limb is lost, and the shaft is much wider 
at the top than at the bottom. 

Dimensions. — Heic^ht, i ft. 9 in. ; width, i ft. 7 in. ; 
width of shaft : at the top 9^ in., at the bottom 7 in. 
On the upper portion is an incised Latin cross. 




ORNAMENTED CROSSES 



257 



Temple, No. 4. In the Churchyard 

For locality of Temple, see p. 256. 

This cross is very similar to that last described, but is much 
smaller, and has also lost its upper limb. 

Dimensions. — Height, 11 in.; width, 13 in. ; width of shaft, 7 in. 

The cross upon it, however, is much larger ; the horizontal limbs 
are carried almost to the ends of the arms, and the shaft runs out to 
the bottom of the stone, which is here unevenly fractured. 

Miscellaneous Latin Crosses with the addition of sundry 
Architectural Features, but having incised Latin Crosses 

UPON THEM similar TO THOSE ALREADY DESCRIBED 

There are three unclassified examples, which will be found at 
the following places : — 

Lansallos . . . Highertown. 

Neot, St., No. 4 . .In the village. 

Northill .... Trebartha. 



Highertown, Lansallos 

Lansallos, in the West Deanery, is situ- 
ated seven miles south-west of Looe, and 
thirteen miles south-west of Liskeard rail- 
way-station. 

Highertown Is a farm adjoining the 
western end of the churchyard. 

The cross will be found just beyond the 
gateway, near the north-west end of the 
hedge which separates the first two fields 
on the west side of the churchyard. It is 
now lying on the ground, and has evidently 




mrn^^M 




258 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



been in this position for a number of years, as its upper surface is 
now almost le\'el with that of the ground. 

This stone is in a very good state of preservation and is of unique 
shape ; but as its description in detail would occupy too much space, 
the reader is referred to the illustration. 

Dijnensions. — Total length, 5 ft. ; width across the arms, 2 ft. 6 in. ; 
width of shaft, 1 1 in. ; thickness, 8 in. 

On the upper, or exposed surface, is the largest incised Latin 
cross at present discovered in Cornwall. The horizontal limbs are 
very long, and slope slightly downwards. 



^Ji 




ly.r.lrH'f; 



St. Neot, No. 4. In the Village 

St. Neot, in the West Deanery, is situated six miles north of 
Liskeard, and three miles north by west of Doublebois railway- 
station. 

I am indebted to the late Mr. Nicholas 
Hare, of Liskeard, for communicating with me 
regarding this cross, as well as those at Hill- 
town and Newtown (described on pp. 255 
and 247), both of which were, I believe, found 
by him. 

This cross is now used as a gatepost, and 
will be found by crossing over the bridge in 
St. Neot village, and turning almost immedi- 
ately to the left. The giiteway is the second 
on the left-hand side of the lane leading to 
Lampen. 

In addition to the two holes in the right 
side of the cross, containing the hooks to 
which the gate is now hung, there is a third 
hole, just above the lower hook. 

The right, and also the up[)er limb of 
the cross, have been knocked off, and on the loj) of the stone a 
wide notch has been cut, as if it had been utilised for a supj)ort of 
some kind previous to its jiresent use. 




ORNAMENTED CROSSES 259 

Diineiisions. — Height, 5 ft. '\ in. ; width of shaft : at llic toj) 
I3jin., at the bottom i5^in. ; thickness: at the bottom 10 in., at 
the neck 9I in. 

A pecuhar feature is the shallow flat sinking, or rebate, which 
forms a border round the edge of the stone. It is one and a half 
inches wide, and about three-eighths of an inch deep. To illustrate 
this more distinctly a plan of the stone is given. Another border of 
this kind will be found on No. i cross at Trevenning, Michaelstow 

(p. 67). 

On both the front and back is an incised cross, the shaft of each 
being carried to the bot torn of the stone, 

Trebartha, Northill 

Northill, in the Deanery of Trigg Major, is situated seven miles 
south-west of Launceston, 

Trebartha Hall, the seat of Francis Rashleigh Rodd, Esq., 
J. P., D. L., is about one mile north-west 
of Northill churchtown. f''^- 8 

This cross is now placed over a well CL--^^, ''^-ij 

in Trebartha grounds, near the house. ^^^'^iW^''*- 

Mr. Rodd tells me that he found ^^''■^^, ,' ^^ a, 

the cross built into the gable of an . 5 % % jV 

old cottage near Trebartha. ^^^''-^tI:'^ 

The stone has widely chamfered .,i'»A?>^'feX^ 
edges, and is rather chipped at the 

bottom ; it is now mounted on a round base, which appears to De a 
' kep.' 1 

Dwiensions. — Heicrht, 2 ft. 2 in. ; width across the arms, i ft. 
7 in. ; thickness : at the bottom 8 in., at the top 7 in. 

On both the front and back is an incised cross with expanded 
limbs. That on the front resembles a Latin cross, and has a curious 
termination to the lower limb. That on the back is equal limbed, 
measuring ten inches either way. 

^ ' Keps and posses,' probably a corruption of ' caps and posts,' are the Cornish names 
for the stones used in keeping a rick above the ground. 

s 2 



26o OLD CORNISH CROSSES 

South Trekeive, St. Cleer 

St. Cleer, in the West Deanery, is situated two and a half miles 
north of Liskeard. 

South Trekeive estate is about one and a half miles north-west 
of St. Cleer. 

The monument stands in situ by the right-hand side of a moor- 
land road leading from South Trekeive to Tregarrick, and near the 
turning to Crylla Farm. 

Of the cross itself only the shaft remains, the head having been 
knocked off long before the memory of anyone now living. Some 
years ago, when a gatepost was required in the neighbourhood, it was 
sought to use the shaft for this purpose. Attempts were accord- 
ingly made, by means of a horse and chains, to drag it out of the base, 
but so firmly was it fixed that, fortunately, all efforts proved abortive. 

Except in one place, the base is overgrown with turf, so that 
without digging it was impossible to ascertain its size. 

Dimensions. — Height of shaft, 5 ft. ; average width of same, 
14 in. ; thickness : at the bottom 10.} in., at the top 7-| in. 

In the middle of the shaft, on both front and back, is a widely 
incised line, running from the top to the bottom. This line was 
probably the shaft of an incised cross, the upper portion of which is 
missing, with the head. 

CROSSES IN OUTLINE 
Geographical Distribution 
ISf.B.— All these examples occur on wheel crosses. 



Buryan^ St. 

Vcllansajer. 
Constantitie. 

Bosvathick. 

Mcrthcn. 
Cury. 

In churchyard. 
Gerrans. 

In cliurch\ ard. 



H els ton. No. 2. 

Cross Street. 
Just-in-PcmvitJi, St., No. 2. 

In vicarage garden. 
Ludgvan. 

Crovvlas. 
Sancrecd. 

Branc. 
Wcndron, St. 

Mcrthcr Uny Cro.ss 



ORNAMENTED CROSSES 261 

An equal-limbed Cross 
Helston, No. 2. Cross Street 

Helston, in the Deanery of Kerrier, is situated ten miles south- 
west of Penryn, and has a railway-station about a mile from the 
town. 

This cross-head stands on the pavement, against ^^^^W^ 

the boundary-wall of a garden in Cross Street. ifeii.'^^X^'^ 

It is a very small specimen, and somewhat "^fe^SJ 
injured, especially the lower portion. 

Dimensions. — Height, r ft. \\ in. ; width, i ft. 6 in. ; thickness, 
6 in. 

Only the front is visible, on which is incised an irregular cross 
having expanded limbs approximately of the same length. In the 
centre is a small conical hole. 

Incised Latin Crosses in Outline 

There are four examples of this type, which will be found at the 
following places : — 

Constantine .... Bosvathick. 

,, ... Merthen. 

Gerrans . . . .In churchyard. 

Wendron, St. . . . Merther Uny Cross. 

Bosvathick, Constantine 

Constantine, in the Deanery of Kerrier, is situated six miles east 
of Helston. 

Bosvathick, the residence of T. M. A. Horsford, Esq., J. P., is 
one and a half miles south of Constantine churchtown. 

The cross stands in a round base on the left-hand side of the 



262 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



drive entering from the lodge. It was, when this drawing was made, 
thickly covered with ivy, especially on the back. 

,._ Dimensions. — Height, ^ 






ft. 6 in. ; width of head, 2 ft. 
I in. ; width of shaft : at the 
neck 18 in., at the bottom 
1 6 in. ; thickness, Sin. The 
base is 2 ft. 10 in. in diameter 
and 8 in. thick. 

Front. — The front (here 
shown) faces the drive, and 
has upon it an irregularly 
executed Latin cross in low 
relief 

Back. — On the back is 
an incised Latin cross similar 
in outline to, but more regular than, that on the front, but the 
thickness of the ivy prevented a drawing of it being made. 




Merthen, Constantine 

For locality of Constantine, see last. 

Merthen, the residence of John Tyacke, Esq., is situated about a 
mile and a half south of Constantine churchtown. 

Mr. Tyacke informed me that the cross was 
dug out of a hedge at Brilleigh, or 13 rill, about 
a mile and a half from Merthen. 

Both sides of the stone are alike, the bead 
on the head being carric;d down the angles of 
the shaft, like those on the crosses at Withiel, 
Trebehor, and Tremoor. 

Dimensions. — Height, 2 ft. 8 in. ; width of 
head, i ft. 10 in. ; width of shaft, i ft. 2 in. 
On both the front and back is an incised Latin cross in outline, 
which, with the exce])tion of llic thickness of the bead at tlu; to|), is 
the full heiL{ht of the slone. 










ORNA ME NT ED CROSSES 



263 



Gerrans. In the Churchyard 

Gerrans, in the- Deanery of Powder, is situated nine miles south 
of Truro. 

This cross was formerly used as one of the coping-stones of the 
churchyard wall, but is now mounted on a modern base near the 
south porch. 



fii:'lt^. - 



'*' ■ \iftif ::ia '''^■■»->r <<- 










It is a very fine monolith, but is much worn, and seems to have 
suffered from its previous usage. On the right side the outline of 



264 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 

the head joins that of the shaft somewhat suddenly, while on the left 
it runs on to it by an easy curve, but at a lower level. The entasis on 
the south side of the shaft is very marked. 

Dinie7isions. — Height, 6 ft. 9 in. ; width of head, 2 ft. i in. ; width 
of shaft: at the neck 13^ in., at the bottom 16 in. ; thickness: at 
the bottom 10^ in., at the neck 11 in. 

There are very few instances in which the crosses on the head 
are so indistinct as those on the front and back of this cross, though 
in some lights they can be traced, and are perfectly distinct on a 
rubbing. 

Merther Uny Cross, St. Wendron 

St. Wendron, in the Deanery of Kerrier, is situated two and a 
half miles north of Helston. 

Merther Uny is two miles south-east of St. Wendron church- 
town. 

I am indebted to the late Mr. S. J. Wills, of St. Wendron, for 
the historical particulars in connection with this monument. 

The cross stands in situ on the Merther Uny estate, on Polglaze 
Hill, by the left-hand side of the road from St. Wendron to Constan- 
tine. Formerly there was a road leading down to Merther Uny old 
churchyard, the entrance to which was close to the cross ; but all 
traces of this road have now disappeared. 

A tradition is still believed in the neighbourhood that a man lies 
buried beneath the cross. 

The monolith is locally known as ' Mcruny Cross,' and the visitor 
will save much time by inquiring for it under that name. 

It was damaged by some harvesters carelessly driving their 
waggon through the now filled-up gateway just referred to ; the wheels 
passed over the base, and broke a large portion out of the north-east 
angle, as well as a piece off the side of the shaft, near the bottom. 

This is one of th(; monuments which have been decorated by the 
broad arrow, or C^rdnance Survey mark. 

The cross generally is much worn, and the surfaces are very rough. 
The head is almost circular, and the shaft, which shows an entasis on 



ORNAMENTED CROSSES 



265 



one side only, has chamfered angles. On the front they are stopped 
at the neck, but on the back they are carried round the head. 

Dimensions. — Height, 6 ft. 2 in. ; width of head, i ft. loin, ; 
width of shaft : at the top 13 in., at the bottom 15I in. ; thickness : 
at the bottom 13 in., at the neck 1 1 in. 

Front. — On the front is a Latin cross, the shaft of which is con- 
tinued to within a few inches of the base. At the bottom it is widely 




expanded, forming a kind of foot, or stand. Parallel to the upper 
limbs, and contained in the head, are incised lines carried nearly 
to the outline of the head ; and in the middle of the cross a small 
circular hole is sunk. 

Back. — With the exception of the expanded foot on the shaft and 
the incised lines in the spandrels, the cross on the back is similar to 
that on the front, and its shaft is curved, as if to follow the line of 
the entasis. 

The broad arrow is cut on this face, near the bottom of the shaft. 



266 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



Miscellaneous Forms of Latin Crosses 

There are four unclassified examples, which will be found at the 
following places : — 

Buryan, St. . . . Vellansajer. 

Cury . . . .In churchyard. 

Ludgvan .... Crowlas, 
Sancreed .... Brane. 



Vellansajer, St. Buryan 

St. Buryan, or Burian, in the Deanery of Penwith, is situated 
six miles south-west of Penzance. 

Vellansajer, or Vellansager, is a small village situated about a 

mile and a quarter east of St. 
Buryan churchtown, on the road 
to Newlyn. 

The cross stands In Its circular 
base on the left-hand side of the 
road, against the outside boundary- 
wall of a cottage, and faces the 
road. 

It is much worn. The bead 
round the head disappears as It 
joins the shaft, so that It Is Impos- 
sible to say where It originally 
terminated. 
Dimensions. — Height, 3 ft. 6 In. ; width of head, i ft 9 In. ; width 
of shaft, 14 in. ; thickness, 8 In. 

(Jn the front is an incised Latin cross in outline, extending from 
beneath the bead at the top of the head to the bottom of the stone. 
The three upper limbs are upon the head, and have expanded ends 
and curved sides, and the shaft is gradually widened towards the 
bottom. It will be noticed that the triangular portions between the 




t^^t^^^^i 



ORNAMENTED CROSSES 267 

liml)s of the cross are wrought in a similar manner to those on the 
cross in Penzance Market-place. 

Only a very small portion of the upper i)art of the back is visible, 
and this only by removing a few generations of snail-shells, ^ec, 
the accommodation for which is just sufficient between the cross and 
the wall. It appears to be similar to the front. 

Cury. In the Churchyard 

Cury, in the Deanery of Kerrier, is situated five miles south-east 
of Helston. 

With regard to the restoration of this monument, which is said 
to be the old churchyard cross, the following joarticulars, sent me by 
Canon Rogers, of Gwennap, will be of interest. It appears that for 
many years the cross lay in a ditch, detached from its base, which 
then lay near it. The ditch in question was formed by the sloping 
angle of the churchyard and the boundary-hedge. On May 16, 1849, 
the two portions were placed in their present position at a guess (the 
original site being unknown, though it may be assumed to have been 
somewhere near), the Rev. William Broadley (the then incumbent), 
Mr. J. D. Enys and his father and mother, and others, being present 
at the time. The bottom of the cross fitted the socket so well that 
there can be no doubt of their being parts of the same monument. 

With the exception of the north cross in Lanivet churchyard, this 
is one of the tallest wheel crosses in Cornwall. The entasis is very 
marked on the shaft, which is widest in the middle. 

Dimensions. — Height, 9 ft. 2 in. ; width of head, i ft. 8 in. ; width 
of shaft: at the bottom 11 in., at the neck 12^ in. The thickness 
is not the same on both sides. East side : 1 2 in. at the neck, and 
15 in. at the bottom ; west side : 10^ in. at the neck, and 16 in. at the 
bottom. 

On the front is an incised Latin cross of curious form, which 
extends about two-thirds of the whole height. It is not placed in 
the middle, but towards the right side. The upper portion is cut on 
the head of the stone, and is composed of an equal-limbed cross with 



268 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



concave and expanded limbs ; but the lines which usually enclose the 
ends are omitted, except in the case of the lower one, where they are 
cut horizontally inwards for a short distance, at different levels. 







From the inner ends of these lines the narrowed shaft descends ; it 
is formed of two incised lines, slightly curved to the right, and termi- 
nated by a widely expanded triangular end, which forms a kind of foot 
or base to the cross. 



ORNAMENTED CROSSES 



269 



Crowlas, Ludgvan 



Ludgvan, in the Deanery of Penwith, is situated three and a half 
miles north-east of Penzance. 

Crowlas is a hamlet half a mile east of Ludgvan, on the road 
from Penzance to Redruth. 

The cross is built into a hedge on the left-hand side of the road 
from Ludgvan to St. Erth, and will be found 
on the northern side of a gateway leading into 
one of the fields, and close to one of the gate- 
posts. 

Dimensions. — Total height, 3 ft. ; width of 
head, i ft. 9 in. ; width of shaft, i ft. 3 in. ; 
thickness, 1 1 in. 

On the exposed side is an incised Latin 
cross in outline, the shaft of which runs down 
to the bottom of the stone. Owing to the 

dilapidated condition of the head, portions of the upper limbs are 
now missing. The back being embedded in the hedge, makes an 
inspection impossible without excavation. 




Brane, Sancreed 



Sancreed, in the Deanery of Penwith, is situated four miles west 
of Penzance. 

Brane, or Brahane, is an estate situated about one and a half 
miles south-west of Sancreed church. 

The cross now forms a boundary-stone between the Brane and 
Boswarthen estates, the latter being between Brane and Sancreed, 

It stands at the angle of the hedge formed by an ancient and 
very rough road and the short pathway, approached by a stile, which 
leads up to Burnt House, a farm-building in the occupation of 
Mr. Boase. 



2/0 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



The head of this monument has been considerably mutilated. 
Di7nensions. — Height, 5 ft. 4 in. 




^jM.^ 




width of head, i ft. 10 in. ; 
width of shaft : at the top 
14^ in., at the bottom iS in. ; 
thickness throughout, 9 in. 

Front. — On this face is 
an incised Latin cross in 
outline having slightly ex- 
panded limbs. As a result 
of the mutilation, the ends 
of the upper limbs have dis- 
appeared, so it is now im- 
possible to say how or where 
they terminated. 

Back. — On the back is a 
Latin cross in relief having 
expanded ends and splayed 
edges, the upper limbs being carried to the outline of the head. 







A Latin Cross having the Figure of Our Lord in relief 

UPON IT 

St. Just-in-Penwith, No. 2. In the Vicarage Garden 

St. Just-in-Pcnwith, in the Deanery of Penwith, is situated seven 
miles west of Penzance. 

The cross now stands In a little rockery in this garden.' It 
formerly stood in its base near the south-west entrance to the 
churchyard, where the latter still remains m situ. This is pro- 
bably part of the cross represented by another author as having 
a much longer shaft, thus showing that when roughly displaced it 
must have been broken, and the lower portion of the shaft since lost. 

The Rev. J. Andrewes Reeve has given me the following inter- 



' Since the above was written this cross has been removed to the new cemetery, ;iinl 
erected on a base of three stcj)s. 



ORNAMENTED CROSSES 



271 




_i^^ 




Mr. Reeve has since 



esting notes on this cross : ' Old men remember it in its original 

position at the south-west corner of the churchyard, and they t('ll 

me that after service on Sunday mornings the sexton used t<j mount 

the steps on which it stood 

and give out notices of sales, 

&.C. It was removed into the 

vicarage garden by the Rev. 

J. Duller, and was afterwards 

thrown down the well by 

the famous (!) Mr. Gorham. 

There I found it, covered 

with mud, and the crucifixion downwards.' 

informed me that another cross ^ was thrown down this well at the 

same time ; but his efforts to obtain it were unsuccessful, as the 

water could not be lowered sufficiently for the purpose. 

Dimensions. — Height, 2 ft. 4 in. ; width of head, i ft. 9^in. ; 
width of shaft, 10 in. ; thickness, 9 in. The base is 3 ft. long by 2 ft. 
4 in. wide. In the middle is an oval mortice, the longer diameter of 
which is 14 in., and the shorter, 1 1 in. 

Front. — On the edge of the head and shaft is a continuous bead 
in low relief; and within is an incised Latin cross, the shaft of w'hich 
is carried down the stone, and is indicated by the incised line of the 
bead. On this cross is sculptured in relief a most curious figure of 
Christ. The arms are expanded at the ends, showing the sleeves of 
the tunic, and the hips are much exaggerated. The fracture of the 
shaft occurs six inches below the cross-head, so that the lower 
portion of the legs and feet is missing. 

Back. — On the head, but placed low down on the right side, is a 
wide-limbed Latin cross incised in outline. Judgino- from its 
position on the stone, it was either cut at some later period, or the 
large piece at the top and side was broken off before the work was 
completed. 

' A small Latin gable cross, inscribed with the Chi Rho monogram, was brought to St. 
Just church from St. Helen's chapel. Cape Cornwall. This has been missing for many years 
and it is just possible it may still be in the well. An engraving of this cross will be found in 
Blight (p. 61) ; see also ArchcEologia Cambrcnsis, 5th series, \ol. x. p. 97. 



272 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



CROSSES PARTIALLY IN OUTLINE 
Geographical Distribution 

Day, St. 

Tregullow, No. 2. 
Hilary, St. 

In churchyard. 



Landezvednack. 

Lizard. 
Tywardreath. 

Tregaminion, No. 2. 



With an equal-limbed Cross in relief on the Head and 
THE Shaft indicated in Outline by an incised Line 

There are two examples of this type, which will be found at the 
following places : — 

Day, St. . . . Tregullow, No. 2. 

Tywardreath . . . Tregaminion, No. 2. 

Tregullow No 2, St. Day 
St. Day, or St. Dye, is a modern parish formed out of Gwennap. 

It is in the Deanery of 
Carnmarth, and is situated 
about two miles east of 
Redruth, and one and 
three-quarter miles south 
of Scorrier Gate railway- 
station. 

Tregullow is the pro- 
perty and late residence 
of Sir William Robert 
Williams, Bart. 

The cross now stands, 
on the opposite side of 
the path, in these grounds, 
facing No. i cross, already 
described. 

Mr. John L^. Enys, of 
P>nys, Penryn, has been 
able to supply me with 
the following interesting particulars relating to the history of this 




ORNAMENTED CROSSES 273 

stone. It is supposed to have originally stood at the four cross- 
roads situated between Ponsanooth and Pengreep. Mr. J. D. Enys 
says his mother remembers it while in use as a gatepost. The cross 
was then a little below the cross-roads, on the left-hand side, near 
the top of the hill, on the Redruth side of Ponsanooth, and not far 
from the old turnpike which once stood here, but is now demolished. 

Blight mentions the cross ; and I have somewhere seen a rough 
sketch of a cross at Ponsanooth which is sufficiently like the Tregullow 
stone to be identified with it. 

It has been used as a gatepost, as is apparent by the two holes 
cut in the back of the shaft to take the lugs for supporting the gate- 
hinges. The stone has been mutilated to a great extent. The left 
side of the head is gone, and the beads formerly on all the angles of 
the shaft now only remain on the right side. Those on the left 
appear to have been deliberately cut off 

Dimensions. — Height, 5 ft. 8 in. ; width of head, originally, about 
i8in. ; width of shaft at the top and bottom, 14 in., and in the 
middle, 15 in. ; thickness : at the bottom 12^ in., at the neck 1 1 in. 

Front. — A cross in which are combined two different methods of 
execution, the head being in relief and the shaft incised in outline. 
The upper part of the cross is upon the rounded head of the stone, 
and has equal limbs with expanded ends ; whilst the long shaft, with 
its marked entasis, is widened out at the bottom into an irregularly 
formed foot, or base. 

Back. — Only some indistinct markings, which may have been 
intended for an incised cross of some kind, remain on this face ; but 
they are now too much worn to be identified. 

Tregaminion No. 2, Tywardreath 

Tywardreath, in the Deanery of St. Austell, is situated four miles 
south of Lostwithiel and one mile east of Par railway-station. 

The private chapel at Tregaminion is attached to Menabilly, 
from which it is distant about half a mile north. 

This cross is very similar to that last described. It was found, 

T 



274 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



in the summer of 1889, forming part of a footbridge across a 
small brook at Milltown, Lostwithiel. 

It is in a most dilapidated con- 
dition : one side of the head has 
been knocked off, and the shaft is 
considerably" chipped. Within a 
fortnight of its discovery it was 
bought for 5/. by the monks of 
Buckfastleigh, Devon, and taken 
thither. Mr. Rashleigh, the land- 
lord of the property on which the 
cross was found, claimed it, and 
after a short time it was returned, 
and erected by him in the above 
chapel-yard, on its present curious 
base. What this base was originally 
is not known. It was found at 
Pridmouth, where it was used as 
the pivot-stone for some mill ma- 
chinery. In the centre was a round 
mortice, which was further enlarged 
to receive the bottom of the cross. The stone is octagonal, and is 
ornamented on all sides by a rudely executed incised pattern, con- 
sisting of a zigzag line which roughly divides each side into three 
triangles, the latter being enriched by conical holes varying in 
number from one to six. On one of the sides not shown in the 
drawing is what is generally known as a St. Andrew's cross, and 
in each of the triangles thus formed is a single conical hole. 

Dimensions. — Height, 6 ft. ; present width of head, about 15 in. ; 
width of shaft generally, 1 1 ^ in. ; thickness : at the bottom 1 1 in., at 
the neck 7.} in., tapering to the top. The base is 2 ft. 9 in. wide and 
9 in. deep. 

Front. — On the head is an irregularly formed cross in relief, 
the limbs of which are widely expanded and carried to the edge of 
the stone, the lower being much larger than the others. From the 







ORNAMENTED CROSSES 



275 



middle of, and flush with it, descends the long shaft, in very low 
relief, the bottom being slightly expanded and rounded ; and its whole 
outline is emphasised by an incised line. The wearing away of the 
shaft is probably due to the traffic upon it during its use as a foot- 
bridge ; but as the head was covered with turf when found, it was to 
a certain extent preserved, although its lower extremity appears now 
to have been worn down level with the surface of the stone. 

Back. — On the head are the remains of a cross similar to that 
on the front, but without a shaft. 



With a Latin Cross in relief, the Lower Portion of the 
Shaft being indicated by two Incised Lines 

There are two examples of this type, which will be found at the 
following places: — 



Hilary, St. 
Landewednack 



In churchyard. 
Lizard town. 



St. Hilary. In the Churchyard 

St. Hilary, in the Deanery of Penwith, is situated six miles east 
of Penzance, and two and a half miles east of Marazion Road 
railway-station. 

The cross stands at an angle of the path, 
near the south porch. 

It is a well-proportioned and interesting little 
cross. The head is outlined by a wide, flat bead, 
and, except that it is somewhat chipped in 
places, especially on the back, is in a fair state of 
preservation. 

Dimensions. — Height, 3 ft. 3 in.; width of head, 
I ft. 7 in. ; width of shaft, 11 in. ; thickness, 4 in. 

The front and back are alike. On each is a Latin cross the 
surface of which is flush with that of the stone. The upper portion 
is in relief, and has a deeply sunk background. The lower portion of 

T 2 




276 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



the shaft is indicated by two deeply incised Hnes, which are carried a 
short distance down the stone, leaving a margin on the edge of the 
same width as the bead on the head. 



Lizard Town, Landewednack 

Landewednack, in the Deanery of Kerrier, is situated twelve 
miles south-east of Helston. 

Lizard Town is situated a short distance west of Landewednack 

churchtown. 

The cross stands on the right-hand 
side of the road leading from Lizard town 
to the sea. 

The edge of the stone is outlined by a 
bead, and there is an entasis on the left side 
only of the shaft, the right being slightly 
concave. 

Dimensions. — Height, 4 ft. 11 in. ; width 
of head, i ft. 11 in. ; width of shaft, i ft. 
4 in. 

Front. — On the front is a Latin cross, 
nearly the full height of the stone, formed 
in a similar manner to that on the cross at 
Pradannack, Mullyon (p. 283). Within the bead on the head is the 
upper portion of the cross ; it is equal-limbed, and extends to the neck. 
At this level the bottom of the lower limb is suddenly narrowed, 
and for the remainder of the distance is indicated by two widely 
incised lines. Between these lines and the bead on the angles are 
two plain surfaces, the upper ends of which, where they terminate 
at the neck, are rudely shaped to the narrowed parts of the shaft. 

Back. — On the head is an equal-limbed cross in relief having 
widely expanded ends. 



•«^ 




ORNAMENTED CROSSES 



277 



Similar to those described on Page 272, but with the 
Figure of Our Lord in relief on the Front 

There are two examples of this type, which will be found at the 
following places : — 

Feock, St. . . . Trelissick, 
Madron . . ..In churchyard. 






Trelissick, St. Feock 

St. Feock, or Feock, in the Deanery of Carnmarth, is situated 
four and a half miles south of Truro. 

Trelissick, the seat of Carew Davies Gilbert, Esq., J. P., D.L., is 
situated about a mile and a half north-east of St. Feock, on the right 
bank of the Truro river, close to King Harry Passage. 

Mr. John D. Enys, of Enys, Penryn, has supplied me with the 
following particulars relating to this 
cross, which, after numerous inquiries 
of different people, he was ultimately 
able to procure from an old servant 
of his uncle's, who has since died. 
Mr. Enys says : ' The cross was re- 
moved by my uncle, Mr. John Davies 
Gilbert, from Tredrea, in St. Erth 
parish. It formerly stood in the 
higher corner of the orchard there, 
and must, I expect, have been re- 
moved to Trelissick about 1844 or 1845, but of this I am not quite 
certain.' For some reason not apparent one side of the head has 
been hewn off in a line with the shaft, and the stone is also rather 
chipped on this side. 

Dimensions. — Height, 3 ft. 7-| in. ; width of head, i ft. 4i in. ; 
width of shaft, ii^in. to 12 in. ; thickness : at the bottom 10 in., at 
the neck 8|^in., at the top 6Jin. 





278 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



Front. — On the front is a figure of our Lord in high reHef 
exactly similar to those of the St. Buryan type, having the large 
feet. The right arm is slightly raised and bent. 

Back. — On the back are what appear to be the remains of a 
long-shafted cross, incised in outline, but only portions of the lines 
indicating the shaft are now distinct. Some faint markings which 
might be taken as the upper limbs are, however, too much obliterated 
to follow with any certainty ; but the cross when intact may possibly 
have been like that in the churchyard at Madron, shown below. 

Madron. In the Churchyard 

Madron, St. Madron, or Maddern, as it was formerly called, is 
situated in the Deanery of Penwith, and is about a mile and a half 
north of Penzance. 

Blight says : ' This cross is built into the hedge near the eastern 
entrance to the churchyard ' ^ ; but since this was written it has 





been fixed in a base at the west end of the churchyard, close to the 
boundary-wnll. Its oric^inal site is not, however, known. 

The head is beaded only on the back, the right side of which is 



Ancient Crosses <ind Antiquities of Corn^ua/t, p. 23. 



ORNAMENTED CROSSES 279 

much broken. About the level of the junction of the head and shaft 
is a deep, round hole, tending to show that the cross has been used 
as a gatepost at some forgotten period. The base into which it is 
now fixed consists of two or three rough pieces of granite, in which 
numerous holes have been sunk.^ 

Dimensions. — Height, 3 ft. 7 in. ; width of head, 2 ft. 2\ in. ; width 
of shaft, 18 in. ; thickness, 10 in. 

Front. — The figure of Christ here sculptured is much larger than 
is usually found on a cross of this size, and, like the Trevorgans ^ and 
St. Buryan"^ churchtown examples, is kept very low down on the stone, 
the arms being only a short distance above the neck of the cross. 
The arms are very much widened at the ends, and provide an excel- 
lent example showing the full sleeves of the tunic, although the 
body of the vestment does not appear to be indicated ; the legs are 
short in proportion, and the feet are missing. There is so much 
resemblance in this figure to those on the crosses just named, that it 
does not appear likely that the feet were intentionally omitted, as is 
so often the case where there is no rooni to include them. 

Back. — On the head is an equal-limbed cross in relief having 
slightly expanded ends. From the extremity of the lower limb, and 
extending to the bottom of the stone, are two incised lines, about 
three inches apart, forming a shaft to the cross above. 

* An explanation of their presence may be interesting, especially as there are many such 
examples scattered about in different parts of the county, several of which may be seen near 
the blacksmith's shop at the village of Sheffield, near St. Paul churchtown. On making 
inquiries, I was informed that it was the custom for lads, previous to entering upon their work 
at the quarries, to practise drilling holes in granite, or 'jumping,' as it is termed. The 
operation is performed by a 'jumper,' which consists of a long iron bar weighted in the 
middle. Then competitions take place amongst the boys for the best and most rapid work. 
The holes are, of course, very much larger than those so commonly used in the decoration of 
the crosses, and must not in any way be connected with them. Another of these stones 
stands outside a blacksmith's shop at Tywardreath. In this case the man told me he had 
made the holes himself. 

2 See p. 129. ^ See p. 125. 



28o 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



Incised Crosses of different Kinds appearing in Combination 
WITH simple Forms of Incised Enrichment consisting of 
Lines or Rectangular Figures 

There are four examples of this type, which will be found at the 
following places : — 



Carnmenellis 
Constantine 
Mullyon 
Wendron, St. 



In churchyard. 
Trewardreva. 

Pradannack. 
Trenethick. 






Carnmenellis. In the Churchyard 

Carnmenellis is a modern parish formed out of St. Wendron. 
It is in the Deanery of Kerrier, and is situated four and a half 
miles south of Redruth. The nearest railway-station is Praze. 

The late Mr. S.J. Wills, of St. Wendron, informed me that the 
cross was found by some tinners whilst clearing a stream in the 

valley below Tolcarn Wartha 
Mill. The Rev. F. Caudwell 
was enabled to secure it, and 
placed it for preservation in the 
churchyard, just outside the south 
wall of the modern church. Pro- 
bably it was once much longer, 
as the bottom of the stone is very 
unevenly fractured. The shaft is much chipped at the edges, but 
the head does not seem to have suffered so much. 

Dimensions. — Height, 2 ft. 5 in.; width of head, i ft. 6 in. ; width 
of shaft, 12 in. ; thickness : at the bottom 8^ in., at the top 7 in. 

layout. — On the head is a circle containing the upper limbs of a 
Latin cross slightly expanded at the ends, which are kept within the 
circumference of the circle ; while its shaft is carried to the bottom of 
the stone. i)n each side (jf this shaft, and about midway between 




spa**- 




-^'^ 



ORNAMENTED CROSSES 281 

it and the edge of the stone, is a vertical Hne running into the lower 
portion of the circle. 

Back. — On the head is a wide surrounding bead, and within this 
an equal-limbed cross in relief, with expanded ends, and having an 
inclination to the right. On the shaft are three vertical incised lines 
similar to those just described, the outer two being stopped short of 
the circular recess containing the cross. 

Trewardreva, Constantine 

Constantine, in the Deanery of Kerrier, is situated six miles east 
of Helston. 

Trewardreva estate is about a mile north of Constantine church- 
town. 

The monolith stands by the hedge on the right-hand side of the 
road leading from Constantine to Mabe, about one mile south-west 
of Constantine church, and on the ascent of the hill, just after cross- 
ing the stream. The road divides the estates of Trewardreva and 
Retallack. 

While making a drawing of this cross in May, 1889, I was fortu- 
nate enough to meet with a man who was able to give me some 
information regarding its history. He said that for many years it 
lay on the ground, and that about thirty years ago [c. 1865) he 
assisted his father in re-erecting it close to, but not exactly on, the 
spot where it had so long lain neglected. Although no base was 
found, we may assume that it is still somewhere near the site, and is 
probably buried. 

Dimensions. — Height, 7 ft. 9 in. ; width of head, 2 ft. ; width of 
shaft : at the bottom i ft. 6 in., at the neck i ft. 5 in. N.B. — These 
are the measurements of the front ; but the stone is not square, the 
back being 2 in. wider. Thickness, 12 in. all the way. 

The stone is in a very good state of preservation. In plan it is 
almost a square, the front face being rather wider than the back, 
causing a slight slope in the sides. This squareness, combined with 
a marked entasis, gives the stone a massive appearance. 



282 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



Some curious incised ornament is here used ; but it is difficult to 
attach any meaning to the combinations, which must be left to a 
study of the drawing rather than to any elaborate description. 

Fro7tt. — On the head, within a circle, is an equal-limbed cross 
having a considerable inclination to the right. On the shaft is 
an oblong figure, rectangular at the bottom, and its upper sides 









curved outwards into the lower portion of the circle. In the 
upper portion of this figure is an X-^'^'M^ed, or St. Andrew's Cross. 
Below is a Latin cross ; and where its shaft passes through the lower 
line of the figure there is a point of similarity between this cross 
and that at Pradannack, shown on the opposite page. 

Bac^. — On the head are six radiating lines, not carried to the 



ORNAMENTED CROSSES 



2S3 



edge of the stone. The lowest two are connected by a curved Hne, 
from the ends of which two other Hnes of unequal length are dropped ; 
and there is also a still shorter line between them. 

It will be noticed that there are represented on the front of this 
stone the three most common forms of crosses, viz. Equal-limbed, 
St. Andrew's, and Latin. 

Pradannack Cross, Mullyon 

Mullyon, in the Deanery of Kerrier, is situated seven miles south- 
east of Helston. 

Pradannack is a hamlet two miles south of Mullyon. 



' .fr-m 















i>'^ 



fefvM 



J 'pp.1 A 



Ir^ 




I am indebted to the late Mr. S. J. Wills, of St. Wendron, for 
the historical notes in connection with this monument. 

The cross stands in its base in the south-east corner of a field, 



284 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 

and close to the left-hand side of the church path leading from 
Mullyon to Pradannack, about midway between the two ancient 
chapels of Trenance and Pradannack. 

In 1852 accident or wanton hands displaced the cross from its 
socket, and, after being missed for a short time, it was discovered lying 
in a neighbouring ditch. Some of the local people thereupon formed 
a party of volunteers, and, furnished with levers and ropes, hauled the 
relic from this position, and set it upright in the base, fixing it 
securely in its socket with metal wedges. 

The monolith, in spite of this treatment, is in a very good state 
of preservation. It is outlined on front and back by a bead, which 
on the front is returned across the bottom, and on the back is run 
out, and abuts against the base ; but the beads are not indicated on 
the sides of the stone. The oblong base consists of a rough piece 
of granite rudely shaped. 

Dimensions. — Height, 5 ft. 6 in. ; width of head, 2 ft. i^ in. ; 
width of shaft: at the bottom, 16 in., slightly narrowed towards the 
neck ; thickness, 10 in. The base is 4 ft. 6 in. long, 3 ft. 2 in. wide, 
and about 1 2 in. thick. 

Front. — On this face is a cross formed in a manner somewhat 
similar to that on the monument at Lizard town, Landewednack, 
described on p. 276, the chief difference being that in this case the 
limbs of the cross on the head are expanded, and the shaft of the 
cross is stopped twelve inches from the bottom. Some of the 
incised work on the lower portion of the stone resembles that on 
the cross at Trewardreva, Constantine (p. 282). 

Back. — On this face is an incised Latin cross combined with a 
circle. The latter is cut concentrically within the bead of the head, 
and some two inches from it, the lower portion being curved gently 
on to the incised shaft, which is carried to the bottom of the stone. 
The upper limbs of the cross are enclosed by this circle, into which 
they run. The arms, which are usually horizontal, are in this case 
sloped slightly downwards from right to left, in a similar manner to 
No. 3 cross, Trevenning (p. 249). 



ORNAMENTED CROSSES 



285 



Trenethick, St. Wendron 

St. Wendron, in the Deanery of Kerrier, is situated two and a 
half miles north of Helston. 

Trenethick Farm is one and a half miles south of St. Wendron 
churchtown. 

This monolith was discovered, in 1886, forming one of the 
paving-stones in the farm stable. Mr. T. Roskruge, the tenant, 
had it removed, and erected it in the garden in front of Trenethick 
House, where it now stands. 



/.hoU 

wm J 









It is a massive cross, and somewhat chipped in places. This is 
not surprising, seeing that previous to its discovery in the stable it 
had been used for a gatepost on more than one occasion, since there 
are no less than four holes pierced in different parts of the stone to 
receive the lugs, or supports, for the gate hinges. The angles of the 
stone are beaded on the front, but on the back the bead only appears 
on the upper portion of the head. 

Dimensions. — Height, 4 ft. 3 in. ; width of head, i ft. 9 in. ; width 
of shaft, 15^ in. ; thickness, 1 1 in. all the way. 

Front. — On the head is an incised circle, within which are the 



286 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



upper limbs of an incised Latin cross having slightly expanded ends, 
and its shaft carried to the bottom of the stone. About one-third of 
the way down the shaft, and cutting the incised line of the cross- 
shaft transversely, are two arcs of a circle, a short distance apart, their 
convex sides facing each other. 

Back. — On the head are the upper limbs of a Latin cross in relief 
having splayed edges ; its shaft is carried to the bottom of the stone. 

With the Figure of Our Lord incised on the Front 

OF the Cross 

There are three examples of this type, which will be found at 
the following places : — 

Camborne . . . Trevu, No. 2. 

Flushing . . .In the churchyard. 

Sennen .... Trevilley. 

Trevu No. 2, Camborne 



Camborne, in the Deanery of Carnmarth, is situated twelve miles 
south-west of Truro, and has a railway-station on the main line. 

Trevu, the property of G. J. Smith, Esq., is situated on the north 

side of the town, near the rail- 
way-station. 

Mr. W. Roberts, gardener 
at Trevu, told me that, as 
well as he could recollect, he 
found the cross in 1883. It 
was in a hedge of the old 
Roman road from Penzance 
to London, which runs at the back of these grounds. At Mr. 
Smith's request he moved it for preservation into the garden.^ 







' Mr. Roberts stated that on taking,' the cross out of the hedge he found a small bronze 
image behind it ; it was about three inches high, and consisted of a woman with a child on 



ORNAMENTED CROSSES 287 

Dimensions. — Height, 2 ft. 2 in. ; width of head, i ft. 5I in. ; width 
of shaft, 15 in. ; thickness, 9 in. 

Front. — On the head, and extending a short distance below it, is 
a very curious Httle figure of our Lord, The head is very large 
and the outstretched arms are very short, while the legs are abruptly 
terminated a short distance below the body. 

Back. — On the head is a recess of horseshoe shape, square 
across the bottom. Within is a cross, the surface of which is flush 
with the face of the stone ; it is of rather a peculiar form : the three 
upper limbs, of nearly equal length, are expanded at the ends, while 
the lower is the shortest, and has parallel sides. 

Flushing. In the Churchyard 

Flushing is a modern parish formed out of Mylor. It is in the 
Deanery of Carnmarth, and is situated two miles east of Penryn. 

The Rev. F. Forbes Savage has kindly furnished me with the 
following account of the discovery of this cross at the end of October, 
1 89 1. Having stated that he had reasons for supposing there was 
such a monument in the district, for which he had made many 
inquiries from farm-labourers and others, he goes on to say : ' At 
last a man in my employ told me of an old stone among the build- 
ings on the farm of Porloe, which is Lord Clinton's property, on 
the road between here and Mylor. On inquiring of Mr. Dunstan, 
the tenant-farmer, I received confirmation of my suspicion that the 
object of my search was on his farm. Going one day through his 
farm-buildings with him, he drew my attention to a fine large, black 
sow in one of his pigsties, or pig-houses, as they call them. My 
attention was immediately withdrawn from that interesting animal 
to the stone its fore-feet were resting on, and a little scraping showed 
me that this stone was a cross. At my request, he most kindly at 
once consented to my having it, on condition (a condition which I 

her lap, but the head of the former was, unfortunately, gone. The figures were probably 
intended to represent the Virgin and Child. The bronze is, I believe, now in the possession 
of Mr. G. J. Smith. 



288 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 





proposed) that I should refill the hole its removal would cause. It 
had previously been used as the base of a threshing-machine, and 
into it was let a square brass socket. The side uppermost was the 
one with the cross carved upon it. In due time, and with some 
difficulty, on account of its weight, I got it home safely, and on 
cleaning it discovered the figure of our Lord on the other side. It 

now stands in my courtyard, 
but I propose placing it by 
the gate of my churchyard. 
It is in excellent condition, 
of rough granite, and, if it 
is only the head of a cross, 
is remarkable for the clean- 
ness of the break. The 
figure appears to he footless, 
and the robe, I should 
imagine, is intended for the seamless coat.' 

This is certainly a very peculiar example, and is doubtless of 
early date ; but, notwithstanding its age, it is in a remarkably good 
state of preservation. The chief point of interest is the nature of 
the incised work upon it. 

Dimensions. — Height, 3 ft. 4 in. ; width of head, 2 ft. 2 in. ; width 
of shaft : at the top i ft. 7 in., at the bottom i ft. 8 in. ; thickness : 
at the bottom 12 in., at the neck 11 in., at the top 10 in. 

Front. — On this face is an incised figure of our Lord, the lower 
portion of which is terminated near the bottom of the stone by a curved 
line. The extended arms of the figure are slightly above the junction 
of the head and shaft of the cross, and their extremities are connected 
by an incised line carried round the head. The effect of the whole — 
though obviously unintentional — seems to suggest a girl skipping 
rather than a representation of our Lord. The length of the neck, 
the fulness of the bottom of the tunic, with its extraordinary tri- 
angular corners, and the omission of the feet and legs, are character- 
istics to which attention should be called. 

Back. — The head is surrounded by a broad, flat bead of irregular 



ORNAMENTED CROSSES 



289 



width, within which is a Latin cross sculptured in relief. The lower 
part of the shaft of this cross is formed by two deeply incised lines/ 
extending to the bottom of the stone. About midway down is a 
horizontal groove, which may or may not be accidental. It will 
also be noticed that a piece has been cut out of the left side of the 
stone, immediately over the neck, though for what purpose is not 
clear ; but it is probably the result of mutilation. Four inches below 
the arms of the cross is still to be seen the brass pivot, or bearing 
for the iron shaft of the threshing-machine, to which reference has 
already been made. 

Trevilley Cross, Sennen 

Sennen, or St. Sennen, in the Deanery of Penwith, is situated 
ten miles south-west of Penzance. 

This cross stands on the left-hand side of the footpath be- 
tween the villages of 
Trevilley and Tre- 
vescan, about a mile 
and a quarter south 
of Sennen church- 
town. 

It is chiefly in- 
teresting as being one 
of the two instances 
in which the figure is 
shown on a cross 
carved on the face of 
the stone.^ The other 
example will be found 
on No. 2 cross in the 
rectory garden, St. ■^^•^'^' 
Just-in-Penwith.''^ 

The head is cemented on to a shaft which has chamfered angles, 
but it is doubtful whether this shaft is the original. 



.'/o.!'".""'i«llt- 








' Similar to those described on p. 275. 

^ For fuller particulars on this subject, see p. 122. 



See p. 271. 



U 



290 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 

Dimensions. — Height of monument, 5 ft. 7 in. ; height of cross- 
head, I ft. 9 in. ; width, i ft. 5 in. ; thickness, 7 in. ; width of shaft, 
12 in. 

Front. — On the head is a wide-hmbed Latin cross, in rehef, which 
projects three-quarters of an inch from the face of the stone, and on 
which is incised a quaint Httle figure of our Lord. The head has an 
incHnation to the right, and the arms are extended straight along the 
arms of the cross. The curves forming the body are very curious, 
and the hips are remarkably wide. Both legs are quite straight, but 
there do not appear to have been any feet. 

Back. — On the head is an equal and very wide limbed cross in 
relief. 

INCISED ORNAMENT 

On Wheel Crosses 

There are eight crosses thus ornamented, which will be found 
at the following places : — 



Altarnon 

Boconnoc, No. 3 . 
Cardynham . 
Dennis, St. . 
Lanivet, No. i 
Lanteglos-by-Camelford 
Levan, St., No. 2 . 
Tywardreath 



Tresmeake Bridge. 
In Boconnoc Park. 
Higher Deviock. 
In churchyard. 
In churchyard. 
Trevia, No. 2. 
In churchyard. 
Menabilly. 



Tresmeake Bridge, Altarnon 

Altarnon, in the Deanery of Trigg Major, is situated eight miles 
south-west of Launceston, and four and a half miles south-west of 
Egloskerry railway-station. 

Tresmeake Bridge crosses a small river about one mile west of 
Altarnon church. 

The cross stands on the left-hand side of the road, about a quarter 



ORNAMENTED CROSSES 



291 



of a mile beyond tlie bridge. It is close against, and partially buried 
in, the hedge, leading one to suppose that it is in situ. The cross is 
considerably out of the perpendicular, which is due to the pressure 
of the hedge. The base 



/^ 



Iflk 



i^>.? 



^^^A 



consists of a rough piece of 
moorland granite. 

Dimensions. — Height, 5 
ft. 5 in. ; width of head, i ft. 
10 in. ; width of shaft : at the 
top 15 in., at the bottom 
13 in. The base is about 
3 ft. 9 in. long and 10 in. 
thick. 

The head of the stone 
appears to be alike on front 
and back ; on each is a cross 
in relief, carried to the edge 
of the head, and having 
limbs of equal width, but 
varying length. 

Adjoining the limbs, on 
the upper portion of the head, is a bead in relief, the small spandrils 
beyond being sunk. The treatment below is not the same ; but 
this can best be seen by an examination of the drawing. 

About one-third of the way down the shaft is an incised figure 
resembling the letter D. 






i 




Boconnoc, No. 3. In Boconnoc Park 

Boconnoc, in the West Deanery, is situated seven miles north of 
Fowey, and three miles east of Lostwithiel railway-station. 

Boconnoc Park is the property of C. D. Fortescue, Esq. 

Blight says : — ' This cross was removed from Lanlivery, and 
placed on a double hexagonal pedestal, by the Hon. S. M. Fortescue.' ^ 

' A?icic)it Crosses and Antiquities of Cornwall^ p. 1 1. 

U 3 



292 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 

This is an extremely fine monolith, and is remarkable not only on 
account of its shape, but also for the curious incised ornament upon 
it. The shaft is wider at the top than at the bottom — a feature still 
more noticeable on the sides, which also gradually increase in thick- 
ness towards the top, giving the stone a wedge-like appearance. 
The head is only slightly wider than the shaft, on to which it is 
gently curved, and its entire circular form is preserved by its 
lower portion being kept slightly in advance of the shaft. 

Around the upper stone of the base is the following inscription, 
cut upon it when the cross was erected in these grounds : — 

THIS RELICK OF A RUDE BUT PIOUS AGE WAS PLACED HERE, AND INSCRIBED WITH THE LOVED AND 
HONOURED NAME OF WM. WYNDAM, LORD GRENVILLE, BY HIS GRATEFUL NEPHEW, G. M. F., MDCCCXL. 

Dimensions. — Height of cross, 7 ft. ijin. ; width of head, 2 ft. 
7 in. ; width of shaft: at the neck 2 ft., at the bottom i ft. 9 in. ; 
thickness : at the bottom 9I in., at the neck 12 in., increasing to the 
top of the stone. 

Of the incised designs on the front and back of the shaft I am 
unable to give any explanation, since the devices do not lend them- 
selves to anything descriptive of their meaning. 

Fi'ont. — On the head, and some five inches within its outline, are 
four triangular sinkings, having splayed sides, and so arranged as to 
form between them a nearly equal-limbed cross, with expanded ends, 
and having an inclination to the right. Just below the outline of the 
head, and at different levels, are two figures, facing each other, and 
resembling trefoils, the foils being placed in the same position as in 
a quatrefoil, where the fourth, or inner foil, is omitted. Beneath 
them is a device consisting of an equal-limbed cross between two 
figures, reversed and facing each other, each resembling the letter C 
in its square form : thus — Q 

Back. — On the head is a cross similar to that on the front, but 
having an inclination to the left. On the shaft, from the lowest por- 
tion (')f the head to the bottom of the stone, is a wide and rounded 
bead, emphasised on both sides by an incised line. This feature 
appears to form a shaft for the cross above. In a corresponding 
position to those on the front are two rectangular incised figures, an 



o 

o 
o 



o 

o 

o 

U 

o 







-1 







ORNAMENTED CROSSES 



293 



idea of which will be more easily formed by an inspection of the 
Plate than by any description. They are placed one on either 
side of the raised bead or shaft already mentioned. Two feet 
beneath them, and cutting across the raised shaft, is an oblong figure, 
its longer sides being horizontal. 






Higher Deviock, Cardynham 

Cardynham, in the Deanery of Bodmin, is situated four miles 
north-east of Bodmin town. 

Higher Deviock Farm is about one mile west of Cardynham 
churchtown. 

The cross stands in situ, at the junction of 
three roads, on the east side of the farm. 

This is a very well-proportioned cross, and, 
except that it is chipped in one or two places, is 
in a very fair state of preservation. The shaft 
has chamfered angles — usually a sign of late work. 

Dimensions. — Height, 5 ft. 4 in. ; width of 
head, i ft. 9^ in. ; width of shaft : at the neck 
11^ in., at the bottom 13 in. ; thickness: at the 
bottom II in., at the neck 8^ in., at the top 6iin. 

The front and back of the monument are 
alike. On the head is a cross in relief, the limbs 
of which have concave sides and are carried to 
the edge of the head, where they are widely 
expanded. The end of the lower limb is remarkable for its unique 
termination, which, unlike those above, is pointed, and has an ogee 
outline on either side, and these, meeting at the bottom, form a very 
pretty finish. In the centre of each cross is a small round hole, 
and a wide and deeply incised line is cut vertically down the shaft. 




St. Dennis. In the Churchyard 

St. Dennis, in the Deanery of St. Austell, is situated seven miles 
north-west of St. Austell, and two and a half miles west of St. 



294 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 

Columb Road railway-station, on the branch-line from Par to New- 
quay. 

St. Dennis is mentioned in Domesday Book as ' Lan- Dines, the 
church on the hill,' It is built in the middle of an old entrenchment, 
and is reached by a road winding round the hill. 

This cross stands in its circular base, facing east and west, near 
the south porch, and is considered to be in situ. In shape it differs 
somewhat from an ordinary wheel cross. The head is of horseshoe 
shape, and has a double bead on both the front and back, which run 
round the curved portion, and stop on the top of a flat band or collar 
surrounding the neck. This collar is slightly recessed from the face 
of the shaft, and is higher on the front than on the back, the sides 
being sloped to connect them. The shaft possesses the somewhat 
uncommon feature of being considerably wider at the top than at the 
bottom ; it has an entasis, and the beads on the angles are stopped 
against the collar. On the front is a second bead, adjoining that on 
the angle. 

Dimensions. — Height, 6 ft. 7 in. ; width of head, i8in. ; width 
of shaft : at the top 15^ in., at the bottom 12 in. ; thickness on the 
left side, at the bottom, 8^ in., diminishing to 7 in. at the top; and 
on the right side it is about an inch thicker. 

All four sides are ornamented with incised work as follows : — 

Right Side. — On the shaft are two panels. The upper one is very 
small, and is simply double beaded ; the lower contains three separate 
figures, w^hich vary slightly in shape, and resemble, if anything, an 
hour-glass. Some persons are inclined to think that they are repre- 
sentations of chalices. In an isolated case this might be so ; but 
where three of them follow, one below another, it does not appear 
likely that so many would be shown at one time. The only other 
place in Cornwall where this device occurs is on No. 3 cross at 
Clowance, Crowan (p. 329), With the exception of some glass 
tumblers, about three inches high, which were taken out of a grave 
in the Roman cemetery near Rio Tinto, Huelva, Spain, I have 
seen no objects of this shape. 

Front. — (Jn the head is a Latin cross in outline. On the shaft 












■-—- *^'S»'<W»^ 




c 
ai 
< 

I— ( 



w 
Q 



C/5 










ORNAMENTED CROSSES 295 

are three of the figures already described, all. varying in form and 
size. 

Back. — On the head is a Latin cross similar to that on the front, 
but with rounded ends to the upper limbs. A round hole about two 
and a half inches in diameter is sunk on either side of its shaft. 
On the shaft, near the top, is one of the figures above-mentioned. 

Left Side. — On the shaft are four panels of irregular depth, 
separated by beads. 

Lanivet, No. i. In the Churchyard 

Lanivet, in the Deanery of Bodmin, is situated three miles south- 
west of the town of Bodmin, and about three and a half miles from 
the railway-station. 

This monolith stands on the north side of the churchyard, and is, 
no doubt, in situ. There is an old saying that the spot it occupies is 
* in the middle of the county, north and south, east and west.' 

This is the most elaborate example of a decorated wheel cross in 
Cornwall, as the amount of incised work found on others bears no 
comparison to that on this cross. It was not until the Rev. \V. lago 
and I had spent over two hours In removing the lichen, &c., and clean- 
ing the stone, that we discovered how richly ornamented it was. 
There is a look, too, of great age about this stone which is not so 
apparent in others differently ornamented. 

The head, which is much broken away on the south side, is 
slightly elliptical, and has on both front and back an equal-limbed 
cross with expanded ends, and a central boss with an encircling bead 
at its base. There is a very marked entasis on the shaft, which has 
beaded angles. I was able, with the assistance of an iron bar, to trace 
the base of the cross, which is some twelve inches below the ground. 
It has, therefore, been shown in the accompanying Plate. 

With the exception of two panels of debased key-pattern orna- 
ment, the whole of the shaft is decorated with incised work, and the 
constant recurrence of the little sunk holes ^ referred to on p. 234 is 
here very noticeable. 

^ Panels of little holes should always be carefully examined, as the spaces between them 



296 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 

Dimensions. — Total height of the cross from top of base, 10 ft. 
4 in. ; width of head, i ft. 10 in. ; width of shaft : at the top 14^^ in., 
at the bottom iS^in. ; thickness at the bottom, 13 in., tapering to 
8 in. at the top. 

All four sides of the shaft are enriched as follows, the descrip- 
tion of the ornament commencing from the top : — 

Right Side. — The shaft is divided into six panels by incised 
lines, (i) A long panel of little holes; (2) a square panel with 
diagonal lines from corner to corner ; (3) a plain, narrow panel ; 
(4) a long panel containing a well-proportioned Latin cross ; (5) a 
plain, square panel ; (6) a long panel filled with little holes. 

Front. — The shaft is divided into five panels, (i) A panel con- 
taining what appears to be two oval rings, crossing each other 
diagonally, and with angular lines in the spandrils, the whole being 
very irregularly executed. (2) The largest panel on the cross. This 
contains a most remarkable object, consisting of the figure of a man 
2 ft. II in. high, rudely incised in oudine. The features still remain, 
and on the body are some peculiar markings like letters — an ' S ' and 
a ' C ' appear to be quite distinct ; but whether they were really in- 
tended for letters, or are the result of the wearing away of some 
ornament, must be left for others to determine. The outer line of 
the arms is carried round the head in a curious way ; the legs are well 
defined, and both feet turn to the right. Between the legs are other 
markings, which also look something like letters. But the most 
extraordinary feature of the whole figure is found in what certainly 
appeal's to be a tail, about half-way down which is a heart-shaped 
figure, and at the end are two cross-bars. The space between the 
right leg and the bead on the angle of the shaft is filled with holes, 
and there are three or four between the feet. (3) A panel of debased 
key-pattern ornament. (4) A narrow panel containing three rows of 
little holes. (5) A panel divided vertically by an incised line, the 
right half being filled with little holes ; the left half is again divided, 
the right side containing holes, and the left a Latin cross. 

are often broken away, causing markings to a[)i)car resembling letters or ornaiiunt, wliicli 
in reality do not exist. 



















o 



^ 




ORNAMENTED CROSSES 297 

Left Side. — This is also divided into six panels. (1) A long 
panel with an equal-limbed cross near the top, and the remainder 
decorated with little holes in regular rows. (2) A square panel with 
a St. Andrew's cross ; and by the spandrils being marked another 
cross is formed outside the first one. (3) A panel of holes. (4) An 
oblong panel containing two concentric circles. (5 and 6) These 
panels, divided by a bead, are too much worn to define, and a large 
hole has been made near the bottom of the lower panel. 

Back. — This is also divided into six panels, (i) A narrow panel 
with two rows of holes, the enclosing line at the top formed by the line 
of the head. (2) Separated from No. i by two incised lines is a 
panel similar to No. i on the front, but much better executed, and 
shown in double lines. (3) A narrow panel with diagonal lines from 
corner to corner. (4) A square panel containing remains of a debased 
diagonal key-pattern ornament similar to No. 3 panel on the front. 
(5) An oblong panel with three regular rows of holes. (6) A long 
panel surrounded by a bead. In the middle is a cross reaching nearly 
to the top ; the three upper limbs are terminated by a short cross- 
bar and lean slightly over to the left ; on the left side of the cross, 
and two inches from it, is the long handle of what seems to be a 
crosier, the crook encircling the upper limbs of the cross. 

In addition to the number of panels already enumerated on the 
different sides of the shaft, there may possibly have been others 
below, as there are indistinct markings left in some places ; but all are 
too much abraded to say what was originally sculptured within them. 



Trevia, No. 2. Lanteglos-by-Camelford 

Lanteglos-by-Camelford, in the Deanery of Trigg Minor, is 
situated one and a half miles south-west of Camelford. 

Trevia ^ is a hamlet consisting of a few cottages situated at the 
junction of three roads about a mile and a half north of Camelford. 

The cross is supposed to have been moved from its central 

^ Sir John Maclean, Deanery of Trigg Minor^ vol. ii. p. 282. 



298 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



position in the roadway for utilisation as a gatepost at the entrance 
to a field a few yards from its former site, which degraded purpose 
it serves at the present day. 

One side of the head has been broken off and the top cut away, 

the monument generally being in a 
mutilated condition ; and the shaft is very 
irregular in outline. 

Dimensions. — Height, 5 ft, 2 in. ; 
present width of head, i ft. 7 in. ; width 
of shaft, about 14 in. ; thickness, about 
8 in. 

Front. — On the head is a recess of 
horseshoe shape. Within is a Latin 
cross in relief, its surface being flush 
with that of the stone ; in the middle 
is a small circular hole. On the shaft, 
and some four inches beneath the cross, 
is an incised shield. 

Back. — Except that the shield is 




•^^<§-_ 



omitted, this is similar to the front. 



St. Levan, No. 2. In the Churchyard 



St. Levan, in the Deanery of Penwith, is situated eight miles 
south-west of Penzance. 

The cross stands in its roughly hewn base on the south side of 
the church, near the porch, and is probably in situ. 

It is one of the most elegant and well-proportioned wheel crosses 
to be found throughout Cornwall. The head is almost circular, and 
the angles of the stone are beaded, the front and back having a 
second bead adjoining the outer one ; on the back the bead is carried 
round the head also. 

Dimensions. — Height, 6 ft. 11 in. ; width of head, i ft. 8^ in. ; 
width of shaft : at thf, n('ck 14 in., at the bottoni i ft. 10 in. ; 
The stone is of a uniform thickness of 10 in. The base is 4 ft. 6 in. 




i.'ts 






y^i^ 



2; 



o 

<; 

a 



yj 







1 f //''^:?~lV 




^,3t^,mt^'f^m'jj^in' 






ItStT*" 



:'i:L*^5^^mr 




ORNAMENTED CROSSES 299 

wide, and about 18 in. thick in the middle, but much thinner at the 
edges. 

The front and both sides are ornamented with incised work. 

Fro7it. — On the head, and extending some way below the neck, 
is a rudely sculptured figure of our Lord in .bold relief, the head being 
slightly inclined to the right. The arms are straight, and expanded 
at the ends, illustrating the sleeves of the tunic, and the lower portion 
of the garment is very full. The bottom of the legs, apparently 
without feet, rest on a rounded projection. On the shaft beneath 
are three panels ; the upper two have diagonal lines from corner to 
corner ; the third is similar, but the diagonal lines are double. 

Left Side. — On the shaft is an angular twist, or lattice-work, 
carried about two-thirds of the way upwards ; the ends of the line are 
then continued almost to the top, where they bend slightly over to 
the right. 

Back. —On the back is a cross in relief, of beautiful design, which 
extends from beneath the outer bead on the head to within nine inches 
of the base. The upper portion is formed by an equal-limbed cross, 
which may thus be described : — Commencing from the centre, the 
limbs are of the same width to about half their distance outwards. 
At this point they are suddenly widened by being curved outwards, 
and then continue parallel as far as the bead on the edge of the 
head. From the bottom of the lower limb, and flush with its 
surface, though much narrower, is the long shaft, which is rather 
wider at the bottom than at the top. The only other instances 
of crosses of this kind will be found on the front and back of the 
crosses in the churchyards of St. Levan (No. i, p. 89) and St. 
Michael, in the parish of St. Minver, but in each case the long 
shaft is omitted. 

Right Side. — On the shaft, at the top, is a curious figure some- 
what resembling a cross in outline with the arms raised ; below is 
zigzag work. 



300 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



Menabilly, Tywardreath 



Tywardreath, in the Deanery of St. Austell, is situated four 

miles south of Lostwithiel, and one mile east of Par railway-station. 

Menabilly, the seat of Jonathan Rashleigh, Esq., J. P., is situated 

about two and a half miles south of Tywardreath churchtown, and is 

one and three-quarter miles west of Fowey. 

-_. ^ This cross formerly 

stood in situ at Milltown, 
where in process of time 
it was used to mark the 
boundary between the 
parishes of Lanlivery and 
Golant. Its original site is 
marked by a square block 
of granite, placed there by 
Mr. William Rashleigh 
when the cross was re- 
moved many years ago. 

It is now mounted on 

a circular base. The head 

is beaded, and the stone 

appears to be part of a 

much taller monolith. 

Dimensions. — Height, 3 ft. 3 in. ; width of head, 2 ft. 2.|in. ; 

width of shaft, i ft. 6 in. ; thickness, 9 in. The base is 3 ft. 10 in. in 

diameter and 9 in. thick. 

Within the bead, and occupying nearly all the space enclosed by 
it, is a cross having equal and widely expanded limbs with concave 
sides ; in the centre is a small conical hole. On the front of the 
shaft is a device which seems to be incomplete, as it is abrujjtly 
stopped at the bottom, and is probably only the upper portion 
of some more elaborate design, the lower part of which has dis- 




r-'^^-t. i'v^ 



ORNAMENTED CROSSES 301 

appeared. What remains, however, resembles an incised Tau cross, 
the shaft of which has two Hnes. The back of the stone is similar 
to the front, but is without the figure on the shaft. 

On Wheel Crosses with Projections at the Neck 

There are four ornamented crosses of this type, which will be 
found at the following places : — 

Cleer, St. . . . On St. Cleer Common. 

Eastbourne (Sussex) 

(from St. Erth) . In Manor- House grounds. 

Gwinear . . . On Connor Down. 

Penzance . . .In Market-place. 

St. Cleer Common, St. Cleer 

St. Cleer, in the West Deanery, is situated two and a half miles 
north of Liskeard. 

The Longstone,^ or ' Long Tom,' as the cross Is locally named, 
stands in siht near the roadside, and not far from a stone circle called 
' The Hurlers,' but on the opposite side of the way. 

In point of size this is a very fine monolith, though extremely 
rude, and roughly wrought. The back of the head slopes sharply 
back, so that the top of the stone Is very thin. 

Dimensions. — Height, 9 ft. 6 in. ; width of head, 2 ft. 4 in, ; width 

^ Gibson, in his Additiojts to Camden (1772), vol. i. p. 153, gives the following note of 
this cross, accompanied by ' a quaint figure of it ' : — 

' And that also called the Longstone, standing in the downs about half a mile from The 
Hurlers (above two yards and a half high, with a cross on both sides), was doubtless a 
funeral monument.' 

In The Architectural Antiquities of Great Britain (John Britton, F.S.A.) is another 
notice of this stone, taken from an Essay on A7iclent Stone Crosses {\o\. i. p. 11): — ' In Plate A, 
fig. 3, I have given a view of one of these pillars. It is situated on Carraton Down, north 
of St. Cleer, and is within half a mile of a Druidical temple called The Hurlers. This 
peculiarity of situation, and its distance from any Catholic foundation, induce me to believe 
that it was originally a Pagan pillar, converted into a Christian symbol when the first mission- 
aries were propagating their tenets in this remote county.' 



302 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



of shaft : at the top i ft. loin., at the bottom 2 ft. i in. ; thickness : 
at the bottom 12 in., at the neck <^\\n. 

The crosses on front and back of the head are alike. That on 
the front is incHned to the left, and that on the back to the right ; 




the latter, being carved on the slope of the stone above mentioned, 
leans backward considerably. On the front of the shaft, beneath 
the head, is a plain oblong panel formed by incised lines. The 
panel is upright, and the two side-lines forming it terminate on the 
edge of the circular recess containing the cross on the head. 



ORNAMENTED CROSSES 303 

Eastbourne, Sussex. In the Manor-house Grounds 

The Manor-house is now owned by the Gilbert family, and by 
tracing their history we find that at the close of the last century an 
only child and heiress, named Mary Ann Gilbert, married Davies 
Giddy, whose family resided at Tredrea, in the parish of St. Erth, 
near Hayle, Cornwall. Adopting the name of Gilbert, he settled at 
Eastbourne, and, being a distinguished man of science, was at one 
time President of the Royal Society ; and, amongst other works, he 
compiled ' The Parochial History of Cornwall,' 4 vols., 1838. 

Since my notice of this cross appeared in vol. xxxviii. of the 

Sussex Archaeological Society's Collections, Mr. John D. Enys, of 

Enys, Penryn, has kindly supplied me with the following correct and 

interesting particulars regarding its removal from Cornwall to Sussex. 

The notes are taken from the pocket-book of his grandfather, Mr. 

Davies Gilbert, and are especially valuable as being those actually 

made at the time. 

1817. 

The cross put up in its place by means of the Ordnance Tackle. 

December loth. 

The cross. — I had observed a cross near Truro, on the road to Redruth, degraded 
to the situation of a gatepost, and for many years I thought of rescuing it and removing 
the relic to Tredrea, but since my connection with East Bourne I determined in getting 
it there. Mr. John Giddy obtained it for me on the easy condition of providing a 
common gatepost in its room. It was shipped at Truro for London, from whence it 
came to Hastings by sea, and from thence here by land. It was this day fixed in its 
place over the archway, under which the footpath used to pass till I turned it. We 
used the Artillery Triangle Fall Block kindly lent me by Col. EUicombe. The whole 
was effected without injury to the cross itself or any Person or thing. 

Mr. Davies Gilbert is said to have been of a rather humorous 
turn of mind, a fact which is supported by the following anecdote, 
related to me by his personal friend, the Rev. Canon Hockin, of 
Phillack. On being asked one day why he had carried off a cross 
from Cornwall and put it up in his place at Eastbourne, Mr, 
Gilbert replied that ' it was in order to show the poor, ignorant folk 
there that there was something bigger in the world than a Jlint ! 
' And thus,' adds the Canon, ' are we robbed ! ' 



304 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 

A small brass-plate on the back of the cross is Inscribed- 



REMOVED FROM 
CORNWALL 

IN 
MDCCCXVII 



But to one accustomed to these monuments no plate is necessary to 
associate it with the county whence it came, since it is a typical 
example of a Cornish cross, both as regards its shape and ornamenta- 
tion. Moreover, the material used is grey elvan,^ an extremely hard 
Cornish stone, in texture resembling a very fine granite. 

The cross is now mounted on a substructure consisting of three 
steps. The top one is very small, and was presumably only intended 
to form a sort of base to steady the monolith, which passes through 
it, and rests on the second step. The portion of the ornament thus 
concealed has been completed on the Plate by dotted lines, as half 
of it is visible, and the same designs occur on other panels of the 
stone, and are also those most commonly found in Cornwall. 

The stone is in a very fair state of preservation, though somewhat 
chipped in places; while the curious depression on the head may be 
due to an uneven cleft made in quarrying. The head is not circular, 
but slightly oval, its horizontal diameter being rather greater than 
the vertical. It is surrounded by a bead which is carried down the 
angles of the shaft, the entasis on which is very unevenly executed. 

Dimensions. — Height (from top of second step), 8 ft. 2 in. ; width 
of head, 2 ft. 8 in. ; width of shaft : at the top i ft. 8 in., at the bottom 
2 ft. I in, ; thickness at the bottom, 17^ in., tapering to lojin. at the 
neck, and to about 5 in. at the top. 

Each face of the shaft is divided into panels by incised lines. 
The ornament comprising the decoration is executed in incised work 
of the roughest description, as follows : — 

Right Side. — The shaft is divided into seven panels. Every alter- 
nate panel, commencing from the top, contains little holes in regular 
rows, the intermediate panels being plain. 

Front. — On the head, but situated rather below the centre, is a 
boss, surrounded at its base by an incised line. Arranged round the 

' See p. 15. 



^,^i.«*.-^^ 













ORNAMENTED CROSSES 305 

boss, at nearly equal distances from each other, are three triangles, 
with convex sides and rounded angles, similar in form to the spaces 
between the limbs and ring of a four-holed cross. One of these 
triangles is directly over the boss, and the other two are placed one 
on either side of and slightly below it. On each side of the upper 
triangle, and midway between it and those below is a T-shaped 
figure, or Tau cross, the vertical stroke or shaft of each radiating to 
the centre of the boss. Between the top of the shaft and the central 
boss on the head is an isosceles triangle, the two equal sides of 
which are formed by radial lines extending to the angle of the out- 
lining bead at the neck, and the third side by the upper line, which 
encloses the top panel on the shaft. The projections at the neck 
are very small, especially for a cross of this size, and in each is a 
small round sinking. 

The shaft is divided into nine panels of about equal depth. 
At the top is a square panel the full width of the shaft. The 
remainder of the shaft is divided vertically by an incised line down 
the centre, thus giv^ing four pairs of elongated panels. The square 
panel mentioned is unornamented, and the pair beneath are filled 
with little holes in regular rows. Next are a plain pair, followed by 
another pair containing little holes as before. The two bottom 
panels are partly hidden in the top step : that on the right hand 
appears to contain the common pattern of diagonal lines from corner 
to corner ; that on the left has an incised device, consisting of four 
straight lines radiating from the circumference of an incised circle to 
the corners of the panel, its diameter being about one-third of the 
width of the panel. 

Left Side. — This is divided into eight panels. Commencing at 
the top with a plain one, the alternate panels are filled with little 
holes in regular rows, until the seventh is reached. This contains 
enrichment similar to that in the right and lowest panel on the front, 
except that the lines do not intersect, and are increased in width 
towards the centre. The eighth or bottom panel is unornamented. 

Back. — W^ith the exception of some trifling variations in detail, 
the ornament on the head is practically the same as that alreadv 

X 



3o6 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 

described on the front. Of these variations, attention may be called 
to the following : — {a) omission of central boss, but retention of 
incised ring ; [b) the position of the two lower triangles is slightly 
changed in relation to the ring ; [c) the shafts of the T-shaped 
figures are much longer ; and [d) the triangular space on the lower 
half of the head is ornamented with two additional lines at right 
angles to the radial sides of the triangle. 

Just below the circle, on the head, is a deep round hole, and there 
is another on the shaft, between the fourth pair of panels. These 
were doubtless made to receive the iron hooks for supporting the 
gate. The height of the lower hole from the bottom of the shaft is 
easily accounted for when we consider that the cross would have to 
be deeply sunk to secure stability for its degraded purpose. 

The shaft is divided into six pairs of panels by an incised line 
down the middle similar to that on the front, and has also another 
panel at the bottom the full width. The upper pair are much longer 
than the others, while the next four pairs beneath are nearly square. 
The panels contain the following decoration: — ist, or upper pair: 
plain. Across the upper portion of these is fixed the brass-plate to 
which reference has already been made. 2nd pair : ornamented with 
little holes. 3rd pair : plain. 4th pair : similar to 2ncl pair. 5th pair : 
right panel, plain ; left panel, a figure like that just described in the 
right bottom panel of the front. 6th pair : these are longer than those 
above, and contain — in the right panel, diagonal lines from corner to 
corner ; in the left, little holes as before. 7th, and bottom panel, 
plain. 

On Connor Down, Gwinear 

Gwinear, in the Deanery of Penwith, is situated three miles east 
of Hayle, and one mile west of Gwinear Road railway-station. 

Connor Down is situated about a mile and a quarter north of 
Gwinear churchtown, and half that distance from the Gwinear Road 
railway-station. 

The cross may be easily found by taking the north-west road 
leading from Gwinear Road station until the highway between Hayle 



ORNAMENTED CROSSES 



307 



and Camborne is reached, when, on turning to the right, the cross will 
be seen, about a furlong distant, on the right-hand side of the high- 
way, in the direction of Camborne. It is built into the outside angle 
of the hedge forming the gateway, so that only the front and one side 
are exposed ; and in this position it is doing duty as a gatepost. 
The original site is not known, but it has been suggested that the 
cross may have stood at the fork of the roads, about a quarter of a 
mile, in a westerly direction, from its present position. 







The stone has evidently been previously used for a similar pur- 
pose, since just below the head is a hole pierced right through the 
stone, while beneath the present top hinge is another disused hole. 
The stone is much thicker than is customary with these crosses, 
and the entasis is very marked on the shaft, the right side of which 
is sloped outwards considerably. Faint markings of the beads on 
the angles are still to be seen. 

Dtmensio7is. — Height, 6ft.: width of head. 11 in.; width of 
shaft: at the top 10 in., at the bottom 18 in. : thickness: at the 
bottom 18 in., at the neck 11 in. 

X 2 



3o8 



OLD CORXISH CROSSES 



On both the front and back of the head are four three-sided 
sinkings with rounded angles, the portion between them forming a 
diagonal cross. 

The only ornament now visible is on the exposed side, and con- 
sists of a panel of little holes in rows. 



In the Market-place, Penzance 

Penzance, in the Deanery of Penwith, is situated on the north- 
west side of Mount's Bay, and is the terminus of the Great Western 
Railway, 328 miles from London. 

Mr. John Symons, of Penzance, has kindly forwarded me the 
following particulars regarding this stone : — ' Prior to 1829 the cross 














t\-r^-:^\- 



I 






Left Side. 



Stood in the Green Market, the spot being now marked by a cruci- 
form flagstone. Early in that year it was removed to the corner of 
a house at the bottom of North Street, a few feet from its original 
position. This house was demolished about twenty years ago 
[c. 1868], and the cross was then moved to its j)rescnt site, at the 
western end of the Market House.' In this position the back and 
lower portion of the sides are concealed. 



ORNAMENTED CROSSES 309 

The projections usually placed at the junction of the head and shaft 
are in this case rather below it. The stone is outlined by a bead, which 
runs completely round the edge on front and back, and shows also 
on the sides of the shaft, where it is stopped beneath the projections. 

Dimensions. — Height, 5 ft. 6 in. ; width of head, 2 ft. 4 in. ; width 
of shaft : at the top i ft. 6 in., at the bottom i ft. 10 in. Thickness 
at the bottom and neck, 10.^ in., the head tapering slightly to the top. 

The exposed sides are ornamented with incised work, as follows : — 

Right Side. — On the shaft there appear to be three panels, but 
part of the lower one is concealed. The upper and middle are 
plain, and the lower is filled with little holes in rows, but not so 
closely placed as are those in other panels of the monument. 

Front. — On the head are four incised triangles, with convex sides, 
so arranged that they form a cross between them on the face of the 
stone, the lower limb being much wider than the others. The pro- 
jections at the neck are emphasised by a conical hole in the centre. 
On a level with the neck is another hole, in the middle of the shaft. 
The shaft is divided into four pairs of panels, some of which are 
ornamented, as follows : — Upper pair : right panel, plain ; left, filled 
with little holes in rows, sloping slightly upward from right to left. 
Second pair : right, little holes as just described ; left, plain. Third 
pair : right, plain ; left, commenced with rows of holes, but only the 
two upper rows completed. Fourth pair : both plain. 

Left Side. — This, like the right, is divided into three panels. The 
upper two are plain, and the lower one is filled with little holes placed 
very closely together. 

Back. — This is too close to the wall to allow of inspection. 
Blight,^ after stating that the cross was moved in 1829, adds : ' Near 
the base, on the reverse side, the following inscription was then found : 
"Hie procumbunt corpora piorum." ' Dr. Millet, of Penzance, how- 
ever, in his notice - of this cross, gives quite a different reading, and 
one which appears to be the more likely one of the two. Quoting 
from Mr. E. B. Edmonds, who wrote in 1S50. he says: 'In re- 

^ Ancient Crosses and Antiquities of Cornu<aU^ p. 3. 

' Penzajice Nat. Hist, and Antiq. Soc, New Series, vol. iii. (1888 92), pp. 350, 351. 



3IO 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



moving [the cross] from its old site to a more convenient one the 
following inscription was discovered : — 



PCMBUNT 
QUICUMQ: 
VENIENT 



COP 
PIO 
U M 



5+ 



It was copied by the Rev. C. V. Le Grice, and from his copy the 
above was taken/ 



On a Wheel Cross with Projections at the Neck and with 
THE Figure of Our Lord in relief on the Front 

Camborne, No. 2. Outside the Institute 

Camborne, in the Deanery of Carnmarth, is situated twelve miles 
south-west of Truro, and has a railway-station on the main line. 

The original site of this 
cross is not known. For 
many years it lay on the 








ground at the rear of the 
Institute, but some time ago 
it was brought out and placed 
loosely against the front of 
the building. 

This is a very singular fragment, and consists of the mutilated 
head of a cross, attached to a small portion of its shaft. It has pro- 
jections at the neck, and is the only example of this type upon which 
the figure of our Saviour is sculptured. The circular head is com- 
pletely surrounded, on front and back, by a bold bead, which projects 
upon the face of the stone, and the spaces within are very deeply 
sunk, causing the sculpture to be in high relief. On the ragged 
portion of the shaft there are some remains of very curious ornament, 
quite unlike anything that exists on other monuments. 

Dimensions. — Height, 2 ft. 7 in. ; width of head, i ft. i i in. ; thick- 
ness, 8^ in. 



ORNAMENTED CROSSES 311 

Front. — The figure of our Lord is represented with a very large 
head, shghtly elevated arms, and an extremely small body. The 
widely spread legs are without feet, and rest on the edge of the bead. 
On the shaft, immediately beneath the bead, is a wide and rounded 
projection in low relief, but from the very small portion now left it is 
impossible to suggest for what ornamental purpose it was intended. 

Back. — Within the bead of the head is a wide-limbed Latin cross. 
On the shaft, about two inches below, is a deeply incised semicircular 
line, being all that now remains of the ornament which once decorated 
this monument. 

On a Holed Cross 

Carminnow Cross, Bodmin 

Bodmin, in the Deanery of Bodmin, is situated near the centre 
of the county, and has a railway-station. 

The hamlet of Carminnow Cross (locally called ' Tripey Corner') 
is situated a mile and a half south-east of Bodmin, near Castle Canyke. 
It consists of a few cottages adjacent to the intersection of four cross- 
roads, from which the hamlet takes its name. 

It is most probable that this monument originally stood at 
the junction of these four roads, and was removed at some remote 
period to its present position at the back of the cottages, and west- 
ward of what may be assumed was its previous site. The cross will 
now be found close to one of the telegraph-poles, and at the present 
time forms the boundary-stone between the parishes ot Bodmin and 
Lanhydrock, but is so hidden in the hedge — in which it stands side- 
ways — that only a small portion of the head is visible. 

On June 12, 1890, I had the portion of the hedge ^ which hid 
the front cleared away, and thus proved that the cross does not 
occupy its original position. There was no base, and, in addition to 
its being sunk in the ground up to the neck, the bottom of the shaft 
was found to be very uneven, showing that a fracture had taken 
place at this part, and suggesting the probability of this portion 

' Since the above was written the cross has been taken out of the hedge, and a proposal 
is on foot to erect it on a tall shaft and base on the spot on which it was supposed to have 
originally stood. 



312 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



having once been considerably higher. A circular hole about an inch 
in diameter has been drilled in the top of the head. 

The largest four-holed cross-head in Cornwall surmounts No. 3 
cross in Cardynham churchyard. It is three feet in diameter. Car- 
minnow ranks next, being half an inch under that dimension. 

Dimensions. — Height, 4ft.; width of head, 2ft. ii^in. 
of shaft : at the neck 18 in., at the bottom 19 in. ; thickness 
bottom \2\ in., at the neck 1 1 in., and at the top ']\ in. 

The head is almost a true circle, and has on both front and back 
two beads, side by side ; the outer bead is on the edge, and shows also 
on the sides, and the inner one is carried completely round the head. 



width 
at the 























i¥ 




The stone has projections at the neck — a most uncommon feature in 
a four-holed cross ; only one other possesses them, viz. that at 
Trelaske, in the parish of Lewannick.' In the Carminnow cross, 
however, they are of a different shape to those found on the wheel 
crosses,- as they are more pointed, and are also recessed about an 
inch from the face of the stone. It will be noticed that the holes are 
not pierced through the middle of the deep splays surrounding them. 

The ornament on the front and back is much worn, but appears 
to be as follows : — 

Front. — On the head are five bosses, each with a surrounding 
bead at its base, that in the centre being the largest. Those on the 
limbs are not evenly placed, as will be seen by referring to the illus- 

» See p. 185. ' See p. 155. 



ORNAMENTED CROSSES 



313 



tration ; and they are also much mutilated. On each side of the shaft, 
and some three inches from the edge, is an almost vertical incised 
line, curved over at the top like the handle of a walking-stick ; but 
they are not on the same level, and are probably the terminations of 
some pattern, the rest of which is missing. The remainder of the 
shaft appears to be decorated with a number of sunk holes. 

Back. — On the head is a central boss, with an encircling bead at 
its base. The limbs seem to be ornamented with sunk holes, indis- 
criminately placed, and much larger than those usually found. The 
shaft is treated in a similar manner to the front, except that the 
incised lines, curved over at the top, are considerably larger, and are 
formed of double lines. 

On a Latin Cross 
Boscathnoe, Madron 

Madron, in the Deanery of Penwith, is 
situated one and a half miles north of Pen- 
zance. 

This cross stands near Madron church, in 
a field which, taking its name from the monu- 
ment, is called ' Cross Close.' It is evidently 
in situ, and will be found on the left-hand side 
of the footpath leading from Madron churchtown 
to Penzance. 

Most of the upper and one of the hori- 
zontal limbs have been broken off. The cross 
is curiously shaped, being contracted at the 
neck, and having the shaft widest in the middle. 

The chief interest, however, attaching to this monument is the fact 
of its being the only Latin cross in Cornwall upon which any 
enrichment is found. 

Dimensions. — Height, 5 ft. ; width, i ft. 9 in. ; width of shaft : at 
the top I ft. 3 in., at the bottom i ft. 4 in. 

On the front is an incised rectangular figure, which is divided 
horizontally, about one-third of the distance upwards, by an incised 




314 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



line. The upper portion contains two diagonal lines, nearly at right 
angles, which cross each other and run into the vertical sides of the 
figure at different distances from the angles. The back and sides 
are unornamented. 



MONUMENTS WITH SUNK CROSSES OR WITH SUNK 

ORNAMENT 

Sunk work, or intaglio, is thus defined by Gwilt ^ : — ' Sculpture 
in which the subject is hollowed out so that the impression from it 
would present the appearance of a bas-relief.' 

The portion of the design to which the sculptor wishes to draw 
special attention, and which when repeated forms the pattern, is not, 
as in other cases, in relief. As far, therefore, as the general effect is 
concerned, a design in relief bears the same relation to a sunk design 
as, in printing or engraving, a white design on a black ground does 
to a black design on a white ground. 

It will be seen from the following list that the number of monu- 
ments in Cornwall to which this method of ornamentation is applied 
is very small. 

Geographical Distribution of Monuments with Sunk Crosses or 

with Sunk Ornament 



On a Pillar-stone. 
Wend ran, St. 
Bodilly. 

Oji Wheel Crosses. 
Bury an, St. 

Crowz-an-wra. 

NCin Carcg. 
Constantine. 

N an j arrow. 
Crotvan. 

Clowancc, Xo. 3. 



Helston, No. 3. 

In a garden. 
Mabe. 

Helland. 
Madron. 

Trembath. 
Temple, Nos. 5 and 6. 

In churchyard. 

On a Wheel Cross with Pro- 
jections at the Neck. 

Day, St. 

Scorrier, No. 2. 



Joseph (jwilt, /?« Encyclopcrdia of Anhitcciurc. 



ORNAMENTED CROSSES 315 

SUNK CROSSES 
ON A PILLAR-STONE 
An Equal-limbed Cross 

Bodilly, St. Wendron 

St. Wendron, or Wendron, in the Deanery of Kerrier, is situated 
two and a half miles north of Helston. 

Bodilly estate is situated about one mile north-west of St. 
Wendron churchtown. 

The following account of the cross, by the late Mr. S. J. Wills, 
of St. Wendron, appeared in the ' Eagle,' September, 1889 (a 
small local paper, published at Helston, which has now ceased to 
exist) : — 

' One of these ancient crosses formerly stood on the crest of a hill ^ 
in the parish of Wendron. Its site was a lonely spot near the four 
cross-roads, almost equidistant from the villages of Carilley and 
Burhos. To travellers on the highway between Redruth and Helston 
it was a conspicuous object ; and in the old coaching days, when the 
adjacent road was the usual route from London to the Land's End, 
it was unquestionably held in the highest veneration. An old woman 
who lives in a cottage hard by says that in her younger days it was 
called the " Wendron God," and that strangers "crossed themselves" 
when passing it. Within the present century, however, this ancient 
cross has witnessed some vicissitudes. Li the year 1855 it was found 
that it had been removed ; someone had maliciously thrown it down, 
with the intention, no doubt, of appropriating it to some purpose on 
an adjoining farm. 

'On November 7, 1855, owing mainly to the instrumentality of 
the Rev. G. B. Boraston, the overthrow of the cross was broached at 
a special vestry held at Wendron churchtown. The following reso- 

' Farms Common Hill. 



3i6 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



lution was passed, and signed by Mr. Bennet-Johns for the presiding 

chairman, Mr. Wilham WilHams, of Trenethick, who, by the bye, 

was an ilHterate : — 

' Resolved, that Ten Pounds Reward be paid by the Waywarden of the said parish 
of Wendron to any Person or Persons that will give information of the Person or 
Persons that have pulled down that Ancient Stone Post near the Four Cross-Roads 
leading from Redruth to Helston. 

' There is no subsequent entry in the parish minute-book to show 

whether the offender was discovered or not, and the circumstance is 






I .rV.'.Y. 






.-—^M' 









i^» ■ - 










m 






tfii 



IL 



0s^M "'^■■■-wM 



%.M^^,^ss^ 



not remembered by anyone now Hving. It is certain, however, that 
the ancient stone post was again set up in its original position. 

' Ten years had not passed away before the cross was again 
removed, and this time by one whose respect for the venerable was 
never very apparent. The late Mr. Henry Jenkin, of Halwin, had 
obtained permission to build a dwelling-house on the hilltop near the 
cross, and while enclosing a portion of the wastrel he removed the 
cross, threw it into the hedge, and buried it so completely that no 
trace of it remained. For years after its situation was a mystery. 
An intelligent farmer, whose land lay near the cross, was asked, ten 



ORNAMENTED CROSSES 317 

years after Its removal, where it was ; he maintained that it still stood 
erect upon the hill, A cattle-dealer, who passed the spot every week 
on his way to Redruth market, was asked, about the same time, if he 
remembered when the ancient stone was removed ; he also believed 
that it was by the wayside as of yore. So little attention is paid by 
the ordinary Cornishman to objects of antiquity, that their sudden 
removal is neither noticed nor deplored. 

'The tenant who farms Bodilly estate — Mr. William Moyle — 
made a successful search for the stone in the spring of 1886. But 
it was not long exposed to view before Mr. W. Bickford-Smith, 
of Trevarno, applied to the Lord Chancellor for permission to 
remove the stone to Sithney. Through Mr. John Tyacke, the 
steward of the property, Mr. Moyle asked for leave to carry the 
cross to his farmplace. Leave was granted, and on July 14, 1886, 
the removal was effected. In the " townplace " of Bodilly, close to 
the public road, the cross was re-erected for preservation, and there 
it still remains.' 

The monument consists of an oblong block of granite ; the upper 
angles of the sides, being rounded, gives a semicircular appearance to 
the top of the stone on front and back. It is supported at the bottom 
by some rough pieces of granite, which form a base. 

It has been used as a boundary-stone of property. On the right 
side is the letter H, and on the left is an R. 

Dimensions. — Height, 4 ft. 5 in. above the base ; and it is sunk 
about 2 ft. in the ground. It is 20 in. wide and 12 in. thick. 

On both the front and back is a cross, which may be described 
as follows : — 

Front. — Near the top is an equal-limbed cross, sunk three- 
quarters of an inch below the face of the stone. 

Back. — In a similar position to that on the front is a cross formed 
like that on Temple, No. 6 (p. 3 2 1 }. The surface of the cross is flush 
with that of the stone, its outline being formed by four triangular 
projections, rounded at the edges, their right angles facing inwards, 
and their outer sides being segmental. This is another instance ^ 

1 See pp. 35, 36. 



3i8 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



where an immense amount of labour has been expended in sinking 
nearly the whole surface of the stone to produce a particular kind of 
cross. 

ON WHEEL CROSSES 

Sunk Crosses with expanded Limbs 

There are four examples of this type, which will be found at the 
following places : — 

Buryan, St. . . . Crowz-an-wra. 

,,.... Ntan Careg. 
Temple, Nos. 5 and 6 .In churchyard. 

Crowz-an-wra, St Buryan 

St. Buryan, in the Deanery of Penwith, is situated six miles 
south-west of Penzance railway-station. 

Crowz-an-wra is a hamlet situated about one and a half miles 

north-west of St. Buryan churchtown. 
The cross stands at the intersec- 
tion of four roads. 

Few crosses are so roughly exe- 
cuted as the massive monolith at 
Crowz-an-wra. It is difficult to decide 
whether the outline of the head was 
originally left in its present chipped 
condition, or became so afterwards. 
The octagonal shaft is much wider 
at the top than at the bottom. 

Dimensions. — Height, 5 ft. 9 in. ; 
width of head, 2 ft. 7 in. ; width of 
shaft : at the top i ft. 9 in., at the 
bottom I ft. 6 in. 

Front. — On the front is a cross 
somewhat similar to that at Treslea (p. 174). Ihe upper portion 
is upon the rounded head, and consists of an ec|ual-limbed cross 







mm 




m. 



'^m^^si. 



ORNAMENTED CROSSES 



319 



with expanded ends, having a slight indination to the right, and 
its background formed by four triangular sinkings. The portion 
of the stone below, which is flush with the face of the cross, seems 
to form a shaft for the head above. 

Back. — On the back of the head (not here illustrated) is an 
equal-limbed and sunk cross similar in shape to that on the front. 

Nun Careg, St. Buryan 

For locality of St. Buryan, see last. 

NCin Careg estate is situated one and a half miles south-cast of 
St. Buryan churchtown. 















^/flrf 



This cross stands in 5zVz/, and is close to the stones known as 
' The Pipers ' at Bolleit, and about half a mile north-west of the cross 
on Tregurnow Down. 

Altogether it is a very curious example, the crosses on front and 
back being pardy incised and partly sunk. 

Dimensions. — Height, 4 ft. gin. ; width of head, 2 ft. i in. ; width 
of shaft : at the neck 15 in., at the bottom 17 in. ; thickness : at the 
bottom io|in., at the neck gin., from which point it tapers off to 
6 in. at the top. 



320 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 

Front. — On the front is a cross in relief of very singular 
character. The upper portion is upon the rounded head of the 
stone, and has a considerable inclination to the left. The limbs have 
expanded ends ; the two horizontal arms are carried to the bead on 
the edge of the head, and are flush with it, but the uppermost limb is 
some two inches within it, the surrounding space being sunk. At 
the intersection of the limbs is a sunk cross, also with expanded ends 
and limbs of approximately equal length. The lower portion of the 
cross-shaft is indicated in outline by an incised line carried some 
distance below the neck. 

Back. — On the head is an irregularly shaped cross having a 
marked inclination to the left, the limbs being slightly expanded at 
the ends. The horizontal arms are below the centre of the head ; 
they are longer than the vertical, and extend to the edge of the stone, 
while the extremity of the upper limb, like that on the front, is some 
two inches within the outline. The background surrounding the 
upper half of the cross is sunk to the same depth as the shaft ; but the 
cross itself and lower half of the head are in relief, the limbs of the 
lower portion being indicated by incised lines. 



Temple, No. 5. In the Churchyard 

Temple, in the Deanery of Bodmin, is situated six miles north- 
east of Bodmin town. 

Pieces of this cross are missing from the top and bottom, but 
.., ^_ there can be no doubt that it was very rudely executed 
f^^^«^ originally. 

Dimensions. — Height, 2 ft. ; width of head, 10 in. ; 
width of shaft, ']\ in. 

On the head is a sunk cross, each limb being of a diffe- 
rent width. All are slightly expanded at the ends, and the 
lower one is much wider than the others ; from each of the angles 
at its extremity is an incised line, carried to the bottom of the shaft, 
which may possibly be intended to represent the bead on the angles. 



-T^!_ 



ORNAMENTED CROSSES 321 



Temple, No. 6. In the Churchyard 

For locality of Temple, see last. 

This cross differs in shape from others in this churchyard already 
described. .-—, 

The head is beaded, and a piece is broken off the l(Cj^2dk\ 
bottom of the shaft. 'vii^J 

Dimensions. — Height, i ft. Sin. ; width of head, 1 2^ in. ; \~m^J'A 
width of shaft, %\ in. ^ 

Within the bead on the head is a cross executed in a similar 
manner to that on the back of the Bodilly stone, and described on 
p. 317, but in this case the limbs are slightly expanded at the ends. 

With a Sunk Cross placed diagonally, and with the 
Addition of sundry Incised Ornament 

There are two examples of this type, which will be found at the 
following places : — 

Constantine . . . Nanjarrow. 

Mabe .... Helland, 

Nanjarrow, Constantine 

Constantine, in the Deanery of Kerrier, is situated six miles east 
of Helston. 

Nanjarrow is a farm situated about one mile north-east of Con- 
stantine churchtown. 

The base of this monument is in a field on this farm. Some time 
ago the cross was dragged out of its socket, and at the time of my 
visit was lying neglected, under a heap of faggots and small timber 
by the side of the road adjoining the field. 

Some difficulty arises in accounting for the presence of the 
I J-inch wrought-iron dowel remaining in the mortice ; but as crosses 
were never fixed in this manner originally, it may reasonably be 
supposed that at some anterior period the cross was knocked out of 

Y 



322 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



its base, and was thus refixed, since the shaft is much broken at the 
bottom and the tenon is gone. 

The head of the cross is somewhat irregular in outHne, and is 
rather chipped round the top. The shaft is almost square, and is 
without entasis, and the base is formed of an uneven piece of granite. 













:J^^^ 



x-^^=-~ 



Dimensions. — Total height of the cross, 5 ft. 9 in. ; width of head, 
2 ft. ; width of shaft, 14.^ in. ; thickness, 9|in. 

.Some remarkable ornament is executed on this stone, of which 
the following is a description : — 

Front. — On the head, and some three inches within its outline, is 
an incised penannular ring, the lower ends of which are carried, at a 



ORNAMENTED CROSSES 323 

distance of about four inches apart, one foot down the shaft ; the 
extremities are then turned outwards at about an angle of 45". 
Within the ring are four deep, triangular sinkings, forming the back- 
ground of an equal-limbed cross in relief with expanded ends. 

Back. — On the head, and some three inches within its outline, is a 
sunk and irregularly executed diagonal cross, having widely formed 
limbs and slightly expanded ends. The circular outline of the space 
containing the cross is completed by an incised line cut on the outer 
sides of the triangular portions in relief between the limbs of the cross. 
On the shaft, and in continuation of the outline of the head, is a 
curved line, the ends of which are turned downwards and run parallel 
to the sides of the shaft, that on the left to the bottom, and that on 
the right for a short distance only. Between these descending lines, 
and of about the same length as the shorter line, is a figure resem- 
bling an inverted Tau cross. 

Helland, Mabe 

Mabe, or St. Mabe, in the Deanery of Carnmarth, is situated five 
miles north-west of Falmouth, and two miles south-west of Penryn 
railway-station. 

Helland Farm is three-quarters of a mile south of Mabe church- 
town. 

The garden belonging to it was once the site of an ancient chapel 
and graveyard. Mr. William Rail, the farmer, informed me that 
while carrying out some alterations in the garden he turned up this 
cross, an old font bowl, and a quantity of old roofing slates, which 
he thought must have belonged to the ancient buildings. 

Mr. Rail erected the cross in this garden near the roadside. 

The stone is in a good state of preservation, and has beaded 
angles. On each side, and a short distance below the head, is a boss 
surrounded by a bead at its base, a most unusual feature in these 
positions. 

Dijuensions. — Height, 3 ft. Sin.; width of head, 1 ft. 10^ in.; 
width of shaft : at the top 13^ in., at the bottom 16 in. ; thickness : 
at the bottom 10 in., at the neck 9^ in., and at the top ']\ in. 



3^4 



OLD CORXISH CROSSES 



The ornament on the front and back is as follows : — 
Front. — The circular outline of the head Is completed by carrying 
the bead on the edge over, and slightly in advance of, the shaft. Ad- 
joining, and concentric with it, is another bead, enclosing a sunk St. 
Andrew's cross which resembles that on the monolith at Nanjarrow, 
Constantine, last described. The limbs are carried through the inner 
bead, and stop against the outer, but, for some reason not apparent, 
the intersection of the right upper limb with the others was not 
originally completed ; this is shown by a little piece which is left un- 
sunk. The manner in which the sinking of the limbs is effected 
should be noticed. They are shallowest at the ends, and are gradu- 
ally increased in depth towards the centre. On the shaft is one of 






those incised figures most commonly used in Cornwall, and consist- 
ing of a rectangular figure having its opposite angles connected by 
diagonal lines. In this case the upper and lower lines, which are 
usually horizontal, slope upwards from right to left, and the lines of 
the bead are utilised as the side-lines of the figure. 

Back. — This is decorated with incised work only. On the head is 
a circle, within which is an eciual-limbed cross slightly inclined to the 
right. Each limb is terminated by a small and slightly enlarged 
rounded end similar to that on No. 2 cross in Budock church- 
yard (p. 246). 



ORNAMENTED CROSSES 



325 



Unlike the foregoing, the Crosses being partly Sunk ani: 

PARTLY IN Relief 



Trembath Cross, Madron 

Madron, in the Deanery of Penwith, is situated one and a hall 
miles north of Penzance. 

Trembath estate is about one and a half miles south-west of 
Penzance. 





tea --.. 







The cross stands on the left-hand side of the road leading to St. 
Buryan, and is near Buryas Bridge. 

It possesses very peculiar sculpture, consisting of what are pre- 
sumably curious forms of crosses, executed partly in relief, partly by 
sinkings, and partly by incised lines. 

Diinensions. — Height, 4 ft. 7 in. ; width of head, i ft. gin. ; width 
of shaft at the top and bottom, i 5 in., but rather wider in the middle ; 
thickness, Sin. The circular base is 4 ft. in diameter and 10 in. 
thick. 

Front. — On the head, and passing some way below the neck, is a 



326 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 

cross. It consists of a vertical bead, which slopes slightly from right 
to left, and projects before the face of the stone. It is emphasised 
by an incised outline, and forms the shaft of what appears to be a 
double-armed cross. The arms are sunk, and widely expanded at 
the ends ; the lower pair are nearly horizontal, while those above 
incline upwards from right to left. 

Back. — On the head is an incised and rudely shaped penannular 
ring, enclosing a cross, the shaft of which passes through the open- 
ing at the bottom. The cross is similar to that on the front, except 
that there is only one set of arms instead of two. On the shaft, 
immediately beneath, is a very curious Latin cross in relief Its 
shaft is formed of a single bead, and curves to the left, and the 
arms, of unequal length, are composed of double beads sloping 
slightly upwards from right to left ; the whole being outlined by an 
incision. 



SUNK ORNAMENT 

There are only three crosses which have sunk ornament upon 
them, viz, : — 

On Wheel Crosses 

Crowan . . . Clowance, No. 3. 

Helston, No. 3 . . In a garden. 

On a Wheel Cross with Projections at the Neck 
Day, St. . . . Scorrier, No. 2. 

The Douijle Chevron Pattern 

The three stones just mentioned are all ornamented with the 
same kind of pattern, viz. the double chevron pattern. It consists of 
a series of triangles adjoining the beads on the angles of the shaft, 




ORNAMENTED CROSSES 327 

the base against the bead and the apex inwards ; and down the centre 
of the shaft are squares in reHef. 

This very curious pattern resembles a sort of flat twist, which. I 
discovered by accident, could be formed by folding a strip of paper 
continuously, as shown in fig. i of the accompanying block, com- 
mencing in the same manner as adopted in folding a small note 
(shown in fig. 2). 

In executing this pattern on the stone 
the triangular portions at the sides are 
sunk about half or three-quarters of an 
inch. The central portion is in relief, and 

is flush with the face of the stone, and Jf.F^ \/ N?a 

in all cases has an incised line cut down 
the middle. 

The only other example of this pattern 
on a cross will be found in the museum at Meigle,^ a stone which 
was formerly in the minister's garden at that place. 

The antiquity of this pattern is proved by the fact of its being a 
characteristic ornament of the Bronze Age, and, amongst other 
instances, it is to be found on the slabs of the chambered tumulus at 
Newgrange, co. Meath, Ireland.- It is not unlikely that the idea 
originated from weaving, and its application to decorative purposes 
was a simple method of producing results in light and shade. 

A survival of this ornament is apparent in the numerous varieties 
of the chevron pattern so common in Norman architecture. The 
two examples in this style which approach most nearly to the double 
chevron enrichment used in Cornwall are found on string-courses in 
the churches of Deeping St. James, Lincolnshire,^ and at Leuchars, 
Fifeshire. In both cases there is a continuous row of lozenges in 
relief along the centre and sunk triangular spaces on either side. 

A variety of this pattern is found at Walmer, Kent, in which the 
raised and sunk portions are reversed. 

' Stuart's Sculptured Stones of Scotland, vol. i. Plate LXXVII. 

' See Wakeman's Handbook of Antiquities of Ireland. 

' J. H. Parker's Glossary of Gothic Architecture, 1845, ^'o'- •'• Plate LX.W'II. 



328 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 

The sunk chevron, consisting of a row of sunk triangles, is, 
perhaps, more often used in the enrichment of Norman mouldings 
than any other pattern. A few instances only need be given, viz. : 
on string-courses at Canterbury Cathedral and Knaresborough 
church, Yorkshire ; on an arch moulding at Edstaston church, 
Shropshire. The Norman tympanum at Wheatall is ornamented 
w^ith a series of sunk chevrons in horizontal rows. There is also a 
good example round the top of the bowl of the font in Ruan Minor 
church, Cornwall. 

Of the variety known as the ' hatched ' moulding it need only be 
said that the principal difference lies in the shape of the triangles, 
which are right-angled, instead of equilateral, as in the other 
instances. The sinkings are often worked on three sides of a string- 
course, the projecting portion of which is a semi-octagon in section. 
Parker gives an illustration of one at Westminster Mall.^ 

There can be little doubt but that some of the ornament and en- 
riched mouldings used in the decoration of the later crosses were 
derived from Norman and Early English architecture. An example 
is pointed out in describing the ' Four-holed Cross,' St. Neot, which 
is characterised by an Early English feeling in the foliated work on 
the left side, this ornament being very similar to that which forms a 
band round the lower part of the bowl of the font in St. Stephen's 
church, Launceston." 

The merging of the Saxon and Norman styles is shown also in 
the bands of interlaced work, or cable mouldings, also found on 
early fonts. 

On Wheel Crosses 

Clowance No. 3, Crowan 

Crowan, in the Deanery of Kerrier, is situated four miles south 
of Camborne, and is close to Praze railway-station, on the branch- 
line from Gwinear Road to Helston. 

Clowance, or Clowance Park, the seat of the Rev. St. A. H. M. 

' Glossary of Gothic Architecture^ vol. ii. Plate LXXVIII. 
'' See illustration \x\ Journ. Arch. Catub., Fifth series, vol. xii. 



ORNAMENTED CROSSES 



329 



St. Aubyn, is situated about three-quarters of a mile west of Crowap 
churchtown. 

Sixty years ago, but within the recollection of an old miner 
named John Richards, who has been dead some time, this cross 
stood on the greensward, by four cross-roads, at the north-west 
corner of Nine Maidens' Down, which is the meeting-point of the 
four following parishes : Illogan, Camborne, Crowan, and St. Wen- 








d 




' '^'*j£'iM%!iA>J'^ ,^. 



dron. The late Mr. S. J. Wills, of St. Wendron, my informant, visited 
the spot about thirty years later in company with the old miner, but 
only to find the cross was gone. After some search it was discovered 
doing duty as a gatepost at Hangman Barrow, in Crowan parish. 
W. Bickford-Smith, Esq., of Trevarno, noticed the monolith in 
this position, and, not knowing to whom it belonged, removed it, 
giving the farmer on whose ground it stood a new gatepost, value ten 
shillings, in its stead. On hearing of this the Rev. St. A. H. M. St. 



330 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 

Aubyn, the rightful owner, claimed and recovered the stone, and 
erected it in his grounds, where it now stands. 

The circular base into which the cross is now inserted did not 
originally belong to it, but had previously formed part of a stepping- 
stile in the pathway between Releath and Polcrebo. Both cross and 
base were removed to Clowance about the year 1883. 

The beaded head is slightly elliptical in form, and is much 
broken at the top, while the outline of the shaft is most irregular. 
Chipped edges, a hole right through the stone, and other mutilations, 
clearly show the rough treatment this cross has received. 

Dimensions. — Height, 5 ft. loin. ; width of head, i ft. 4 in. ; 
width of shaft : at the neck 13^ in., at the bottom 14^ in. ; thickness : 
at the bottom lo^^in., at the neck 7 in. The base is 3 ft. g\n. in 
diameter and 1 1 in. thick. 

There is no ornament on the sides, but that on the front and 
back is very curious, and is as follows : — 

Front. — On the head is an equal-limbed cross in relief with an 
inclination to the left ; it has slightly expanded ends, and a small hole 
is sunk in the centre. On the upper portion of the shaft is roughly 
executed double chevron-work, divided in places by vertical incised 
lines. The middle line is carried down and terminated in a lozenge, 
below which is a design, resembling an hour-glass, similar to those 
on the cross in St. Dennis ^ churchyard ; and the lower portion of the 
shaft is unornamented. Between this figure and the chevron-work 
is some very remarkable ornament, consisting of two groups of con- 
centric semicircular beadwork, each having their diameter on the 
edge of the stone. The cross in Mylor churchyard has a similar 
ornament, but in complete circles. 

Back. — On the head is an incised equal-limbed cross in outline, 
having the interior angles connected by diagonal lines. With the 
exception of another of the hour-glass figures at the top of the shaft, 
the rest of the decoration on this portion of the stone is too much 
worn to be defined. 

' See p. 293. 



ORNAMENTED CROSSES 



33» 



Helston, No. 3. In a Garden 

Helston, in the Deanery of Kerrier, is situated ten miles south- 
west of Penryn, and has a railway-station near the town. 

I am indebted to the late Mr. S. J. Wills, of St. Wendron, for 
the following information : — 

' This cross formerly stood by the side of the path leading to 
Trelill Holy Well, in the parish of St. Wendron. It is believed that 
Mr. Silvester removed it to his residence at Gweal Mayow, which 








W^^-^WWi 




mm 




lies between Trelill and Helston. Subsequently Mr. Glyn Grylls 
conveyed the cross from Gweal Mayow, and placed it in his garden 
at Cross Street, Helston, where it now stands. After his death the 
house became the property, by purchase, of Mr. W. C. Baddeley, who 
now resides there.' 

A wide bead surrounds the head on both front and back, and 
within each is an equal-limbed cross in relief with expanded ends. 
In the middle of that on the front is a small boss. The shaft has a 
slight entasis, and is wider at the top than at the bottom. A good 
example of incised and sunk ornament is found on this cross, the 
incised devices being very remarkable. 

Dunensions. — Height, 4 ft. 5 in. : width of head, i ft. 6 in. : width 



332 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 

of shaft: at the neck 13^ in., at the bottom i2|In. ; thickness: at 
the bottom 9^ in., at the neck 8 in., at the top 6| in. The base is 
3 ft. 3 in. wide. 

There is no ornament on the sides of the shaft, but that on the 
front and back is as follows : — 

Fro7it. — Occupying about two-thirds of the shaft is the best- 
executed specimen of double chevron-work in Cornwall, and some of 
the portions of the ornament in relief are bordered by an incised line. 
Below are two incised figures, resembling horseshoes,^ placed one on 
either side of the incised centre line ; that on the right side has the 
ends downwards, that on the left is cut on a slope. The lower 
portion of the shaft is plain. 

Back. — The only markings on this face which can be deciphered 
are incised, and consist of two more of the horseshoe figures, placed 
one over the other, the rounded portions facing each other, and a 
V-shaped figure near the bottom. The remaining lines are not 
sufficiendy distinct to indicate their meaning. 

On a Wheel Cross with Projections at the Neck 

Scorrier No. 2, St. Day 

St. Day, or St. Dye, is a modern parish formed out of Gwennap. 
It is situated in the Deanery of Carnmarth, and is about two miles 
east of Redruth town and railway-station. 

Scorrier is the seat of George Williams Esq., J. P., D. L., and is 
only about half a mile from Scorrier Gate railway-station. 

The late Mr. S. J. Wills, of St. Wendron, informed me that this 
cross ' formerly stood on the Rame tenement (originally included in 
the parish of St. Wendron), at the junction of the road leading from 
Stythians to the Helston and Penryn road. The ground was 

' It may be worth mentioning that at a late date the Ferrers family (Farriers) resided 
at Trelowarren, near Helston, and bore for arms three horseshoes. Whether it was the 
custom to insert on the crosses signs or marks connected with the owners is not known. 
At any rate, it was a very common practice to carve them on the bench-ends in the Cornisli 
rhiirches, of which there are nvimerous examples. 




:.^ 



'•^-^''S^ 














O 



y 



o 
















'ft 



ORNAMENTED CROSSES 333 

heath-land, and a noted Celtic tumulus, since levelled, stood here. 
Rame has for generations been the property of the Williams family. 
About the year 1849 Mrs. Grace Williams, the mother of Mr. 
Nicholas Williams, the present occupier, sold the cross for 5/. to John 
Michael Williams, Esq., of Scorrier, who removed it to his grounds, 
where it now stands. 

A notice, accompanied by a not very correct illustration, of this 
cross is given in the ' Journal ' of the Royal Institution of Cornwall,* 
and is there stated by the author to have stood ' near the Half 
Way House.' 

Dimensions. — Height out of the ground, 7 ft. 8 in. ; width of 
head, i ft. 7 in. ; width of shaft: at the top 14 in., at the bottom 
i6|^in. The cross is of a uniform thickness of about 11 in., and is 
slightly narrower at the top of the head. 

The shaft has beaded angles, and a slight entasis on one side only. 

All four sides are ornamented, as follows : — 

Front. — On the elliptical head is a double bead, the inner one 
being carried completely round, and within is an equal-limbed cross 
in relief having expanded ends. The incised lines forming the beads 
on either side of the panel on the shaft are terminated by a small tri- 
angular sinking cut in the projection at the neck. Adjoining this bead 
is another, terminated in a similar manner. The design between the 
beads on the shaft is not central, but is placed slightly towards the 
left side. At the top is a circle containing an equal-limbed cross in 
relief, formed of double beads - on a recessed background. The 
vertical line between the beads is carried down through the centre of 
the design to a corresponding cross and circle at the bottom. Below 
the upper circle are five bays of double chevron ornament, and be- 
tween the lowest bay and cross and circle beyond are two segments 
of a circle, with sinkings of a similar shape in the middle. The design 
is finished by a semicircular bead running into the middle bead 
on the shaft and that surrounding the lower cross. 

' Report, 1849, Plate IV. The author of this interesting article describes the illustration 
as 'a memorial of the original, which has, I fear, ere now been destroyed.' Fortunately, the 
stone is safe and sound, and likely to remain so. 

"^ See Stythians, No. 2. 



334 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 

Left Side. — On the shaft is some roughly executed incised work. 
The upper half has irregular lattice-work, and the lower half zigzag 
lines. 

Back. — On the circular head is a double bead, one on the edge, 
and the other carried completely round. Within, is an equal-limbed 
cross in relief. The projections on the neck have, on the right side, 
a square sinking, set diagonally, and on the left side is one of triangu- 
lar form. The shaft appears to be divided vertically by beads into 
three compartments of about equal width. In the right is double 
chevron-work. In the centre the ornament is too abraded to define, 
but appears to have some irregular sunk triangular work ; and at the 
bottom are three small devices. The upper one is like a horseshoe, 
and the lower two are circles ; all incised. The left compartment is 
similar to that on the right to nearly the bottom, where the design is 
terminated by curved instead of triangular lines. 

Right Side. — On either side of the shaft is a double bead, and 
between them a panel of double chevron-work having a wide, deep 
groove cut down the centre, and terminated at the top and bottom 
by a forked end. 



MONUMENTS WITH MISCELLANEOUS ORNAMENT DIF- 
FERENT IN CHARACTER FROM THAT OF DIVISIONS 
I, 2, AND 4 {Page 232), AND CONSISTING CHIEFLY OF 
BEADWORK OR EMBLEMS IN RELIEF 

There are a few crosses in Cornwall which, owing to their having 
certain ornament upon them of quite a different nature from anything 
else in the county, require to be treated separately. 

Gcogi'-aphical Pisiribiition 
On VViii;I':l Cross ks 
Egloshayle. Mabyn, St. 

VVashauay. Pcnwinc. 

/i'V//, St. Stythians, 

Trevean. Trevalis, Nos. i and 2. 



ORNAMENTED CROSSES 335 



On Wheel Crosses with Projections at the Neck 



jviylor, St. 

In churchyard. 
Roche, No. 2. 

In the churchyard. 



Wendron, St. 

In Mcrthcr Uny old church- 
yard. 



The foregoing crosses will be dealt with, according to the kind 
of detail by which they are characterised, as follows : — 

1. With Human Heads. 

2. With a Fleur-de-lis. 

3. With a Heart. 

4. With a Cross and Ring. 

5. With Beadwork. 

With Human Heads 

Trevean, St. Erth 

St. Erth, in the Deanery of Penwith, is situated two miles south 
of Hayle, and one mile south of St. Erth railway-station. 

This cross formerly stood m sittt against a hedge in a field called 
' Cross Ball,' at Trevean, about two and a half miles south of St. Erth 
churchtown. It was removed in the spring of 1890, by Lord St. 
Levan, to St. Michael's Mount, but for what reason is not known. 
To preserve its ancient association it is here placed under its original 
locality. 

It is, probably, not too much to say that this is one of the most 
remarkable monuments in the county, not only on account of its 
shape, but also in regard to its peculiar detail. 

On each side of the head is a human face in relief, much resem- 
bling those on some of the Norman fonts in Cornwall of the type 
iound at Altarnon, St. Thomas, &c. The heads are connected by a 
bold bead passing over the top of the cross, the chins being on a 



336 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



level with the junction of the head and shaft. The heads and bead 
are, therefore, a feature quite separate and distinct, and form an 
addition to the usual shape of a wheel cross. The shaft is wider on 
all sides at the top than at the bottom, and has chamfered angles, 
which, at the top, die into the head of the cross. But the most 
puzzling details are the angular stops to the chamfers, which un- 
deniably point to a very late date, certainly well into the mediaeval 
period. 

Di77ie7isions. — Height, 4 ft. 4 in. ; width of head, i ft. 10 in. ; 
width of shaft : at the top 11 in., at the bottom 9 in. ; thickness : at 







^■^^-.mM 'vi^->'' 







the bottom 8 in., at the neck 11 in., from which it ta})ers slightly to 
the too of the head. 

On both the front and back of the head is a deep pear-shaped 
recess (similar to those described on p. 140), containing the following 
sculpture : — 

Front. — On the front is a very curious little figure of our Lord, 
carved in such a manner that the head and feet are nearest to the right 
side of the cross-head, while the body appears to be upright. The 
right arm is almost horizontal, while the left is considerably elevated ; 
both are slightly expanded at the ends, showing the sleeves of the 
tunic, and the bottom of the garment is indicated above the knees. 
The legs rest on the bottom of the recess, but the feet are omitted. 



ORNAMENTED CROSSES 



337 



Back. — On the head is a Latin cross in reUef the width and 
height of the recess. 

Sides. — On either side is the full face of the heads above men- 
tioned. 

With a Fleur-de-Lis 

The two crosses with this emblem upon them will be found at 
the following places : — 



Egloshayle 
Mabyn, St. 



Washaway. 
Penwine. 




Washaway, Egloshayle 

Egloshayle, in the Deanery of Bodmin, is situated six and a half 
miles north-west of Bodmin town, and half a mile south-east of 
Wadebridge railway-station. 

Washaway is a hamlet about two and a 
half miles south-east of Egloshayle. 

This stone is said to have been found in 
Dunmere Wood, and now stands facing the 
road, and against the garden hedge of the 
' Washaway Inn,' so that only the front and 
sides are visible. 

Maclean ^ tells us that it originally stood 
at three cross-roads which branch off at Washaway. 

Although it can scarcely be called a cross, its shape so exactly 
resembles that of the wheel-cross type that it deserves a place in 
this work. Its curious ornament is also worthy of record. 

The bead on the angles shows on the sides as well as on each 
face. 

Dimensions. — Height, 2 ft. 9 in. ; width of head, 2 ft. 3 in. 

Within the recess of the head, on both front and back, is carved 
in relief a fleur-de-lis. 









^^&-£-^ 



^ Deanery of Trigg Minor, \'oI. i. p. 405. 



3 38 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 

With reference to the fleur-de-lis in connection with Egloshayle 
Maclean says : ' As Dunmere Wood and the surrounding district 
anciently belonged to the Priory of Bodmin, and as this priory was 
dedicated to St. Petrock and the Blessed Virgin Mary, it is not 
improbable that her emblem, the fleur-de-lis, was selected as the 
dedicatory symbol of the crosses within the priory demesne.' ^ 



Penwine, St. Mabyn 

St. Mabyn, in the Deanery of Bodmin, is situated five miles 
north-west of Bodmin, 

Penwine Farm is situated on the left-hand side of the road lead- 
ing from St. Mabyn churchtown 
to Blisland, and about one and 
a half miles east of the former 
place. 
..,.; ^^. . The farmhouse stands a 

tT:','f!i^ S! short distance from the main 
J^'''-AvlM. iiMfe-*'''! road, and is approached by an 

avenue, at the end of which the 
cross can be seen, fixed on top of a boundary-wall of the farmyard, 

I have been unable to ascertain any particulars regarding its 
previous site or history. 

Difuensions. — Height, 2 ft. 6 in. ; width of head, i ft. 9 in. ; width 
of shaft, 13 in. ; thickness, 7 in. 

Front. — On the front is an equal-limbed cross in relief with 
widely expanded ends and central boss. 

Back. — On the back is a large fleur-de-lis'-' in relief. 

With a Heart 

Only one instance of this emblem has be(^n as y('t discovered in 
Cornwall. 

' Dt'iiHery of Trii^i;; Minor, vol. i. p. 407. 
'' Sec p.'iragraph at top of this page. 





ORNAMENTED CROSSES 



339 



Trevalis No. i, Stythians 

Stythians, in the Deanery of Carnmarth, is situated four miles 
north-west of Penryn railway-station. 

TrevaHs Farm is about two and a half miles south-west of 
Stythians churchtown. 







mil ^ 



■(}r\ 










The cross stands in situ in the open field, and in this position is 
used by the cattle as a rubbing-post, the grass being quite worn 
away round the bottom of the shaft. 

The rounded head of the monolith is not beaded. The shaft is 
contracted at the neck, and has a very marked entasis. 

Dimensions. — Height, 6 ft. 2 in. ; width of head, i ft. 10 in. : width 
of shaft : at the neck 13 in., in the middle 16 in., at the bottom 15 in. ; 
thickness : at the bottom i 2 in., at the neck 9 in. 



2 2 



340 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 

Front. — On the head is a rude representation of the Saviour, 
sHghtly inclined to the left. The head reaches to the top of the 
stone. The arms are in a straight line, but slope downwards from 
right to left. The body is more like that of a female ; the short legs 
— without feet — are bowed, and rest on the top of a heart, which 
boldly projects beneath them. This unique feature is the most 
interesting portion of the monument, and would be even more so 
were its sifrnification known. 

Back. — On the back is a Latin cross in relief the full height of 
the stone. It is formed by an equal-limbed cross on the head, with 
expanded ends, terminating at the edge of the stone. From the 
extremity of the lower limb, and slightly recessed, is continued the 
remainder of the shaft. 

With a Cross and Ring 

The following is the only example in which this device occurs 
separately. On No. 2 cross, Scorrier (p. 332), there are two of them 
on the front, one at each end of the ornamented panel. 

Trevalis No. 2, Stythians 

For locality of Trevalis, see last. 

This cross formerly stood at Hendra Hill, adjacent to the western 
entrance of Stythians churchtown, at a point on the south side of the 
road almost opposite to Stythians Wesleyan meeting-house. It was 
brought to Trevalis, about thirty years ago {c. i860), by Mr. Moore, 
the owner of the Trevalis and Hendra estates. The late Mr. S. J. 
Wills, of St, Wendron, to whom I am indebted for the above 
information, adds : ' A friend of mine well remembers it at Hendra, 
and was a witness of its removal.' It would be interesting to know 
why the cross was not refixcd in the base, instead of being sunk in 
the ground by its sitle, tlnis losing much of its height. I have, how- 
ever, shown it fjn the drawing in the base, though, if properly erected, 
it would in all likelihood be about eighteen inches higher. 

r'xcej)t that th(j head is rather chipped in places, this monolith is 



ORNAMENTED CROSSES 



341 



in a fair state of preservation. The bead, carried round the head, is 
worked off into the chamfered angles of the shaft in a curious 
manner. The base is formed of a rudely shaped stone, and the 
mortise is not sunk in the middle. 

Dimensions. — Height out of the ground, 7 ft. i in. ; width of head* 
I ft. 9^ in. ; width of shaft : at the top 14 in., at the bottom 13 in. ; 




^^^ 






M. 













Wi 



1^ -^^^-^ 




thickness: at the bottom 12^ in., at the neck 10^ in., tapering to 
about 8 in. at the top of the head. 

The sculpture on front and back is as follows : — 

Front. — Within a pear-shaped recess ^ on the head, which extends 

some way down the shaft, is a figure of our Saviour in rather shallow 

relief. The body is exceptionally wide ; the legs are short, and the 

large feet turn outward at right angles. Immediately beneath the 

1 See p 140 



342 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 

feet, but placed towards the left side, is a circle, nine inches in diameter, 
formed by a bead, its outer surface being flush with that of the stone. 
Within is an incised and equal-limbed cross, the arms of which are 
carried to the inside of the bead. 

Back. — On the head are the upper limbs of a Latin cross in 
relief, with expanded ends, the shaft of which extends to the bottom 
of the stone, where it is rather wider than at the top. 

With Beadwork 

There are three crosses on which beadwork forms the principal 
characteristic, and all have projections at the neck. They will be 
found at the following places : — 

Mylor . . .In churchyard. 

Roche, No. 2 . .In churchyard. 
Wendron, St. . . In Merther Uny old churchyard. 

Mylor. In the Churchyard 

Mylor, in the Deanery of Carnmarth, is situated two miles north- 
east of Falmouth town and railway-station. 

The cross stands on the south side of the church,^ between the 
porch and transept. 

The Rev. W. I ago, of Bodmin, gives the following account of the 
discovery of this cross during the rebuilding of the church in 1870: — 

' A granite cross more ancient than, or perhaps coeval with, the 
oldest portions of the present church has been found in the church- 
yard. Till lately its character was not observed. It appeared to be 
merely a long stone post, rather more than a foot square, thrust 
against the south wall of the church to serve as a prop or flying 
buttress. On careful examination it was found to have its head 
downwards, buried in the earth. With assistance from H.M.S. 
"Ganges" this ponderous monolith was raised and righted. . . . 

' Parts of Mylor church are Early Norman. 



ii':':^:-. 



MVLOR 

L\ THE Churchyard 




/>■ 343 



ORNAMENTED CROSSES 343 

Tradition in the parish declares that the cross stood originally on or 
near its present site, marking St. Mylor's grave.' ^ 

It will be seen from the dimensions that this is by far the tallest 
cross in Cornwall, the nearest to It in height being that In the church- 
yard at Ouethiock. For this reason it seems a great pity that so 
splendid a monolith should have been so deeply sunk — nearly seven 
feet — In the ground, whereby its characteristic height Is lost. 
Obviously it was never intended to be thus buried, and I have there- 
fore taken the liberty of showing its full height in the accompanying 
Plate, allowing twelve Inches for Insertion In a base. 

Dimensions. — Total height of the cross, 17 ft. 6 In.; width of 
head when entire, 2 ft. The shaft Is 15 In. square at the top, 16 In. 
square at the bottom. 

It is of the round-headed type, with projections at the neck, and 
the square shaft is a most uncommon feature. On the head is a 
nearly equal-limbed cross with central boss, and having a marked 
inclination to the right. The triangular sinkings forming the cross 
are very deep — so deep, in fact, that on paying a second visit to the 
monolith In August 1891, my nephew pointed out a bird's-nest built 
in one of these holes on the back of the cross ! 

The front and back are alike, and what little ornament exists is 
very peculiar. 

On each of the projections at the neck is an incised circle, and 
on the shaft is an incised panel, extending some feet below the neck. 
The sides are parallel with the angles of the stone, and the enclosing- 
line at the bottom slopes slightly upward from the right. At the 
top are two concentric circular beads ; the outer one forms a semi- 
circular end to the panel, which rises about three Inches above the 
level of the neck. 

Note. — Mr. Byam Shaw, of Kensington, has very kindly drawn 
for the Plate the figure of a well-known Mylor man standing by the 
side of the cross, thus giving an excellent idea of its height. 

' Journal, Royal Institution of Cornwall, No. XI. .\pril 1S70, pp, 162-4. 



344 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



Roche, No. 2. In the Churchyard 

Roche, in the Deanery of St, Austell, is situated six miles north of 
St. Austell churchtown, and one mile south-west of Victoria station, 
on the branch-line from Par to Newquay. 

The monolith stands on the south side of the church, near the 
porch, and is probably in situ. The lower portion of the shaft and 
the base are at present buried some eighteen inches below the surface, 
but by probing with an iron bar I was able to trace the base beneath, 
and have therefore shown the monument in the Plate as if it were 
clear of the ground. 

In general appearance this cross is certainly more quaint than 
beautiful, being a most extraordinary, and evidently very early, ex- 
ample of a decorated wheel cross with projections at the neck. The 
convexity of its surfaces is very marked, while the sides of the head 
are slightly concave, and the upper angles are rounded. The shaft 
has a pronounced entasis, and is considerably wider at the top than 
at the bottom. Under the influence of time and weather the surface 
of the stone has become so abraded that a great deal of the ornament 
has now disappeared. 

Dimensions. — Height, 8 ft. 8 in. ; width of head, 2 ft. 2 in. ; width 
of shaft : at the neck 1 ft. 9 in., at the bottom, about i ft. 6 in. ; thick- 
ness : at the bottom 14 in., at the neck 12 in., tapering off at the 
top. The base is about 4 ft. 6 in, long and 3 ft, wide. 

All four sides are decorated with very curious ornament, consisting 
chiefly of incised work, as follows : — 

Front. — The front faces east. On the head are four deep, circular 
sinkings ' with raised centres, arranged somewhat in the form of a 
square. Between the lower two sinkings, but nearer that on the left, 
is a boss with a wid(; surrounding bead at its base. It is remarkable 
that tliis feature was not placed in tlic centre of the head, as in all 
other cases. The shaft may be divided into five portions — (i) That 
at the top is ornamented by little holes indiscriminately placed ; 

' See also cross in Merther Uny old churchyard, St. Wcndron, next described. 



ilfS^tOrii^^'^^''^^ 




Q 

< 
> 

O 

Pi 

U 

w 

H 



O 

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r^ 




as;^^^:'?^^-^^^''^^ 






(Sse^^^iiv^- 











^ 



W, 






?? 







ORNAMENTED CROSSES 345 

(2) contains a curious snake-like figure, formed by an incised line ; 

(3) has little holes as before ; (4) has an incised line somewhat re- 
sembling the letter U placed sideways, the bottom towards the right 
side of the shaft. (5) Most of this is buried, but the exposed portion 
does not appear to have been ornamented. 

Left Side. — Owing to the narrowing of the head towards its 
edges, caused by the convex surface of the stone, already mentioned, 
two of the sinkings on the front and back, as well as the bosses, are 
visible. The angles of the shaft are beaded, and the space 
between them is ornamented with horizontal beads placed close 
together. 

Back. — The head is similar to the front, except that the boss is 
central and that the four sinkings are arranged more evenly round it. 
On the shaft is the following incised work : — The upper portion (i) 
contains little holes indiscriminately placed ; (2) contains an irregu- 
larly incised line, sloping slightly downwards from right to left. (3) 
About twelve inches below is a horizontal row of six little holes ; (4) 
contains three irregular lines, running almost parallel ; {5) contains 
horizontal rows of little holes, varying in number in each row ; (6) 
has a figure resembling a narrow U placed sideways, the bottom 
facing the left side. (7) This portion does not appear to have been 
decorated. 

Right Side. — The head is similar to the left side. The ornament 
on the shaft may be divided into two portions. 7 he upper has, on 
the right-hand angle, some very curious diagonal incisions, some- 
what resembling ogam characters. In the middle are three 
small incised circles, with raised centres, like those on the head, and 
around them are little holes, indiscriminately sunk. The lower portion 
contains the most interesting detail of the monolith. This consists 
of an incised sword, cut nearer to the left side ; the blade has a central 
groove, and tapers slightly, but the end is buried. To the left of the 
weapon, and close to the edge, are some short incised, horizontal 
markings. 



346 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



St. Wendron. In Merther Uny Old Churchyard 

St. Wendron, or St. Gwendron, in the Deanery of Kerrier, is 
situated two and a half miles north of Helston. 

Merther Uny is situated about five miles north-east of Helston 
railway-station. St. Uny was an Irish saint who visited Cornwall 
circa a.d. 460. The churches at Uny Lelant and Uny Redruth are 
dedicated to him ; also St. Uny Well, near the Land's End, and the 
original church at Merther Uny. 

The cross occupies its original site, near the south side of the 
entrance to the old churchyard, and stands in a base, now broken across 
the middle, and sunk about eighteen inches below the ground-level. 

The late Mr. S. J. Wills, of St. Wendron, was present in 1886 
when the cross was refixed, and he informed me that during the exca- 
vations necessary for this purpose portions of human bones and oak 
coffins were turned up, the latter in a very good state of preservation. 
The ground is now used as a vegetable-garden ! 

This is another cross which has some very curious ornament, and 
in many points resembles that at Roche, just described. The head 
is quaintly shaped, is round at the top, and has nearly straight sides. 
The angles are beaded, and the projections, usually at the neck, are 
in this instance much below it. It is, perhaps, chiefly interesting 
since it affords the only instance of vertical beadwork. 

Dimensions. — Height out of the ground, 5 ft. 6 in. ; width of 
head at widest, 16 in. ; width of shaft: at the neck 12 in., at the 
bottom 14 in. ; thickness, gin. throughout. 

The ornament is executed in a most irregular manner, and occurs 
on all four sides, as follows : — 

Fro7it. — On the head is a central boss with a wide encircling bead ; 
adjoining which, and in some cases cutting through the bead, are 
four deep sinkings, two and thrt-e-fjuarter inches below the face of 
the stone, and arranged somewhat in the form of a square. On the 
shaft, just below the neck, is an oblong projection between the beads 
on the angles. Above is a single small hole ; and an inch and a half 



m 
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U 

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r^' ■ -*^4tiMtr^ -^ >. t^p y- 



^C^^^ 







ORNAMENTED CROSSES 347 

below the overhanging piece is a boss similar to that on the head, 
but much smaller. The portion of the shaft around the boss and for 
some twelve inches beneath it is indented with rows of small holes, 
sloping upwards from right to left. On the lower part of the shaft 
are some vertical groove-markings. 

Left Side. — On the shaft, at the neck, is a single boss, not central, 
but placed nearer the left side. Below the projection at the neck is 
a row of four little holes ; and the remainder of the shaft is divided 
into four panels, as follows : — (1) At the top, a long panel of little 
holes, sunk in rows, sloping upwards from right to left ; (2) a plain, 
square panel, separated from the one above by a bead ; (3) a panel con- 
taining four horizontal rows of little holes, three in a row ; (4) another 
bead and a plain panel. 

Back. — With one or two exceptions, this is similar to the front, 
but has two beads on the right side of the shaft, instead of one. 
Adjoining the oblong projection is a row of six vertical beads in relief, 
having rounded ends. They are not of equal length, the two outer- 
most being the longest. Six inches below is a boss with a wide 
surrounding bead, the whole being rather larger, and situated much 
lower, than that on the front ; it is not central, but is placed towards 
the right side. The background of the shaft is ornamented with 
little holes from beneath the vertical beads to a distance of about 
fifteen inches below the boss. 

Right Side. — At the neck is a small boss, placed near the left side. 
The shaft is divided into five panels, as follows : — At the top is a 
row of four vertical beads, similar to those on the back, but slightly 
curved. Below, and touching the first three on the right side, are 
three more similar beads, and the space which would otherwise have 
been occupied had they been continued like the upper row, is filled 
with little holes, similar to the lower portion of this panel. The 
remaining four panels are unornamented ; the upper two are separated 
by a wide flat bead, and those below by an incised line. 



348 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



MONUMENTS WITH CELTIC OR HIBERNO-SAXON 

ORNAMENT 

Notes on the Ornament of the Early Christian 
Monuments of Cornwall 

By J. Romilly Allen, F.S.A., Scot. 

If the pre-Norman sculptured stones in all the other counties of 
England had been as fully illustrated, and their decorative features 
as exhaustively analysed, as those of Cornwall have been by Mr. 
Langdon, the task of taking a comprehensive view of the whole 
series would have been a comparatively easy one. Illustrations of 
the best examples of the Scotch, Irish, and Welsh monuments of a 
period corresponding to that when the Cornish crosses were erected 
are to be found in the works of Dr. J. Stuart, H. O'Neill, and Pro- 
fessor J. O. Westwood, so that we have no difficulty in showing what 
relation the crosses of Cornwall bear to those in the Celtic portions 
of Great Britain, But the part which was j^layed by the Anglo- 
Saxons in the development of the art of these monuments has never 
yet been fully understood, because the English examples have never 
been collected together in one work, where they may be compared 
with each other and those elsewhere. 

Miss Margaret Stokes, with the best possible intentions, led many 
people astray by her strong advocacy of the Irish origin of the inter- 
laced work and other characteristic forms of ornament which are used 
in the decoration of the early Christian manuscripts, ecclesiastical 
metal-work, and sculptured stonework. In her ' Early Christian Art 
in Ireland' Miss Stokes allowed her patriotism to run away with 
her better judgment, but in her ' Six Months in the Apennines,' 
more recently published, she has, rather reluctantly, given up the 
views she held previfjusly. 

Not long ago it was generally believed that crosses with interlaced 
patterns were only found, either in the Celtic portions of Great 



ORNAMENTED CROSSES 349 

Britain, or in [)l<'ices where Celtic inlluencc could be clearly traced. 
However, in consequence of the opening-up of the remoter parts of 
England by railways, and the great amount of church restoration 
that has been going on, it now appears that there is hardly any 
county in which crosses of the pre-Norman period have not been 
brought to light. Besides this, all the evidence with regard to the 
date of these monuments which has been collected tends to show 
that the Northumbrian crosses are of an earlier, rather than of a 
later, date than those in Ireland ; and the most ancient illuminated 
manuscript with a really reliable date in which the so-called Celtic 
ornament occurs is the Lindisfarne Gospels, which is of Saxon work, 
and executed in Northumbria circa a.d. 720. My own opinion is, 
that neither the English, the Scotch, the Welsh, nor the Irish can 
claim to have invented the style of ornament in question, but that it 
arose in consequence of the continual intercourse between the Anglo- 
Saxon and Celtic Christians which took place after about a.d. 650, 
so that Hiberno-Saxon or Anglo-Scotic is a more appropriate title 
to apply to the style than Celtic or Irish. In its highest develop- 
ment, the chief peculiarity of Hiberno-Saxon art is the combination 
of the following decorative elements : — (i) Interlaced work ; (2) key 
patterns ; (3) spiral patterns ; and (4) zoomorphic designs highly 
interlaced. Scrolls of foliage also occur in special areas, chiefly in 
Northumbria, but are entirely absent in the earlier manuscripts and 
on most of the sculptured stones in Wales, Ireland, and Scotland. 
This is not the place to discuss the origin of Hiberno-Saxon art, 
and we must content ourselves by saying that we look upon it 
simply as a local variety of the Lombardo-Byzantine style which ex- 
isted in Italy, Gaul, and Britain from, say, a.d. 600 to 900, modified 
in each different country according to the artistic capacity of the in- 
habitants, and in Britain considerably influenced by the ' Late-Celtic ' 
or ' La Tene ' flamboyant ornament of the Pagan period. The re- 
vival of learning by Charlemagne had also, no doubt, a considerable 
effect on the development of art, by bringing the Irish, Anglo-Saxon, 
and Carlovingian scribes in contact with each other. 

In Cornwall, another factor has to be taken into account besides 



350 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 

the artistic capacity of the sculptors, viz. the intractable nature of the 
granite or hard volcanic rock of which the crosses were made. The 
rudeness of the decoration on manv of the crosses, and the entire 
absence of decoration in other cases, may probably be attributed to 
this cause. For the same reason, also, fine interlaced work was 
avoided, and the knots made on a large scale, with wide bands, orna- 
mented with shallow-beaded mouldings, to take off from the coarse- 
ness of the appearance of the work. 

Unfortunately, the crosses have been shamefully ill-treated, broken, 
and neglected in years gone by, so that there are very few of the 
ornamented ones in a perfect state of preservation. If we were 
asked to select the choicest specimens of complete crosses still 
remaining in Cornwall, we should pick out those at Lanherne, Car- 
dynham, and Quethiock, with, perhaps, also Sancreed (No. 3). The 
cross at Sancreed (No. 4) would come next to that at Lanherne — 
which it resembles in so many respects — but that it has a piece 
missing from the shaft. 

Amongst the imperfect crosses, the most interesting assuredly are 
the cross-base of ' Doniert,' at Redgate, and the cross-shaft close to 
it, and the cross-shaft at St. Neot (No. 5). 

The coped stone at Lanivet, and the cross slab at Camborne, 
although not crosses, have similar ornament, and are therefore 
well worthy of notice. 

A special feature which, as far as my experience goes, is quite 
peculiar to Cornwall is the cusping of the three-sided holes between 
the arms of the cross and the ring. Good instances of this occur at 
St. Columb Major, Prideaux Place (Padstow), and Quethiock. At 
first sight the cuspings are suggestive of Gothic work, but they pro- 
bably are more akin to the single rounded projection which occurs 
in a similar position on some of the Irish crosses. 

1 he projections at the neck of some of the crosses, and crucial 
projections, although not exclusively confined to Cornwall, are more 
common there than elsewhere. One of the best examples outside 
Cornwall is at Penmon, in Anglesea. 

We have already referred to the large size of the knots of the 



ORNAMENTED CROSSES 351 

interlaced work, which generally consists of very wide bands havino- 
shallow-beaded mouldings. This is exemplified at Lanherne, where 
the beads are triple, and at Sancreed (No. 4), where they are double. 
At Redgate (No. 2) and St. Neot (No. 5) we have narrower bands, 
and the interlaced patterns are of altogether a better character. 

There is not much variety in the patterns of the interlaced work 
on the Cornish crosses, the most common knots being the figure-of- 
eight knot, the twist-and-ring, the Stafford knot, the spiral knot, 
and, in one case, the S-shaped knot. Oval rings, placed crosswise 
and interlaced, are also of frequent occurrence, sometimes combined 
with a double circular ring. The triquetra knot will be found 
on the expanded arms of a large proportion of the crosses. The 
style of the interlaced work on the Cornish crosses corresponds 
more nearly with that on the crosses of South Wales than those of 
England, Scotland, or Ireland. The interlaced work on the Redgate, 
No. 2, and the St. Neot, No. 5, cross-shafts consists of large panels 
of plaitwork, and patterns easily derived from the plait by introducing 
breaks at intervals, in this respect resembling the designs on the 
Copplestone Cross, near Crediton, Devon, and in the Carlovingian 
manuscripts, especially as regards the oval rings introduced amongst 
the interlaced work. 

The Manx chain-of-rings pattern, which is peculiarly Scandi- 
navian, occurs on the side of the Cardynham No. 3 cross, being 
the only instance in the South or West of England. It is combined 
with a key pattern composed of T's, as on the cross at Penmon, in 
Anglesey, which also has the ring pattern. The ornament on the 
Penmon Cross is akin partly to that found in North Wales and 
Cheshire, partly to that in the Isle of Man, and partly to that in 
Ireland, showing a very mixed style. It is not easy to account for 
the resemblance between the patterns on the Cardynham Cross and 
those of North Wales, Cheshire, and the Isle of Man, especially 
as the rude scrolls of foliage on the Cardynham Cross faces are 
purely Cornish. 

Of the key patterns on the monuments of Cornwall there is but 
little to be said, except that those on the Lanivet coped stone are 



352 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



interesting as being identical with those on the cross-shaft at Penally, 
in Pembrokeshire. 

As regards zoomorphic designs, the only one which occurs on the 
Cornish crosses is a dragon, whose body forms a series of undulations, 
each filled in with a Stafford knot made by the tail. The same creature 
is to be seen on the beautiful little coped stone at Bexhill, Sussex, 
and on one of the crosses at Aycliffe, co. Durham,^ thus showing 
that there must have been a considerable amount of intercourse 
between the Cornish and Saxon Christians in pre-Norman times. 
The coped stone at Lanivet has a zoomorphic termination, in this 
respect resembling those in the North of England and Scotland. 

I can detect no Irish influence upon the art of the Cornish crosses. 

Geographical Distrihition of Monuments zvitk Celtic or 
Hiberjio-Saxon Ornament 



Blazey, St. 

Biscovey. 

Breage, St. 

In churchyard. 

Brezvard, St. 

In cemetery. 

Cardynhani, No. 3. 

In churchyard. 

Cleer, St. 

Redgate, Nos. i and 2. 

Columb Major, St. 

In churchyard. 

Ertli, St., No. 3. 

In churchyard. 

Gulval. 

In churchyard. 
Gwennap, No. 2. 

In church wall fconccalcd). 

Just-in- Pcmvith, St., No. 3. 

In churchyard. 
LanJiydrock. 

In churchyard. 



Lanivet, No. 2. 

In churchyard. 
Maivgan - in - Pyi ier. 

Lanherne. 
Minster. 

Waterpit Down. 
Minver, St. 

In St. Michael's church)'ard 
Neot, St., No. 5. 

In churchyard. 

' Four-holed Cross.' 
Padstoiv, Nos. 3 and 4. 

Pridcaux Place. 

In churchyard, 
Phillack, No. 6. 

In churchyard. 
QuctJiiock. 

In churchyard. 
Sancreed, Nos. 3 and 4. 

In churchyard. 
Teath, St. 

In cemetery. 
Tintagel. 

Trevena. 



' A some\vh;it similar clesi},'n, liut with two dragons, is carved on a sppulrliral slab at r)arn- 
ingham Yorkbhire (see Cutls's Sepulclual Slabs, Plate XXXV.). 



ORNAMENTED CROSSES 353 

Note. — As the scale of half an inch to the foot heretofore adopted 
for the drawings is not large enough for some of the smaller and 
more ornate crosses, now to be described, a scale of three-quarters of 
an inch to the foot will be used for the following examples : 
Biscovey, Lanherne, Sancreed Nos. 3 and 4, and Trevena. 

The foregoing list contains twenty-six examples, which will be 
divided into two sections, viz : — 

1. Crosses with Inscriptions and Ornament. 

2. Crosses with Ornament only. 

The monuments included in the first section will be taken in the 
following order : — 

(i.) Ornamented Crosses complete, with Inscriptions in the 

Panels on the Shafts. 
(2.) Ornamented Cross-shafts with Inscribed Panels. 
(3.) Ornamented Cross-base with an Inscribed Panel. 

The monuments included in the second section will be taken in 
the following order : — 

(i.) Ornamented Crosses complete. 
(2.) Ornamented Cross-shafts. 



CROSSES WITH INSCRIPTIONS AND ORNAMENT 

ORNAMENTED CROSSES COMPLETE, WITH INSCRIPTIONS 
IN THE PANELS ON THE SHAFTS 

There are five examples of this type, which will be found at the 
following places : — 

Cardynham, No. 3 . .In churchyard. 

Mawgan-in-Pyder . . Lanherne. 

Sancreed, Nos. 3 and 4 .In churchyard. 

Tintagel .... Trevena. 

A A 



354 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



Cardynham, No. 3. In the Churchyard 

Cardynham, or Cardinham, in the Deanery of Bodmin, is situated 
four miles north-east of Bodmin town. 

The cross stands opposite to the south porch of the church. 
It is one of the best-preserved examples of its kind in the county, 
owing, most likely, to the depth of its sculpture, and to the fact of its 
having been built into the church wall for a great number of years. 
From an interesting sketch kindly supplied by the Rev. W. 

lago, of Bodmin, I am 
able to show the posi- 
tion of the two parts of 
the cross as they were 
inserted in the outside 
of the chancel wall pre- 
vious to the restoration 
^ of the church. Both 
parts were visible in 
the east wall — the head 
below, and towards the 
south side of, the win- 
dow ; and the shaft, with 
the left side outwards, 
laid tlat above the 
^^-^'^ plinth, formmg a corner- 
stone at the south east 
angle of the building. The other cross shown on the sketch has 
already been described on p. 173. When the church was restored 
in 1872, the crosses were taken out,^ and erected where they now 
stand by the then rector, the Rev. G. Hyde-Smith. 

Being anxious to ascertain the length of the shaft, or if it were 
fixed intcj a base, I had the lower portion uncovered, but was only able 

' An instance of the ap[)rcri;ition f)f tlie ahorij^incs for tlicsc monuments of antiquity has 
been given, in connection witli Cardynham, No. 3, on p. 11. 




ORNAMENTED CROSSES 355 

to get clown about twelve inches, and then found that it was jammed 
in round the bottom with large stones. The additional ornament on 
the shaft exposed by the excavation is included in the Plate. 

The four holed head is outlined by a bead on the angles of the cross 
and ring. On the side of the ring, and in the middle, is a broad project- 
ing fillet, as shown in the section ab on Pkite, a detail not found on any 
other example. The shaft has beaded angles, gradually diminishing 
in width towards the top. Obviously, this portion of the monument 
was of greater height, for the ornament is not properly finished at the 
top and the beads on the angles stop against the bottom of the cross- 
head ; whereas, were it intact, they would have been returned across 
the top, enclosing the panels in the usual manner. But the greatest 
loss entailed by this shortening of the shaft is, that some of the letters 
formerly contained in the upper part of the inscription are missing, thus 
rendering a complete reading impossible, and destroying what little 
chance there otherwise would have been of deciphering the names of 
the persons commemorated, as the remaining letters are very indistinct. 

Where more than one panel occurs on the shaft the ends of the 
patterns abut against each other, as the horizontal beads usually 
introduced to separate them are omitted. 

Diinensions. — Height out of the ground, 8 ft. 6 in. ; width of 
head, 3 ft. ; diameter of ring, 3 ft. ; width of sheift : at the top i ft. 6 in., 
at the ground-line 2 ft. 2 in. ; thickness at the ground-line, i ft. 4 in., 
tapering to 7 in. at the top of the head. 

All four sides are deeply sculptured, as follows : — 

Front. — On the head are remains of knotwork similar to that on 
the back, but formed of a single instead of a double bead. Unfor- 
tunately, the Stafford knots on the left and lower limbs have nearly 
disappeared. The shaft is divided into three panels. That at the 
top is inscribed in Saxon minuscules, and although some of the 
remaining letters are now very indistinct, the Rev. W. I ago was able 
to arrive at the following reading : — 

a p 
thi 

A A 2 



356 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 

The a and P are joined, and with the ►^ are the most distinct ; while 
the I can be traced in the fracture of the stone, which runs through it. 
In the middle panel is a curious interlaced knot, which is much worn 
in the centre. The lower panel is much longer than those above, and 
contains irregular, broken, six-cord plaitwork, with an intervening 
space between the knots, the whole being very coarsely executed. 

Left Side. — On the head, at the end of the arm, is a figure-of- 
eight knot, irregularly terminated at the top. On the shaft is a 
continuous panel of interlaced work. It commences at the top with 
a three-cord plait, one band of which stops abruptly against another 
near the bottom. The other two cords are carried on, and twist, and, 
the crossings being emphasised by a ring, form a very clear example 
of the twist-and-ring pattern. 

Back. — On the head is a central boss. Each limb is ornamented 
with a double-beaded Stafford knot, with the outer bands crossed over 
at the angle next the central boss and joined to the knots on the 
arm at either side, thus forming a complete and beautiful interlaced 
knot. The only similar instance of this treatment is on No. 4 cross, 
Sancreed. On the shaft is a continuous panel of very bold, foliated, 
and rather squarely formed scrollwork, having a leaf alternately 
with a ball in the spandrils. On the main, or outside bead of each 
scroll, and close to where they bifurcate, is what is probably intended 
for, and is termed in botany, a ' bract,' or kind of cup, a very 
common detail in classical ornament. 

Right Side. — On the head, at the end of the arm, is a Z-shaped key 
pattern, which might otherwise be looked upon as a pair of twisted 
bands. The shaft is divided into two panels of uneven depth, and 
contains two entirely different patterns. The ujjper panel is the 
shorter, and has a scjuare key pattern, but unlike that on the head, 

and formed by T's thus : TItXT. The ornament in the lower 
[janel consists of a debased form of chains and rings. 

This is 'a very peculiar pattern, which occurs in Great Britain 
only in the Isle of Man' and the adjacent parts of Cumberland and 

' 'The crosses of tlie I.-,lc of Man hclonj,^ to the ])eri()d of llic Scandinavian occupation 
(A.I). 888 to 1226), as is proved by their runic inscriptions.'— J. K. Allen, F.S.A. (Scot.) 
{Early Christian Symbolism, p. 85). 



li^M'i^^^^'m 




f'^r.'-yK'.-yf^ 











U 

w 

H 

J?; 




O 



< 
G 




ORNAMENTED CROSSES 357 

Anglesea. As the stones in this district are partly Scandinavian, 
and as the same ornament occurs on a rune-inscribed font at Gallstad 
Church, Westgotland, and is not found on any other of the purely 
Celtic stones or manuscripts, this design may be fairly said to 
be of Scandinavian origin.' ^ 

Note. — The Z-shaped key pattern, or twist, above referred to 
occurs also at Gulvaland Minster, in Cornwall," at Kirkby Wharfe, in 
the North of England, and in Scotland at Invergowrie, Kilkerran, 
Ben vie, Liberton, and Sl Andrews. It is formed by a series of Z's 

of this shape V^y placed sideways thus : 

and is one of the patterns so commonly painted on early Grecian 
pottery, examples of which may be seen in V^ase Room, No. i, at 
the British Museum. 



Lanherne, Mawgan-in-Pyder 

Mawgan-in-Pyder, in the Deanery of Pyder, is situated three 
miles north-west of St. Columb Major, and five and a half miles 
north-west of St. Columb Road railway-station, on the branch-line 
from Par to Newquay. 

The four-holed cross now stands in the Nunnery grounds, ad- 
joining Mawgan Church. It was brought there many years ago 
from a field called ' Chapel Close,' on the barton of Roseworthy, 
in the parish of Gwinear, near Camborne. 

It is the most beautiful specimen of an elaborately decorated cross 
in Cornwall, and is executed with much greater care and skill than 
were usually bestowed on the monuments of this county. This 
superiority of workmanship is probably accounted for by the fact of 
its being made of Pentewan stone, which is softer and much more 
easily worked than granite. 

Except that the top of the head is somewhat chipped, the cross 
is in a very good state of preservation, 

' J. R. Allen, F.S.A. (Scot.), ' Analysis and Classification of Celtic Interlaced Ornament ' 
{Proc. Soc. Atitiquaries, Scot., 1883, vol. xxvii. p. 2-^3. Examole No 18) 
■•^ See pp. 372, 374. 



358 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 

There is an entasis on the shaft, which is rather more marked on 
the front than on the other faces. The bead on the angles is tapered 
from the bottom upwards, and is carried round the outhne of the 
head. The ring is moulded with a triple bead on the front and back, 
as well as on the sides, below the arms ; but on the portion of the 
ring above the arms there are four beads. 

Dimensions. — Height, 4 ft. 10 in. ; width of head, 16 in. ; width 
of shaft: at the top g\\n., at the bottom 1 1 1 in. ; thickness at the 
bottom, 8 in., tapering to about 5^ in. at the top of the head. 

All four sides are sculptured, as follows : — 

Front. — On the head, and extending some way down the shaft, 
is a rudely executed figure of our Lord clothed in a tunic. The arms 
are extended straight along the limbs of the cross ; the sleeves are 
expanded at the ends, and the hem of the garment is well defined 
near the bottom. The shaft is divided by double beads into two 
panels of uneven depth, formed by returning the beads on the angles 
horizontally across the shaft. The upper, or longer panel, contains 
triple-beaded figure-of-eight knotwork, with the termination of the 
pattern shown at the bottom, but not on the top. On the lower 
panel is an inscription, in mixed capitals and minuscules, of Hiberno- 
Saxon character — 



+ B r E 

I D Ef I 

m A 
h 

Left Side. — On the head, at the end of the arm, are two double- 
beaded, elliptical rings, placed crosswise and interlaced. On the 
shaft is a continuous [)anel of double-beaded spiral knotwork. 

Back. — On the head are five bosses. The shaft is divided into 
two panels of uneven depth, but without a separating bead between 
them. The upper and longer ])anel contains triple-beaded twist-and- 
ring knotwork, the u|>per termination of which should be noticed,' as 
it is arranged so as to fill up the lower portion of the bottom limb. 

' See p. 27. 



v 



Q 













i>9^e«n>ii.it»u/. 







.1 



ORNAMENTED CROSSES y^^j 

On the lower panel is an inscription, in characters similar to those on 

the front — 

r 

h o L 

Right Side. — On the head, at the end of the arm, are the remains 
of two rings similar to those on the opposite side. This side of the 
shaft is particularly interesting, for on it occurs one of the two speci- 
mens of zoomorphic ' interlaced work at present known on crosses 
in Cornwall, the other being on No. 4 cross, Sancreed. This con- 
sists of a dragon having a serpentine body, which passes up the 
panel, and in returning fills the spandrils on either side with con- 
tinuous Stafford knot work, terminating in the mouth of the beast. 

The Inscriptions. — The letters of both inscriptions are deeply 
cut and perfectly clear, and the following extended readings are given 
by the Rev. W. lago, of Bodmin : — 

On the front, + B(EATU)S ; on the back, EID ET IMAH. He 
says : 'In support of this, I find that on certain stones given by 
Hiibner"- we have " Sanctus," " Pius," " Christianus," " Prcecipuus," 
&c., applied as titles to those commemorated ; therefore we have + BS 
for " +BEATUS." We can then read the whole legend like the 
others consisting of names thus : "THE BLESSED EID AND IMAH"; 
and on the back of the cross the name of the man who set it up to 
their memory, viz. "RUHOL," a probable contraction for " RUNHOL." 

A name very similar to the last is found on No. 4 cross, Sancreed 
(p. 364), where a comparison of the two names will be found. 



The Two Crosses (Nos. 3 and 4) in the Churchyard, Sancreed 

Sancreed, San Creed, or Sancreet, in the Deanery of Penwith, is 
situated four miles west of Penzance. 

These two crosses have so many points in common that it has 

' On the west side of the cross in St. Breage churchyard, on tlie top of the shaft, are the 
remains of what appears to be the head of a beast somewhat similar to the above. And on 
the cross-shaft at Waterpit Down, Minster, there is a serpentine band with Stafford knots. 
* Inscriptiones Christian/2 Britawiice^ No. 6, 1876. 



36o OLD CORNISH CROSSES 

been thouofht best to describe their architectural features in some 
brief preHminary notes, and thus prevent repetition when dealing with 
them separately. 

It is remarkable that the heads in each case are not only exactly 
similar in shape, but are also the only examples of this particular 
form in Cornwall. The outline is like that of a four-holed cross, but 
the small spandrils between the limbs and ring are not pierced. All 
angles of the crosses, except on the spandrils, are beaded. The shafts 
have a very pronounced entasis, and I have recently discovered that 
both are inscribed. Parts of their ornamental detail v/ill also be 
found to correspond, since the fourth side, in each case, has a 
diagonal key pattern of an exactly similar design. 

Two different styles of ornament constitute the only great differ- 
ence between them ; for whereas the well-known example. No. 3 
cross, is decorated on all sides but one with incised work, No. 4 cross 
has Hiberno-Saxon ornament on all four sides. 

With these few remarks the crosses will now be described. 

Sancreed, No. 3. In the Churchyard 

For locality of Sancreed, see last page. 

This cross stands on the south side of the church, and until 
recently was supposed to have been in sihi. 

It is for the most part in a wonderful state of preservation, and is 
a most interesting example, possessing, as it does, among other points, 
the best specimen of incised work in Cornwall. 

In order to ascertain if there was any further ornament concealed 
below the ground, I had the soil surrounding the lower portion of the 
stone removed, and found that the cross was embedded about three 
feet. I was amjjly rewarded for the undertaking by discovering 
parts of inscriptions on two faces, as well as other remains of orna- 
ment hitherto unknown. 

The Rev. R. Basset Rogers, vicar of Sancreed, and a keen anti- 
(juary, then made an examination of the stone with mc;, and having 
come t(; the conclusion that it would Ije a great pity to re-bury the 








o 





m^-^sfi^mw' 



'm^^i^^^^MMSS^m 




ORNAMENTED CROSSES 361 

newly found work, wisely suggested raising and mounting the cross on 
a base. It so happened that about three-quarters of a mile from San- 
creed church, on the left-hand side of the road to Drift and Penzance, 
there was an old circular cross-base built into a hedge on a farm 
called Treganhoe, in the parish of Sancreed, owned by the Misses 
Darell lago. The Vicar's request to these ladies for permission 
to remove the base for the purpose stated above was immediately 
acceded to, and on June 15, 1895, ^e wrote me saying: 'The big 
cross was socketed yesterday afternoon in a most satisfactory manner.' 

Dimensions. — The total length of the cross is 9 ft., and it now 
stands 8 ft. 3 in. clear of the base. Width of head, i ft. 7 in. The 
shaft is nearly square, varying in width from 10^ in. to I2| in. at the 
widest part, and from 10 in. to 11 in. at the neck. 

The cross is sculptured on all four sides, as follows. The front, 
left side, and back, have incised ornament only upon them. 

Front. — On the head is the figure of our Lord in bold relief, the 
features ^ being still distinguishable. The figure is clothed in a tunic, 
the expanded sleeves and lower hem of the garment being well defined. 
Both arms are slightly raised and bent, and the straight legs rest on 
a rounded projection below the neck of the stone. The shaft is 
divided into three panels, containing : (i) A rectangular figure having 
diagonal lines from corner to corner ; (2) a jug, with a flower standing 
in it having a long, straight stem, with a fleur-de-lis termination at the 
top, which may possibly be intended for the lily emblem of the Virgin, 
so often found on the Gtjthic bench-ends of this county. Beneath 
the jug are some much-defaced markings. (3) Has markings at the 
top which may be the remains of an inscription now almost obliterated. 
The markings seem to be thus — 



I NCX 
X 



Lefl Side. — On the head, at the end of the arm, is a plain panel. 
The shaft is divided into three panels, containing : (1) A rectangular 

' See notes on Figure Sculpture, p. 123. 



362 OLD CORXISH CROSSES 

figure like that in a similar position on the front ; (2) a zigzag line, 
terminated at the top and bottom by additional strokes, as shown. 
(3) Is a very short panel, indicated at the bottom by a rudely semi- 
circular, concave line, and contains some indications of ornament, the 
meaning of which is not clear. 

Back. — On the head is a central ring. On the shaft, and close to 
the top, are two devices, one placed beneath the other : (i) A figure 
like those in a similar position on the two faces already described ; 
(2) a shield similar to that on No. 2 cross at Trevia.^ 

Right Side. — On the head, at the end of the arm, is a plain panel 
like that on the opposite side. On the shaft are two panels, contain- 
ing : (i) At the top, a kind of double cross ; (2) a panel of diagonal 
key-pattern ornament. 

We now come to what is, perhaps, the most interesting part 
of the monument, namely, the second inscription. It is in debased 
Latin capitals, written in two lines, and reads from the bottom up- 
wards. With the exception of an m or an n in the upper line, the 
remainder is now too defaced to decipher. In the lower line, how- 
ever, the words FILIVS IC are quite distinct. 

The curious part of it is that the letters appear to be of a much 
earlier date than the ornament on the cross itself It has been sug- 
gested that possibly this monument was originally an ancient 
inscribed pillar-stone, worked in later times into the cross. This 
could have been understood had the inscription been cut on either 
the front or the back ; but the fact of its being on the side, and that 
the head of the cross projects beyond the face of the letters, seems 
somewhat opposed to this theory — unless, of course, the stone was in 
the first instance large enough at the bottom to allow the head to be 
cut out of it. 

Sancreed, No. 4. In the Churchyard 

For locality of .Sancreed, see p. 359. 

The cross now stands on the eastern side of the south porch. 

' .Sec p. 297. 



ORNAMENTED CROSSES 363 

The upper portion of this monument, consisting of the head and 
a short piece of the shaft, was for many years fixed on top of the 
western boundary-wall of the churchyard (where No. i cross now 
stands ^), and is shown in this position by Blight.^ 

The following account of the recovery of the shaft has been 
kindly supplied me by the Vicar of Sancreed, the Rev. R. I^asset 
Rogers, He says : ' The shaft I found, in 1881, during the restora- 
tion of the church. It was built horizontally into the upper and 
eastern part of the wall of the aisle. All this wall was taken down, 
and I stood by when the masons began, until they had reached the 
shaft in question, when I had it carefully lowered to the ground. I 
then took the head off the hedge, and finding they fitted one another 
as well as could be expected, I cemented and fixed them for security 
where you saw them ' {i.e. on the right-hand side of the gateway 
leading to the vicarage, which adjoins the churchyard). 

In this situation the back of the cross was close against the hedge, 
thus concealing the ornament upon it. Being anxious to secure a 
rubbing of the patterns already known to exist, the Vicar, at my 
request, most courteously allowed me to have the cross taken down. 
Having gone so far, it seemed advisable to erect the cross in a 
position where the best part of the sculpture would not again be 
hidden. After a consultation with the mason as to ' ways and 
means,' I approached the Vicar on the subject, with the satisfactory 
result that we decided to provide a rough granite base, and remove 
the cross and erect it in the churchyard, a scheme which, I am glad to 
say, was carried out on June 13, 1894, ^ ^^'^^ days after my visit. 

Before describing the ornament it should be pointed out that, 
although the fractures in the cross appear to correspond fairly well, 
there is, I think, a piece missing, as the batter, or taper of the cross, 
as at present fixed, is not correct, since it is of less width at its 
extremity than that on the part below. In addition to this, the 
patterns do not run on regularly when the existing parts are joined. 
Having ascertained the proper batter, I found that one bay of each 

' See p. 49. ^ Ancient Crosses and Antiquities of Coni^oall,'^. 2\. 



364 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 

pattern would just fill the missing space, and these portions have, 
therefore, been shown on the drawing by dotted lines. 

Dimensions. — The height of the cross from top of base, as now 
fixed, is 5 ft. 9 in., and the shaft is inserted 4^ in. into the base. 
Width of head, i ft. 9 in. ; width of shaft : at the neck 1 1^ in., at the 
bottom I3iin. ; thickness : at the bottom 7^ in., at the neck 6 in. 

All four sides are sculptured, as follows : — 

Front. — On the head is the figure of our Lord in relief, having a 
nimbus round the head similar to those on the crosses in the church- 
yards of St. Buryan ^ and St. Paul."- Both arms are slightly raised 
and bent, as on No. 3 cross in Sancreed churchyard. The figure is 
clothed in a tunic, and has a band round the waist. The shaft is 
divided into two, or probably three, panels, containing: (i) A short 
panel, now defaced ; (2) interlaced work,''' formed of a single row of 
figure-of-eight knots with double-beaded bands, similar to that at 
Lanherne ; (3) an inscription in minuscules in two horizontal lines ; 
unfortunately, the third letter is far from distinct, but is probably 
an n or an m, so that the whole would read : — 



r u 
n h 5 



Left Side. — On the shaft is a single panel containing a serpen- 
tine creature, the body and tail of which form interlaced work exactly 
similar to that at Lanherne (p. 359). 

Back. — On the head is a central boss, surrounded by interlaced 
work composed of four Stafford knots with double-beaded bands, 
each knot filling one of the arms, and being joined to the next. The 
band forming the knots is continuous throughout.'* On the shaft is 
a single panel, containing three pieces of interlaced work formed of 
double-beaded Stafford knots in double row, placed vertically, and 

' See p. 189. "^ Sec p. 192. 

^ The- pattern is so worn at the to]) tliat it is uncertain liow it tcnninated. 

'' This design is very similar to tliat on thenortli side of tlie cross in Cardynham church- 
yard, the only difference being that in this instance the bands do not cross each other when 
free of the knot. 







U 







Q 
W 
W 
Qi 
U 
A 
<; 
CD 






= ~ -■•5?-^^.^ 



i>^3 




/,^^^^-# '^-^^ 



'Is-^^'-T '_ 











ORNAMENTED CROSSES 



365 



facing away from each other. The four upper pairs are connected — 
the uppermost to that below, and so on. Beneath are two separate 
pairs, one below the other. An unusually large space having been, 
apparently unintentionally, left between the lower two, was converted 
into a boss by the sculptor ; at least, there does not seem to be any 
other reason to account for its presence. 

Right Side. — A single panel of diagonal key pattern, of exactly 
the same kind as that on the right side of No. 3 cross in this church- 
yard. 

Perhaps the chief point of interest connected with this cross lies 
in its similarity to that at Lanherne (p. 357) in regard to some of the 
ornament, and also the name in the inscription. By comparing the 
two, it will be seen that the name is, 

at Lanherne, 



and at Sancreed, 



The Rev. W. lago, of Bodmin, thinks that in each case it signi- 
fies the maker of the cross, and, judging from the likeness between 
them, it seems natural to suppose that they are the work of the same 
man. Again, a similar interlaced design occurs on each cross, above 
the panel containing the name ; while the beautiful pattern, composed 
of a serpentine band and Stafford knots, is found also on the left side 
of both stones. The only other instances of this design at present 
known to exist are on the little coped stone at Bexhill, Sussex, and 
on a cross at Aycliffe, co. Durham. 



r u 
ho 


L 




r u 
nh 


5 



366 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



Trevena, Tintagel 

Tintagel, anciently called 'Dundagell,' is in the Deanery of Trigg 
Minor. It is situated on the north coast of Cornwall, and is twenty 
miles from Bodmin and Launceston, and six miles north-west of 
Camelford railway-station. 

Trevena is the village of Tintagel. 

The cross now stands on a small grass-plot in front of the Wharn- 
cliffe Arms Hotel. 














- A 







It was removed to Trevena in 1875, by Mr. J. J. E. Venning, Lord 
Wharncliffe's steward, from a farm at Trevillet, about two miles east 
of Trevena, where for a considerable period it had done duty for a 
gatepost, as is shown by the holes for the lugs, or iron hooks, used in 
supporting the gate ; while the mutilated condition of the stone 
testifies to the treatment it received while in that position. 

The cross is made of grey elvan,' a hard local stone resembling 
a very fine granite. 

It is inscribed and ornamented on front and back, and originally 
was round-headed, but the portions which projected beyond the 
sliaft have been roughly hacked off in a line with it. In general 
design it is quite different fnjm any other monument in the county. 

Sec p. 1 5. 



ORNAMENTED CROSSES 



367 



On the front and back of the head is an equal-armed cross with 
expanded Hmbs. The outline of the arms is formed by double 
beads at the sides, radiating from the central boss, and stopped at the 
ends on a raised cable moulding, the convex line of which is, no doubt, 
a continuation of the outline of the head. Between the extremities 
of the limbs is a flat fillet in place of the cable moulding, but the 
latter now only remains on the lower limb of each cross. Traces of 
a larger cable moulding on the angles of the shaft are still to be seen 
here and there. The surfaces of the shaft are entirely taken up with 
the inscriptions, which were bordered on either side by a long, incised 
cross with expanded limbs, the head being at the bottom ; but only 
two of these crosses and part of a third are distinct. 

Dimensions. — Height, 3 ft. 11 in. Other dimensions are practi- 
cally useless, as they can only be given between the fractures. 
Thickness, 6\ in. 

The ornament and inscriptions are as follow : — 

Front. — On the head is a central boss, and in each of the spaces 
between the limbs was a little boss,^ three of which remain. On the 
shaft is the inscription, in rudely formed Anglo-Saxon capitals and 
minuscules, cut in six horizontal lines. It is quite clear, except the 
first two letters of the bottom line. The first letter — probably an n — 
is chipped off, and only part of the second — an 1 — is left. The last 
two are somewhat indistinct, but have been read by the Rev. \V. 
lago- as SO, so that the whole legend would read : — 



/E LN 


kT^ 


FECIT 


n ACCRV 


C E M PA 


(n)imASU 



y€LNAT ^ FECIT HA(N)C CRUCEM P(RO) A(N)IMA SO(A) 
(yElnat made this cross for the benefit of his soul.) 

' Where a cross having five bosses is not four-holed, the bosses are placed between the 
limbs, not upon them. The only other instance occurs on No. 3 cross, in the rectory garden, 
Lanteglos-by-Camelford. 

'^ Sir John Maclean, Deanery of Trigg Minor^ vol. iii. p. 190. 




368 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 

Back. — On the head is a central boss, enriched with a kind of 
quatrefoil deeply sunk in the middle. Between the limbs, and in 
the position in which one would expect to find triquetra knots, 
as on many other crosses in Cornwall, are some remains of curious 
sculpture. It is impossible to say with absolute certainty what they 
really are, but both Mr. J. Romilly Allen, F.S.A. (Scot.), and the Rev. 
W. lago, of Bodmin, are of opinion that they bear a distinct resem- 
blance to little human heads with two little holes for the eyes. 

On the shaft is an inscription, in rudely formed Anglo-Saxon 
capitals and minuscules, which records the names of the four Evan- 
gelists — 

MATTHEW. 
MARK. 
LUKE. 
JOHN. 

The fourth name is abbreviated thus : loh, for JOHANNES. 

ORNAMENTED CROSS-SHAFTS WITH INSCRIBED PANELS 

There are three examples of this type, which will be found at the 
following places : — 

Blazey, St. . . . Biscovey. 
Gulval . . . .In churchyard. 

Minster .... Waterpit Down. 

Biscovey, St. Blazey 

St. Blazey, in the Deanery of St. Austell, is situated four miles 
cast of St. Austell churchtown, and about three-quarters of a mile 
north of Par railway-station. 

Biscovey estate is one mile south-west of St. Blazey, and one mile 
west of Par railway-station. 



ORNAMENTED CROSSES 



3^9 



This shaft, which is formed of very coarse (j^ranite, stands on the 
south side of the road leading from St. Blazey to St. Austell, in a 
small village called St. Blazey Gate, a short distance north of Bis- 
covey Farmhouse. At the present 
time it is, and, indeed, for many years 
past has been, in use as a gatepost, as 
shown in the accompanying sketch. 
The lugs, or iron hooks for supporting 
the gate, are fixed on to the back of 
the shaft, but, fortunately, in that part 
of the stone where no ornament 
exists. 

It is melancholy to reflect that no 
nobler office than that of an ordinary 
gatepost can be found for a Christian 
monument the ornamental detail and 
inscriptions upon which show that it 
must have been executed by a skilled 
workman, and erected in honour of 
some person of considerable import- 
ance ; and it is most surprising that 
no lover of Cornish antiquities has 
yet rescued and placed it in a position 

of safety. But this only supplies one more illustration of the 
apathy and want of interest shown in Cornwall towards its many 
priceless relics. 

The damage which the Biscovey stone has so far sustained is the 
fracture at the top of the shaft, caused, in all probability, by a fall. 
No doubt the shaft was once surmounted by a cross-head of some 
kind, there having been a mortice in the top ; but this, unfortunatelv, 
is now missing, along with some inches of the uppermost part of the 
shaft. 

The very curious shape of the monument is in itself sufficient to 
attract the notice of an ordinary passer-by. It is much wider in the 
middle than either at the top or at the bottom, the additional width 

B B 




370 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 

being produced by the exaggerated entasis. The shaft is encircled 
in the middle of its height by a flat and rounded baijd. The portion 
above it has beaded angles, and contains the inscriptions and ornament, 
whilst that below is quite plain. 

This band is a feature which occurs on the partly square and 
partly cylindrical pillars whi'ch are common in Staffordshire and 
Derbyshire, the one at Leek being, perhaps, the best known. In 
the present case the band is three and a half inches wide, and has a 
projection of about one inch. 

Dwiensions. — Height, 7 ft. 8 in. ; width : at the bottom i ft. 4 in., 
in the middle, exclusive of the band, i ft. 6 in., and at the top i ft. 
3 in. ; thickness, 8 in. 

The inscriptions and ornament, which are quite distinct, are as 
follow : 

Front. — This is divided into three panels of uneven depth, the 
upper one being by far the longest, but having no ornament remaining 
upon it. The middle panel is the shortest, and contains a knot 
formed by two flat, oval rings placed crosswise, combined with a 
lozenge -shaped ring, all interlaced.^ Or it may otherwise be looked 
upon as a short piece of six-cord plaitwork. Its horizontal position, 
however, seems to suggest that the former idea rather than the latter 
was intended. The lower panel, immediately above the band, is 
inscribed in minuscules, and contains a name, preceded by a cross, 
written horizontally in three lines — • 



+ aL 
r o 
r o n 



Left Side. — This appears to have been divided by a horizontal 
bead into two panels. Immediately above the band is a small panel 
containing a short i)iece of four-cord plaitwork ; but, with the excei)tion 
of some undcfinable markings at the bottom, the remainder of the 

' A knot exactly similar to this is found in the Roman mosaic pavement at Jewry Wall 
Slrcct, Leicester, where it forms a centre to one of the nine octagons comprising the design. 



BiscovEY, St. Blazey 


















Front. 



Side. 



/. 371 



ORNAMENTED CROSSES 371 

ornament on the upper panel, if any ever existed, is now quite 
obliterated. 

Back. — This is also divided into three panels, which are approxi- 
mately of the same relative depth as those on the front. The 
upper panel is filled with four-cord plaitwork, like that, at the bottom 
of the back of the shaft, on No. 2 cross, Lanivet (p. 383) ; but the 
termination at the top is missing, with that portion of the shaft which 
has been broken off. The middle panel contains a continuation of 
the inscription on the front, and is also in minuscules, written in two 
horizontal lines, the last word preceded by a cross — 



V L L I C I 

+ fi L I V r 



so that the whole legend reads : — 

' +Alroron Ullici + filius.' 

The lower panel is decorated with an interlaced pattern, formed 
by two right-handed spiral knots in double row, terminated at the 
bottom by two Stafford knots. It will be observed that this com- 
bination produces a cross between the bands of the ornament. 

Right Side. — No remains of ornament. 

Dr. Borlase ^ gives the following account of this shaft : — 

' In the parish of St. Blazey stands a high and slender stone, the 
form best known by it's Icon, seven feet six inches high, one foot six 
inches wide, eight inches thick. . . . 

* It is a very singular Monument, inscrib'd on both sides, the 
Inscription not to be read from the top downwards, but horizontally, as 
Doniert, and therefore less ancient than those that go before. There 
is such a Mixture of the Saxon writing in the letters a, r, S, but 
especially the first, that I think it must be more modern than the year 
900. It is the only one of these ancient Monuments that has the 

* Antiquities of Cornwall (1754), pp. 363, 364. 

n B 2 



372 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 

Saxon a, so that it can scarce be less than fifty years below 
Doniert. . . . 

' I find Eururon among the names of the Welsh nobility. (Car. 
Langarv. p. 183); But there is reason to conjecture, that Alroron 
was the same name as Aldroen (or Auldran as in Car. Lang., edit. 
Pouel, p. 2), of which name I find a King of Armorica of British 
descent, the fourth from Conan-Merodac ; and possibly this Monu- 
ment might be erected to the memory of someone call'd Aldroen, 
but in a rough and ignorant age pronounc'd Alrorn, and as ignorantly 
written Alroron. 

' In a little meadow adjoining to the place where this stone now 
stands, many human bones have been found, and I suspect that this 
Cross may have been remov'd from thence.' 



Gulval. In the Churchyard 

Gulval, in the Deanery of Penwith, is situated one mile north- 
east of Penzance railway-station. 

The Rev. W. W. Wingfield, vicar of Gulval, has kindly supplied 
me with the following information regarding the discovery of this 
monument. He says : ' This cross-shaft was found on September 
1 8, 1885, while taking down the east end of the chancel of the church 
— the date of which would be about the fourteenth century. It had 
been used in this part of the edifice as a quoin.' 

It now stands near the south-west angle of the church, but for 
some unexplained reason has been mounted upside down, instead of 
being let into the stone upon which it is erected. In the accompany- 
ing Plate, however, the stone is shown as if it had been properly 
erected, and will be described accordingly. It is to be hoped that 
one day an alteration in its present position may be effected, for as 
it now stands the tenon looks decidedly out of place ' pointing to 
the skies.* Moreover, the inscription is inverted, and since the 
letters can also Ik- read in this position, th(;y are liable to be 
misread, a mistake which, on one occasion, was actually made. 




p 
< 

o 

D 
E 
U 

a 



•J 

> 

D 
O 



^5^?^''5>"^'^^^"'!^ f^JSi 













->■ »•■•%, ' "*s^^/*(*'"*' 






ORNAMENTED CROSSES 373 

A tenon exactly similar to this one will be found on the cross- 
shaft at Waterpit Down, Minster, which is the next stone to be 
described. 

A very pronounced entasis characterises the shaft, making it 
wider at the present top, which was probably the original middle, 
than at the bottom. The stone when entire was probably similar 
in shape to the cross-shaft at Biscovey. The irregularly executed 
cable mouldings on the angles are much mutilated 

Dimensions. — Total height, 4 ft. 4 in. ; height from base-line, 
3 ft. 9 in., the shaft being wider at the upper portion than at the 
bottom, as follows : width at the bottom, 17 in. ; at the top, 19I in. 
Thickness at the bottom, 13 in. ; at the top, 132-in. 

All four sides are ornamented with debased Hiberno-Saxon 
sculpture in very low relief, as follows : — 

Front. — This is divided into three panels of uneven depth. The 
longest is at the top, and has a piece of figure-of-eight plaitwork, 
showing the square termination of the pattern at the bottom. Now, 
if the knot were completed at the top, as shown by the dotted lines 
on the Plate, a figure of eight would be formed ; and considering 
that this is one of the most favoured forms of interlaced work adopted 
in the county, it is highly probable that it was used here, especially 
as a small piece only is missing. 

The two panels beneath, which are merely separated by an in- 
cised line, contain two capital letters in each, viz . — 



V N 



V I 



There are no more letters in the narrow middle panel, but on the 
lowest there may possibly have been one or two others, as there is 
room for and some signs of them. 

The remaining three sides have one panel each, and contain the 
following ornament : — 



374 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



Left Side. — A panel of wide Z-shaped/ key-pattern ornament so 
shallow in execution that it has the appearance of incised work ; or it 
may be intended for two flat bands, twisted together. 

Back. — A panel of irregular twist-and-ring pattern, having the 
square termination shown at the bottom. 

Right Side. — A panel similar to that on the left side, but not 
quite so coarse in execution, and with one more key in the length. 



Waterpit Down, Minster 

Minster, in the Deanery of Trigg Minor, is situated four and a 
half miles north-east of Camelford, and three miles west of Otterham 
railway- station. 

This very fine cross-shaft once more stands, in its original and 
in situ base, on Waterpit Down, by the left-hand side of the road from 
Davidstown to Tintagel, and three miles west of the latter place. 



s^&^=^^^- 




.--iiiiiiy^^^^^^^ 



About five-and-thirty years ago {c. i860) the shaft was taken 
down to Trekeek Farm,'^ about half a mile from its present position, 
and there utilised as the pivot-stone for the vertical shaft of a horse- 



' Sec note on p. 357. 

* The drawing of the back and two sides was made while tlic sliaft was at Trekeek. 



ORNAMENTED CROSSES 375 

power threshing-machine, as shown in the sketch on p. 374. It re- 
mained in this position until June 1889, when, by and at the expense 
of the late Colonel S. G. Bake, of Camelford, it was removed and 
re-erected. 

The worn and mutilated condition of some parts of this monument 
is not to be wondered at when we consider what it has undergone 
during so long a period. 

The shaft has an entasis, and the angles are beaded, the front and 
back having a second bead adjoining that on the angles. The top 
has been broken, but not to a very great extent, as most of the 
socket for the head remains. By completing the pattern on the right 
side (shown on the Plate by the dotted lines) we arrive at a very 
fair idea of the original height of the shaft. A tenon ^ is worked at 
the bottom, and a roughly squared block of granite forms the base. 
Unfortunately, as with many other monuments, the head of this one 
also is missing ; and I venture to differ from Sir John Maclean's - 
theory, that the head now mounted on the modern shaft in Lesnewth ^ 
churchyard belongs to the Waterpit Down cross-shaft. A head for 
this description of monument would, like kindred specimens, be 
' four-holed.' 

Dimensions. — Height, including tenon, 7 ft. 10 in. ; width of shaft 
above tenon, 2 ft. 3 in., tapering to i ft. 7 in. at the top; thickness 
at the bottom, 11 in., tapering slightly upwards. 

All four sides are divided into panels, but without a separating 
bead between them, and are sculptured as follows : — 

Front. — This is the most interestins: side, and was that which 
faced the ground, and was consequently hidden from view. My 
surmise"* that it was probably inscribed has proved correct. It is 
divided into three panels, all of different heights. In the upper panel 
is a serpentine band, the semicircular spandrils between it and the 
sides of the panels being filled in with Stafford knots, and the pattern 
is curiously terminated at the bottom. This ornament resembles that 
at Lanherne (p. 357) and Sancreed (No. 4, p. 362); but in the 

' Compare this with the shaft in Gulval churchyard, erected upside dowti (p. 372). 
^ Deanery ojf Trigg Minor, vol. i. p. 586. ^ See p. 165. 

* Journal, Brit. Arch. Assoc, vol. xlv. (1S89), p. 335. 



376 OLD CORXISH CROSSES 

present Instance there does not appear to have been a dragon's head. 
In the middle panel is an inscription, in Hiberno-Saxon mixed capitals 
and minuscules, in five horizontal lines, which appears to read : — 



C R 


VX 


1 R C 


V R 


OC 



The middle line is very uncertain, and may possibly be mc or ihc. 

The Rev. W. lago, of Bodmin, however, reads the inscription as 
CRVX INBVRGE('The Cross of Inburga '), and believes that the 
final E is intended for /E, the termination of the Latin genitive of 
Inburga. 

In the lower panel' is interlaced work consisting of the twist-and- 
ring pattern. 

Left Side. — This is divided into two panels. The upper panel is 
very short, but no ornament is distinguishable upon it. On the lower 
panel is a foliated pattern, consisting of an undulating stem or branch, 
and in each of the semicircular spandrils is a long-shaped leaf, which 
completely fills them. The leaves are very flat in execution, and 
do not appear to have been properly finished. 

Back. — This face also is divided into two panels. The upper 
panel contains interlaced work of the figure-of-eight pattern with a 
space between the knots, the band at the bottom being carried across 
horizontally. In the middle of each space is a boss, and it was into 
the lower one of these that the 2^-in. iron shaft was inserted for 
sup[)orting the gear of the threshing-machine. In the lower panel 
are two flat, oval rings, placed crosswise and interlaced, and the side 
spandrils are panelled. 

Right Side. — This face is in the jjest state of preservation, and 
the ornament is much bolder. On the upper of the two ])anels into 
which it is divided is a reversed Z-sha[)ed ^ key j)attern ; or it may be 
intended for two flat bands, twisted together. The lower panel is 

' See note, p. 357. 










..•^-^'i.^c: 







v-^^ 






'=^»^^i:^^^£'Ada2«K&<ii^v;... 




O 

Q 




ORNAMENTED CROSSES 377 

considerably longer than that above, and is filled with foliated scroll- 
work, which is much worn away at the bottom. 



ORNAMENTED CROSS-BASE WITH AN INSCRIBED PANEL 
The Redgate Stones, St. Cleer ' 

St. Cleer, St. Clere, or St. Clare, in the West Deanery, is situated 
two and a half miles north of Liskeard, and about three miles north 
of Liskeard railway-station. 

Redgate Farm is one and a half miles west of St. Cleer church- 
town. 

Between St. Cleer and Redgate, in a field named Pennant (' the 
head of the valley '), stand side by side, and about five feet apart, these 
two monuments. The shorter stone is inscribed and ornamented ; 
the taller — called ' The Other Half Stone ' — is ornamented on one 
face only. Below the illustration of the latter on the Plate facing 
p. 401 is a plan showing their present relative positions. They are 
undoubtedly two distinct monuments, and as such are dealt with 
separately. 

Redgate No. i, St. Cleer 

This inscribed and ornamented cross-base ' lay for some years in 
a pit which was dug near the other stone, probably in search of trea- 
sure ; but in 1849, through the exertions of the Exeter Diocesan 
Architectural Society,- aided by persons in the neighbourhood, it was 
drawn out, and a small subterranean cruciform vault was discovered 
near its base.' ^ 

It is panelled on all four sides, and has a wide flat bead on the 
angles. In the top of the stone a large mortice has been deeply 
sunk, which in course of time has caused the greater portions of 

1 The illustrations of these two stones by Camden, Borlase, Kingston, Blight, and others 
that I have had an opportunity of examining, are full of inaccuracies. In the accompanying 
drawings the ornament and inscriptions are more correctly represented. 

'^ See p. ^2,- 

^ Polsue, A Complete Paroc/iial History of the County of Conmuitl, 1867- 1872. 



378 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



the back and right side to break away. A pHnth surrounds the 
bottom, showing about nine inches above the ground. The upper 
portion is recessed an inch and a half, and tapers to the top. 

Dimensions. — Height, 4 ft. 6 in. ; width at the bottom, 3 ft. ; thick- 
ness, 2 ft. 

The front, which faces east, is inscribed, and the other three 
sides are ornamented with bold and deeply cut plaitwork, or knots, 
as follows : — 

Front. — An inscription in Saxon minuscules : — 



d n i 


e pt po 


gav i t 


p r an 


i ma 



* Doniert rogavit pro anima.' 

' Doniert has begged that prayers be offered for the repose of 
[his] soul.' 

Left Side. — A four-cord plait. 

Back. — This had originally four knots in the panel, each consisting 
of two oval rings placed crosswise and interlaced ; but only the 
two lower ones are now perfect. 

Right Side. — A six-cord plait ; or the pattern may be intended for 
two oval rings placed crosswise, combined with one of lozenge shape. 

In Dr. Borlase's quotation, which is given below, an attempt 
is made to identify this Doniert with ' Dungcrth,' a prince or king 
of Cornwall, who was drowned a.d. 872. At all events, there is 
nothing improbable in accepting this date, as the character of the 
ornament and style of lettering in the inscription indicate that the 
monument is of about this period. This stone, therefore, is especi- 
ally interesting, since it is the only one which furnishes any reliable 
date, and gives us some sort of chronological guide in reference to 
others which have similar ornament upon them, and may consequently 
be taken as belonging to the same period. 



Rki)(;atk, No. i. St. Ci.kkk 



'■rS^m:^ 










A 37^ 



ORNAMENTED CROSSES 379 

Writing on these stones, Borlase ^ says: 'In the parish of St. 
Clere, about 200 paces to the Eastward of Redgate, are two Monu- 
mental Stones which seem to me parts of two different Crosses, for 
they have no such relation to each other, as to make one conclude 
that they ever contributed to form one Monument of that kind. . . . 
[The taller stone] is like the Spill of a Cross, 7 ft. 6 in. high above 
ground. ... In the top of the Stone . . . there is part of a Mortice, 
which, doubtless, had some tenon fitted to, and fix'd in it, in such 
shape as to form a cross ; but the making of this mortice seems to 
have shatter'd the Stone, for part of the shaft ... is cloven off and 
not to be found, from which defect, this is call'd the other half 
stone ; the ground about this Stone has been much tumbled, and 
search'd by digging ; and in one of the hollows is the [inscribed] 
stone. ... I apprehend it might be the Pedestal, or Plinth of a 
Cross, and that the other . . . was either plac'd at the other end of 
the Grave, or was erected for some other person. 

' That by Doniert is meant Dungerth King of Cornwall about 
the beginning (or rather middle) of the ninth century, drown'd in 
the year 872, or '^"]Z^ cannot be disputed, (the g, before an e, being 
sometimes pronounc'd in British as an J consonant, as Gcon, agyant), 
and also because the letters are exactly the same with those on a 
Monument in Denbeighshire put up by Konken, King of Powis in 
the same age. 

* The name is a name of Dignity, and this Doniert was not only 
a Prince, but a man of great piety, as this solicitude for his soul 
testifies.' 

Camden," in his reference to, accompanied by a quaint diagram "' 
of, this stone, says : ' As for Doniert, I cannot but think he was that 
Prince of Cornwall whom the chronicles named Dungerth, and record 
that hee was drowned in the yeere of our Salvation 872.' 

1 Borlase, Antiquities of Cornwall (i754), pp. 360, 361, Plate XXXI. figs. i. and ii. 

2 Cough's edition of Camden, 1789, p. 5. * See also Carew (1602), p. 129. 



38o 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



CROSSES WITH ORNAMENT ONLY 

ORNAMENTED CROSSES COMPLETE 

There are altogether eleven complete examples, all of which are 
four-holed crosses except Phillack, No. 6, which has only two holes. 
They will be divided into two sections, viz. : — 

(i.) Ornamented Holed Crosses without Cusps in the Openings. 
(2.) Ornamented Holed Crosses with Cusps in the Openings. 



Ornamented Holed Crosses without Cusps in the Openings 

There are seven examples of this type, which will be found at 
the following places : — 



Breage, St. 
Lanhydrock 
Lanivet, No. 2 
Minver, St. 
Neot, St. . 
Phillack, No. 6 
Teath, St. 



In churchyard. 

In churchyard. 

In churchyard. 

In St. Michael's churchyard. 

Four-holed Cross. 

In churchyard. 

In cemetery. 



St. Breage. In the Churchyard 

St. Breage, in the Deanery of Kerrier. is situated three miles 
west of Helston. 

The cross was discovered, some years ago, buried in the church- 
yard. It now stands near the south porch, mounted upon what is 
presumably a modern base. 

It is made of sandstone,' and consists of a four-holed cross-head 
attached to a small portion of its shaft, the whole being very much 
worn and mutilated. 

' A curious tradition attaches to the material of which this cross is made. It is said that 
a great battle was once fought at the foot of Godolphin Hill, in the adjoining parish, and 
that the cross was formed of sand and the Ijlood of the combatants who fell ! 



ORNAMENTED CROSSES 



381 



The fact of its being made of sandstone is very remarkable, inas- 
much as it is the only instance at present known in Cornwall of a 
cross being executed in this material. 

The limbs of the cross were originally beaded, but the beads are 
now worn away, except on the front, where that on the bottom of 



















the lower limb is curved upwards in the middle, instead of being 
carried straight across. On the shaft the beads remain only on the 
angles of the front. 

Dimensions. — Height, 2 ft. 2 in. ; width of head, i ft. 9 in. ; width 
of shaft, i2in. ; thickness at the bottom, 7 in., tapering towards the 
top. 

Most of the ornament has disappeared, but what still exists is 
very peculiar, and is as follows : — 

Front. — On the head^ is a central boss, and on the lower limb 
are incised markings, which are too much worn to associate with any 
design. On the shaft is a piece of curious sculpture, but what little 
now remains is insufficient to indicate the particular object it was 
intended to represent. 

Left Side. — On the head, at the end of the arm, are indistinct and 
apparently incised markings. The ring, however, is especially in- 
teresting, for on the portion beneath the arm is a knot, consisting of 
two oval rings placed crosswise and interlaced, affording the only 
instance in Cornwall of decoration on this portion of a cross. On 

1 Blight, in his illustration of this cross, shows five bosses on the head. If they ever did 
exist— which is doubtful— there is now no trace of them {Churches of West Cornwall^ 2nd 
edition (1885), p. 14). 



382 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 

the shaft are remains of sculpture somewhat resembling a dragon's 
head, similar to that on the right side of Lanherne cross and on the 
left side of No. 4 cross, Sancreed. 

Back. — The only decoration on this surface consists of some very- 
peculiar incised markings, now so much worn that it is impossible to 
suggest for what the original device was intended. 

Right Side. — There are no traces of ornament on this face. 



Lanhydrock. In the Churchyard 

Lanhydrock, in the Deanery of Bodmin, is situated two miles 
south of Bodmin town, and one and a half miles west of Bodmin 
Road railway-station. 

The cross stands on the south-east side of the church, and beyond 
the fact that it had been thrown down, and lay thus for many years, 
nothing further appears to be known regarding its history. 

From a superficial examination it is very evident that this once 
beautiful monument has been very badly treated, the head having 
suffered most. Originally it was a four-holed cross, as some remains 
of the ring are still attached to the limbs. Probably the head became 
detached when the cross was thrown down, and while on the ground 
the four quadrants forming the ring were broken away and the whole 
stone chipped and mutilated, large pieces being broken off the angles 
of the shaft near the bottom. 

The head, or rather what remains of it, is cemented to the 
shaft, and the latter has an entasis and widely beaded angles. 

Dimensions. — Height, 8 ft. 4 in. ; width of head, 2 ft. 7| in. ; width 
of shaft: at the neck 13 in., at the bottom 17 in. ; thickness of the 
shaft, about i i in. The head tapers slightly towards the top. 

All four sides were originally sculptured, but much has now dis- 
appeared. What still exists is as follows : — 

Right Side. — On the shaft only a few markings remain, sufficient 
to indicate that it was once ornamented with plaitwork of some kind, 
now almost obliterated. 

Front. — On the head is a central boss, surrounded at its base by 




u 
Pi 

D 

X 










ORNAMENTED CROSSES 3 S3 

two concentric beads. On the shaft is a continuous panel of inter- 
laced ornament, consisting of figure-of-eight ' knots in single row, 
placed vertically, and without intervening spaces between them. 
The work is quite distinct, except at the top and bottom, and is 
similar to that found on the back of No. 2 cross in Lanivet church- 
yard, which will next be described. 

Left Side. — On the shaft only sufficient indications of curved lines 
Remain to show that it was once decorated with some kind of scroll- 
work. 

Back. — On the head is a central boss, surrounded by a bead ; on 
the shaft, a continuous panel of foliated scrollwork. 

Lanivet, No. 2. In the Churchyard 

Lanivet, in the Deanery of Bodmin, is situated three miles south- 
west of Bodmin town, and about three and a half miles south-west of 
Bodmin railway-station. 

The cross stands in its base opposite to the west end of the 
church, and is considered to be in situ. 

It is a very fine specimen of a four-holed cross, and before the 
discovery of those at Mylor, Quethiock, and St. Teath, ranked as 
the tallest in the county, though only exceeding No. i cross in the 
same churchyard by two inches. In all likelihood it was originally a 
monolith, but the head is now cemented on to the top of the shaft, 
the uneven line of fracture at this point showing that at some time it 
has been separated. 

The head is irregularly worked and is somewhat chipped, but is 
remarkable for being the only example of a four-holed cross having 
flat terminations to the limbs. Except in this example and the 
one at Prideaux Place, Padstow, it will be noticed that the ends 
of the limbs are rounded, or curved concentrically with the ring. 
Further, the slope of the limbs is very curious : the left arm is 
tilted up, and leans considerably inward at the top ; while that on 
the right is sloped slightly in the opposite direction, and the upper 

^ See note on the construction of these knots, p. 388. 



384 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 

limb has a marked inclination from north to south. Beads enrich 
the angles of the cross-head, but the ring is left square. Between 
the limbs and ring the sides of the spaces are splayed inwards, and 
the holes are of the same shape as the spaces. The shaft has an 
entasis, and the angles have very wide and flat beads, especially on 
the sides, where they taper upwards to about half their width at the 
bottom. This part of the monument is erected in such a manner 
that, viewing it from either side, the back is almost vertical, all the 
batter, or slope, being shown on the front, which presents a very 
curious appearance, somewhat resembling a buttress. The base con- 
sists of a rough piece of granite rudely shaped, and the shaft is not 
placed centrally in it. 

Dimensions. — Height, 10 ft. 6 in. ; width of head, 2 ft. 8 in. ; 
diameter of ring, 2 ft. 5 in. ; width of shaft : at the top i6|^ in., at the 
bottom i8|in. ; thickness at the bottom, 17 in., tapering to 9^^ in. 
at the neck, and to 7 in. at the top of the head. The marginal 
widths of the base at the foot of the cross are as follow : On the 
front, 1 1 in. ; on the left side, 1 7 in. ; on the back, 1 7 in. ; and on 
the right side, 2 ft. 

All four sides are sculptured, as follows, but in each case the orna- 
ment is considerably worn away at the top of the shaft, a condition 
which is noticeable on many of the decorated crosses. 

Front. — The front faces east, and on the head is a central boss, 
with an encircling bead adjoining, and on each limb is a triquetra 
knot. On the shaft is a panel of well-executed, foliated scrollwork, 
probably the best example of this ornament in Cornwall. The scrolls 
are a good shape and carefully rounded, and have the alternate leaf 
and ball in the spandrils. 

Left Side. — On the shaft is a very narrow panel of debased plait- 
work, which has somewhat the appearance of a three-cord plait. 

Back. — The head is similar to the front, but tlie triquetra knots 

only now remain on the right and lower limbs. On the shaft is a 

very fine specimen of double-beaded interlaced work, consisting of 

figure-of eight ' knots in single row, placed vertically, and without 

' Sec note on the construction of these knots, p. 388. 




■<1- 

oo 



o 
Pi 
< 

>< 

X 

Pi 
o 

X 

u 
w 




~- "-— 53^i;^C^^^i:--^l£^v3f^-' • l=?-'^'^<^'^?^:^^^r^%;-i--isi^i^^^ 



o 



i;^-! 




m^i 







ORNAMENTED CROSSES 



38! 



intervening spaces, similar to that on the front of Lanhydrock Cross, 
just described. The lowest knot will be found to correspond with 
that on the upper panel of the Biscovcy cross-shaft (p. 371). 

Right Side. — On the shaft a continuous panel of late foliated scroll- 
work like that on the right side of the ' Four-holed Cross,' St. Neot 

(P- Z'^1)- 

St. Michael, St. Minver. In the Churchyard 

St. Minver, in the Deanery of Bodmin, is situated ten miles 
north-west of Bodmin town, and four and a half miles north-west of 
Wadebridge railway-station. 

St. Michael, otherwise Porthilly, is a small village situated two 
and a half miles south-west of St. Minver, due east of Padstow, on 
the opposite side of the estuary, and five miles west of Wadebridge 
railway-station. 





-s^l 



This massive granite cross stands in a base opposite the south 
porch, and ' was removed to that position from the west end of the 
church.' ^ 

It consists of a very fine four-holed head of most unusual kind. 
The shaft was probably much longer originally, as the ornament is 
not enclosed by a bead at the bottom. The head is irregularly 
worked, and is somewhat broken at the top. On the front is a 



Sir John Maclean, Deanery of Trigg Mino)\ vol. iii. p. 9. 



C C 



386 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 

central boss having rather more projection than usual ; but the 
corresponding one on the back has either been omitted or has dis- 
appeared ; judging from the smoothness of the stone, the former theory 
appears the more likely. The spaces between the limbs and the 
ring are deeply sunk, and have splayed sides, and the holes, of uneven 
size and shape, are irregularly pierced in them. The limbs and ring 
have double beads on the sides, those on the lower portions of the 
ring being much larger than those above. On the front and back, 
the outer of the two beads shows only on the ring and on the ends 
of the horizontal limbs. The shaft has beaded angles, and is widest 
at the bottom. 

Dimensions. — Height, 3 ft. 9 in. ; width of head, 2 ft. gin. ; width 
of shaft : at the top 18 in., at the bottom 19^ in. ; thickness at the 
bottom, 12 in., tapering to about 10 in. at the top of the stone. 

The front and back of the head are alike, each having a cross 
similar to those on the monuments Nos. i and 2 at St. Levan, 
described on pp. 89 and 299, the only differences in the present 
case being that: (i) The crosses are equal limbed, (2) they are 
widened by a splay instead of by a curve, and (3) beyond these 
points they are slightly expanded to their extremities, just in advance 
of the ring. 

The only ornament remaining on this cross is as follows : — 

Front. — On the shaft is a small piece of interlaced work, consist- 
ing of two Stafford knots, facing in opposite directions, combined 
and distorted. 

East Side. — On the shaft, a four-cord plait. 

The ' Four-holed Cross,' St. Neot 

St. Neot, in the West Deanery, is situated six miles north-west 
of Liskeard, and three miles north-west of Doublebois railway- 
station. 

The cross stands on Temple Moor, by the right-hand side of that 
portion of the old Launceston turnpike-road to Bodmin which passes 
through the parish of St. Neot, and near the stone which registers 



ORNAMENTED CROSSES 387 

eight miles from Bodmin. A more exposed position for a monu- 
ment can scarcely be imai^ined, situated as it is on an elevated portion 
of the bleak moors. As this road is the highway through Cornwall, 
the ' Four-holed Cross ' is, perhaps, better known than any other in 
the county. 

Its ancient title indicates its type, and though for many years the 
upper portion of the head has been missing, leaving only the two 
lower holes, the old name is still retained. 

When this damage was done is not known ; but Polsue,^ in speak- 
ing of this cross, says : ' Two of the holes are broken off. This is said 
to have been done by a Militia corps who were exercising near it, 
and who saluted it with a volley of lead bullets.* 

On Lysons's map of Cornwall (18 14) it is called 'Four-holes 
Cross,' and the illustration marked No. 2 on his plate of ' Ancient 
Crosses in Cornwall' shows only the two lower holes.- 

In proportion to its width the monolith is very thin. The head 
projects slightly beyond the face of the shaft on both the front and 
back. The shaft has an entasis and wide flat beads on the angles, 
broadest at the bottom, and diminishing upwards. Large stones, 
beneath the surface, surround the shaft, and seem to indicate that 
there is no base. It is just possible that among these stones might 
be found the missing portion of the head. 

Dimensions. — Height, 8 ft. 6 in. ; width of head, 2 ft. 10 in. ; 
probable diameter of ring when entire, 2 ft. 11 in. ; width of shaft : at 
the top iS^in., at the ground-line 2 ft. 5 in. ; thickness: at the 
ground-line 9 in., at the neck 7^ in., and the same taper is carried to 
the top. 

All four sides are ornamented, as follows : — 

Right Side. — On the shaft is a continuous panel of foliated scrolls 
very much resembling thirteenth-century work. 

Front. — On the head is a small central boss with surrounding 
bead, and a triquetra knot on each of the remaining limbs. On the 
shaft is some curious incised decoration, consisting of foliated scrolls, 

' A Parochial Hisioy of Corinvall, 1 867. 

'^ Lysons's Magna Britannia : Cornwall^ 1814 ; see Plate after p. ccxli\'. 

C c 2 



388 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 

somewhat coarse in design. In the middle of the panel, and defac- 
ing some of the ornament, is cut, in 8-inch letters — 

G 

E W 

showing that this cross has been used as a landmark or boundary- 
stone between the properties of private persons. 

Left Side. — On the shaft is an excellent specimen of continuous 
plaitwork, formed by vertical figure-of-eight knots, arranged in a 
single row, with a space between each. A curious feature of these 
spaces is that they are all of unequal length. The shortest are at 
the top and bottom, and they are gradually increased in length 
towards the centre. The broad arrow, or Ordnance bench-mark, is 
deeply cut in one of the intervening spaces near the bottom. 

Back. — On the head is a central boss, but no triquetra knots are 
now visible on the limbs. The shaft, so far as the few markings 
permit of a description, is divided about midway into two panels by 
a horizontal, incised line. On the upper panel there are no remains 
of ornament, though it may be fairly conjectured that, had any in- 
scription existed, it would have been here. The lower panel contains 
some incised, foliated scrollwork. 

Note. — With regard to the figure-of-eight knots on the left side 
of this cross, it may be pointed out that this particular interlaced 
pattern is used in Cornwall more frequently than any other. I am 
indebted to Mr. J. Romilly Allen, F.S.A. (Scot), who has spent a 
considerable amount of time in analysing the formation of interlaced 
designs,' for the following information. 

This pattern, which is derived from a four-cord plait, is composed 
of two symmetrical loops, with two cords passing through the centres 

of the loops, and crossing at right angles, thus : ^y 

/\ 

These loops may be placed at any given distance apart in a four- 

* 'Analysis of Celtic Interlaced Ornament' {Proc. Soc. Ant. Scot., vol. xix. p. 236). 



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ORNAMENTED CROSSES 



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cord plait, but when they are brought sufficiently near together 
point A to coincide with the point b the figure- 
of-eight knot is produced, as shown at the side. 

The accompanying diagram will make this 
clear. A double line shows the plait running 
right through ; and the portions of the bands 
illustrating the joining-up of the cords to form 
the loops, and those passing through their 
centres, are shown in a thick line. It will be 
seen, therefore, that by joining the points cor- 
responding to A and B at regular intervals a con- 
tinuous figure-of-eight pattern is formed. 

Another simple instance of the joining-up of 
bands in the middle of a plait will be found in the 
description of Redgate No. 2, St. Cleer (p. 401). 

The figure-of-eight knot is found on the 
following crosses in Cornwall : — 



for the 






Cardynham, No. 2 
Erth, St., No. 3 
Gulval . 
Lanivet, No. 2 
Lanherne 
Lanhydrock . 
Padstow, No. 3 
Sancreed, No. 4 
Waterpit Down 



On left side of head. 
On the front. 

>> >» 
,, back, 
front. 



back. 



Phillack, No. 6. In the Churchyard 

Phillack, or St. Fellack, in the Deanery of Penwith, Is situated 
on the shores of St. Ives Bay, six miles south-west of Camborne 
and one mile north of Hayle railway-station. 

The monolith stands on the south side of the church, opposite to 
the porch. 



390 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 

For many years it remained built into a rough stone wall — or more 
probably the wall was built up to and round it — with the head only 
showing.^ Ultimately it was moved and erected on a modern base 
by the Rector of Phillack, the Rev. Canon Hockin, to whom I am 
indebted for the following particulars relating to it. He says : — 

' The Phillack churchyard cross was placed where it now is when 
the church was rebuilt in 1856-57. It was previously on a spot about 
ten feet to the northward of its present position. Our churchyard 
crosses usually are facing the main entrance, a little to the right hand ; 
and this now occupies the same relative position to the entrance-gate 
as it did previously to the old entrance-gate, which was on the south 
side of the church, and which it was desirable to alter. There was 
no base found, although there had certainly been one originally, as 
the shaft has a tenon worked at the bottom.' 

These combined facts of no base being found, and yet a tenon, 
seem to suggest that this cross originally occupied another site than 
that from which it was removed. 

The head is similar in form to a four-holed cross, but in this ex- 
ceptional case the ends of the limbs and sides of the ring are on the 
same plane. The limbs are double-beaded, the bead on the angle 
being carried down the shaft and widened gradually below the neck. 
Another feature of this stone is that it is nearly square on plan, 
almost all the other ornamented crosses being much thinner in pro- 
portion to their width ; but in this instance the sides are wider than 
either the front or the back. 

The most interesting details of this monument are: — (i) It is a 
unique example of a two-holed cross, since only the two upper holes 
are pierced right through the head, while those below are merely 
deep sinkings, carried nearly halfway through the stone, and only 
leaving about an inch between their ends, in the middle of the head ; 
(2) a single boss, on the outside of the ring, just above the neck, on 
each side ; and (3) the manner in which the double beads on the 

' The cross in this position is figured in Blight's Ancient Crosses and Antiquities of 
Cornwall., p. 22. 



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ORNAMENTED CROSSES 391 

sides and top of the head are worked so as to follow the outline of 
the limbs and recessed ring. 

Dimensions. — Height, 5 ft. 10 in. ; width of head, 18 in. In plan 
the stone is an irregular parallelogram, varying from 14I in. to 
12^^ in. at the base, and from 11^ in. to 1 1 in. at the neck, the same 
taper being preserved to the top of the head. 

All four sides of the shaft are ornamented with debased three- 
cord, angular plaitwork, though some of that on the left side is rudely 
rounded. The other three faces are better, but the work is exe- 
cuted in the roughest manner, being little more than some deeply 
incised double lines. It is the worst example of interlaced work in 
Cornwall, as the bands do not lap over and under each other regu- 
larly, and in some cases stop suddenly, apparently without reason — 
unless it were because the mason got muddled, which seems the only 
way to account for it. 

The remaining sculpture is as follows : — • 

Front. — On the head, and extending also some considerable dis- 
tance down the shaft, is a tall and rude figure of our Lord, in high 
relief, clothed in a tunic. The head is very large ; both arms are 
slightly raised, and the feet are well proportioned. Two of the 
three bands constituting the plait on the shaft below are carried up- 
wards in a zigzag line, one on either side of the figure, about halfway 
up which they are stopped. 

Back. — On the head are five bosses in high relief, one in the 
centre, and one on each limb. 

St. Teath. In the Cemetery 

St. Teath, in the Deanery of Trigg Minor, is situated ten miles 
north-west of Bodmin, and appears to be exactly the same distance 
from two railway-stations, viz. two miles south of Delabole, and two 
miles north-east of Port Isaac Road. 

This four-holed cross now stands in the cemetery opposite to the 
churchyard, on the other side of the road. 

The following extracts are taken from an interesting account of 



392 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 

its recovery and restoration which appeared in the ' Antiquarian 
Magazine ' of August 1 883, under the head of ' Two Cornish Crosses.' 
The author, whose name is not given, says : — 

'This cross formerly stood near the parish church, and is believed 
to be a relic of Celtic Christianity in that locality, and it has been 
recovered principally by the efforts of the Rev, Thomas Worthington, 
while temporarily engaged in charge of the parish. . . . The greater 
part of the shaft, 8 ft. 6 in. long, was found stripped [sic) lengthways, 
and adapted as a coping for a wall at the west entrance of the church- 
yard, a position which it has held for forty years. Other parts were 
discovered sunk in the ground, to carry the pivoting of the church- 
yard gates. Fortunately, the greater number of the fragments have 
been recovered, and Mr. Worthington has undertaken the reparation 
and re-erection of this relic. . . . This stone cross,' continues the 
author, ' was probably overthrown by those who took a prominent part 
in the destruction of similar ecclesiastical objects in the stormy days of 
the seventeenth century. Even within the memory of an aged parish- 
ioner it was used as a bridge across the outlet of a pond in the neigh- 
bourhood. It was removed, about the year 1835, by the Rev. Joseph 
Fayrer, then vicar, into the churchyard. Mr, Fayrer's intention to 
restore and repair it was, however, frustrated by reason of the loss 
of the tenon and the fragmentary condition of the base, for the cost 
of repairing the base or procuring a new granite base then proved 
an insurmountable obstacle. In 1841, during the incumbency of the 
Rev. Thomas Amory, the relic received the treatment described 
above,' 

It is extremely likely that while the shaft was serving the pur- 
pose of a footbridge the ornament remained intact — so far as the 
traffic allowed — as there would have been no object in removing it. 

The process of ruthless mutilation was probably carried out in 
the following mannc^r : The tenon and upper three feet of the shaft 
were first cut f)ff, and the latter then divided into three parts, which 
were, I was told, found built into the same gateway to the church- 
yard where; the head was used as a gate-pivot. Having thus made 
the shaft th(^ desired length, the remainder was next split with wedges, 



St. Teath. In thk Ckmeterv 



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A 393 



ORNAMENTED CROSSES 393 

the marks of which are still to be seen. These two portions were 
afterwards ' smoothed over ' — or, in other words, the whole of the 
ornament was removed ; indeed, so thoroughly was this part of the 
destructive work performed that not the smallest vestige remains. 
A stopped chamfer worked on the angle completed the crime, and 
the pieces were ready for use as coping-stones for the churchyard-wall. 

On reference to the Plate it will be seen that in course of 
restoration the fragments of the cross had actually to be built up and 
jointed in cement. The two lower portions of the shaft — which were 
severed lengthways — are bolted togethf;r right through the stones. 
Next come the three upper pieces. This, minus the tenon, must, I 
think, represent all the shaft, as the termination of the scrolls is shown 
on both sides. Finally, there are the fragments of the head, with the 
missing portions made up in cement. 

The base of the cross — through which the shaft passes — is twelve 
inches thick, and was originally the top stone of the old ' epping stock,' 
as it is called in Cornwall, that being the local name for the small 
flights of three or four steps which are sometimes seen in country 
villages, and used to assist persons in mounting their horses. 

As regards height, the St. Teath cross comes next to Quethiock, 
and is only shorter by four inches. Originally it was eight inches 
taller, but, owing to the loss of the tenon, twelve inches of its height 
are lost in the base. 

The head, of which only the upper and lower limbs are perfect, 
is elliptical ; the limbs are beaded, but the ring is not. 

The shaft had beaded angles originally, remains of the beading 
still existing on those angles which have not been chamfered. 

Dimensions. — Total height of the cross, 13 ft. ; height of head, 
2 ft. 2 in. ; width of same, i ft. 11 in. ; width of the shaft : at the top 
1 2^ in., at the bottom i ft. gin. ; thickness at the bottom, 14 in., 
tapering to 1 1 in. at the top. The head appears to have been of a 
uniform thickness of 1 1 in. 

All that now remains of the ornament is upon the head and the 
three upper pieces of the shaft, and is as follows : — 

Right Side. — The head is chiefly made up of cement. On the 



394 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 

shaft is a very good specimen of foliated scrollwork, showing the 
termination of the pattern at the top. 

Front. — On the head is a central boss, and the upper and lower 
limbs have a complete triquetra knot in each, there being remains 
only of these knots on the remaining limbs. On the shaft there 
are only sufficient markings left to indicate that it was once sculp- 
tured. The angle on the left side has the modern stop chamfer 
already referred to. 

Left Side. — On the head, at the end of the arm, is the upper 
half of a knot which was composed, when entire, of two oval rings, 
placed crosswise and interlaced. The lower portion of this arm is 
made up in cement, whereon the mason has completed the knot in 
Perpendicular work ! On the shaft, at the top, is a curious pattern, 
formed of double scrolls. 

Back. — All that can be said of this is, that it is in a more deplor- 
able condition than the other portions of the cross. 

Ornamented Holed Crosses with Cusps in the Openings 

Note, — Cusps in the holes, or openings, are described on p, 193. 
There are four examples of this type, which will be found at the 
following places : — 

Breward, St. . . .In cemetery. 

Columb Major, St. . .In churchyard. 

Padstow, No. 3 . . . Prideaux Place, 

Quethiock . . . .In churchyard. 

St. Breward. In the Cemetery 

St. Breward, or Simonward, in the Deanery of Trigg Minor, is 
siuiated seven miles n^jrth of Bodmin, and four miles east of St. Kew 
Highway railway-station. 

Where this fragment of a cross-head was originally discovered 
does not appear to be known, but for many years it stood trans- 
versely on top of the low wall separating the boys' and girls' 



ORNAMENTED CROSSES 



395 



playgrounds In the National Schools,^ one face being against the 
main building. When the new cemetery was made south of St. 
Breward churchyard the stone was re- 
moved there, and set up on a modern 
granite shaft of marvellous proportions. 

Originally it was a very fine example 
of the cusped type, but the loss of the 
lower limb and adjoining portions of the 
ring has reduced it very considerably 
in size. The limbs are very narrow on 
the inside, and are outlined by a bead, but 
the ring is left plain. 

Dimensions. — Height of fragment, i ft. 
6 in. ; width of head, 2 ft. 6 in. ; thickness, 
9 in. 

The front and back are ornamented as 
follows : — 

Front. — On the head is a central boss, 
and on each limb a triquetra knot. 

Back. — This is similar to the front, except that the boss has dis- 
appeared or was omitted. 




St. Columb Major. In the Churchyard ^ 

St. Columb Major, in the Deanery of Pyder, is situated sixteen 
miles north-east of Truro, and two and a half miles north of St. 
Columb Road railway-station, on the branch-line from Par to Newquay. 

The cross stands on the east side of the churchyard. 

It consists of a magnificent granite head and short shaft, and s 
one of the best examples which possess cusps, or rounded projections, 
in the spaces formed between the ring and the limbs of the cross. 
The head has a central boss. The limbs are beaded at the angles, 
and the double beads of the ring are carried through them in a manner 

^ The accompanying drawing of the cross-head was made when it was in this position. 
- An unornamented and erect cross-slab in this churchyard, near the porch, is supposed 
to be inscribed, and is therefore not included in this work. 



30 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



similar to that on the cross in the old vicarage garden, Padstow 
(p. 196). The shaft is only 6 in. high, but whether originally longer 
it is difficult to determine. Judging, however, from its width and 

the thickness of the stone, it probably 
was not. 

Dimensions. — Height, 3 ft. i^ in. ; 
width of head, 2 ft. 8|in. ; diameter of 
ring, 2 ft. 4 in. ; thickness, 5 in. 

The ornament on the front and back 
is as follows : — 

Front. — This Is in a very good state 
of preservation. On each of the limbs 
is an interlaced knot. Right limb : A 
knot formed by two Stafford knots com- 
bined. Upper limb : A triquetra having its lower loop distorted. 
Left and lower limbs ; A triquetra in each. 

Back. — This appears to be similar to the front, but is so worn 
that only on the upper and lower limbs are the triquetra knots dis- 
tinct. These are rudely shaped and distorted, and the loop nearest 
the boss, in each case, has a curious concave depression. The knots 
on the arms are too abraded to define, but as far as can be seen they 
appear to correspond in shape to those on the front. 




Padstow, No. 3. Prideaux Place 

Padstow, anciently Petrocstow, in the Deanery of Pyder, is situ- 
ated eleven miles ^ north-west of Bodmin, and eight miles north-west 
of Wadebridge railway-station. 

Prideaux Place, the residence of Charles G. Pridcaux-Brune, Esq., 
is situated about a quarter of a mile west of Padstow church. 

This monument consists of a very fine four-holed head and part 
of a cross-shaft, which are mounted on a modern base in the above 
grounds. 

The following account, contained in a letter from Mr. Prideaux- 
Brune, appears to state all that is known with regard to the cross. 

' This distance is as the crow flies ; local directories state it to be sixteen miles. 




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ORNAMENTED CROSSES 397 

Writing in February 1888, he says: * I am afraid I cannot give you 
much information. The cross itself has been here as long as I can 
recollect (some fifty-six years), and, as far as tradition goes, had been 
here for a very long antecedent period. Some years since I found 
the . . . piece of the shaft in the grounds, . . . and for preserva- 
tion I had it placed in its present position on some plain granite 
steps,' 

The head is the most remarkable of its kind. The limbs are 
very narrow on the inside, and are widely expanded at the ends. 
The outer edges of the upper and two horizontal limbs are slighdy 
concave. The unique treatment of the connecting portions between 
the limbs is a characteristic which calls for special notice. Instead 
of the usual ring, the limbs are connected by four straight portions, 
placed diagonally, kept just within the extremities of the limbs, from 
which they are slightly recessed, the outline of the head thus presenting 
an octagonal appearance. The cross is bordered by a bead, and the 
diagonal portions are formed of two beads, the lines of which are 
continued through the limbs in a similar manner to those on the 
crosses at St. Columb Major, last described, and Padstow, No. i.^ 
Owing to the narrowing of the limbs next the centre, the triangular 
spaces between them and the octagonal connections are much larger 
than usual. 

Originally the shaft was of greater length ; this being clearly shown, 
not only by the absence of the horizontal beads at either end, which 
should have enclosed the panels, but also by the uneven lines of 
fracture across the ornament, which is, therefore, incomplete, since 
no terminations of the pattern remain. The angles are considerably 
chipped, and the ornament is much abraded at the top and bottom. 
The entasis is very slight, and the beads on the angles are wide and 
flat. 

Dimensions. --T\\& Head: height, 2 ft. 8 in. ; width, 2 ft. 8^ in., 
and 2 ft. 6 in. across the diagonal connections. The Shaft : height, 
3 ft. 4 in. ; width : at the top i ft. 4 in., at the bottom i ft. Sin. ; 
thickness : at the bottom 13 in., at the top 12 in. 

* See p. 196. 



398 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 

All four sides are ornamented, as follows : — 

Front. — On the head, a central boss with surrounding bead. On 
each limb there has been a triquetra knot, but only that on the lower 
limb now remains distinct. On the shaft is some treble-beaded 
figure-of-eight ^ knotwork, arranged in a vertical row and without 
intervening spaces. 

Left Side. — On the shaft is a curious kind of scrollwork, of quite 
a different character from that usually found in Cornwall. 

Back. — The head is similar to the front, and the triquetra knots 
on the left and lower limbs are quite distinct. On the shaft a division 
occurs in the plaitwork near the top. The work in the upper portion 
is not sufficiently clear to define ; the lower consists of six-cord plait, 
the bands of which do not lap over and under regularly. 

Right Side. — On the shaft is foliage consisting of an undulating 
stem, springing from which are leaves, in the hollows on either side, 
like those on the left side of the Waterpit Down cross-shaft, Minster 
(P- 376). 

Quethiock. In the Churchyard 

Qucthiock, in the East Deanery, is situated four miles east of Lis- 
keard, and three and a half miles north-east of Menheniot railway- 
station. 

The cross stands on the south side of the church, close to the 
churchyard-wall. 

The late Mr. Nicholas Hare, of Liskeard gives the following 
account - of its discovery and restoration : — 

' A few months since, whilst some workmen were engaged in 
excavating the ground preparatory to building a new boundary-wall 
at the southern j)art of Quethiock churchyard, they came unexpectedly 
upon the head and base of a handsome granite cross. The two 
pieces were discovered just inside the old fence, at some depth 
beneath the surface. 

' On making further search the Rev. William Willmott, the vicar, 
was fortunate enough to find the missing shaft. The monolith had 

* See note on ronstruction of tlicsc knots, p. 3S8. 

' Joiiriuii, /\oytil //is/. Coniivall^ \()I. vii. Part ii. (1SS2). 



OUF.THIOCK. I.\ THE CnURCHVARD 













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/• 399 



ORNAMENTED CROSSES 399 

been divided into two parts by hammering and then breaking it, and 
was doing duty as gateposts to what was then an unused entrance 
to the churchyard. This gateway is now built up. On putting the 
four pieces together, it was found that they all fitted exactly into 
each other, and formed a perfect four-holed . . . cross. 

' After having been firmly cemented together, the restored cross, 
on the 25th July last [1881], was re-erected south of the church porch, 
and on the spot where it was found and is supposed originally to 
have stood. . . . The cross [head] has a tenon fitting into a mortice 
in the top of the shaft, and, at the bottom of the shaft, one which fits 
into the base; so that no part of the cross is wanting. ... In the 
parish it is known as " The Monument." ' 

Mr. Hare concludes his remarks by saying : — 

' Our thanks are due to the Vicar of Quethiock for the care and 
attention he has given to the erection in his parish of this, the latest, 
but by no means the least, addition to the number of our grand old 
Cornish crosses.' 

Undoubtedly this is a magnificent monument, and in regard to 
height is, with the exception of the cross in Mylor churchyard, since 
discovered, the tallest in Cornwall. 

The monuments of Mylor, Quethiock, and St. Teath may be 
called the high crosses of Cornwall ; and, however badly the interlaced 
work upon the two latter was executed, they show at least that the 
general effect was carefully studied. In each case the cross-heads 
are made elliptical instead of round, presumably because a round 
head, at such a height, would have presented a flat or depressed 
appearance, in the same manner that a semicircular arch in a high 
building would appear segmental unless it was stilted, or raised at its 
haunches. 

The head of the cross is in a very good state of preservation. 
The upper limb has a distinct inclination to the right ; and the lower 
one — which is much larger than the others — is remarkable for pro- 
jecting far beyond the sides of the shaft, especially on the left, the 
extremities or projections being sloped upwards at an obtuse angle. 
A single bead marks the outline of the expanded limbs. The ring 



400 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 

consists of a double bead, the outer one being carried, as it were, 
through the upper and lower limbs only, while both are continued 
through the lower one, but without cutting through the marginal 
bead of the cross itself.^ Each of the four holes in the head is 
ornamented with cusps, as described on p. 193. The shaft has a 
scarcely noticeable entasis, and the slightly diminishing beads on the 
angles are returned across the shaft at the top and bottom. 

Dimensions. — Height, 13 ft. 4 in. The head is 2 ft. io|in. high 
and 2 ft. 8 in. wide. Width of shaft : at the top 1 5 in., at the bottom 
I ft. 1 1 in. ; thickness at the bottom, I3iin., tapering to 9^ in, at 
the top of the shaft, and to about 7^ in. at the top of the head. 
The circular base is 4 ft. 6 in. in diameter and about 1 2 in. thick. 

It is a matter of sincere regret that the ornament on the shaft is 
so dreadfully mutilated. There is, however, just sufficient remain- 
ing to indicate what kinds of patterns were used in some parts of its 
decoration, of which the following is a description : — 

Right Side. — On the head, at the end of the arm, is a plain panel, 
formed by the outlining bead. On the shaft is a continuous panel of 
late foliated scrollwork, very irregularly executed, and much worn in 
places, especially at the top. 

Front. — On the head is a central boss with surrounding bead at 
its base. The upper and two horizontal limbs of the cross each 
contain a triquetra knot, and on the lowest one is a knot consisting 
of two oval rings, interlaced diagonally, and cleverly arranged 
to suit the peculiar space at the sculptor's disposal. The shaft is 
divided into three panels, the upper two being separated by a 
bead. The uppermost and longer panel contains four-cord, double- 
beaded, angular plaitwork, which is most distinct near the bottom, 
but entirely disappears towards the top. In the next panel there is 
a short piece of six-cord plait ; or it may otherwise be intended for 
two oval rings, placed crosswise and interlaced with a lozenge-shaped 
figure. The pattern on the lower portion of the panel is only dis- 
tinguishable at the bottom, and appears to consist of a six-cord plait. 

Left Side. — The head is similar to that on the opposite side. The 

' Similar to Padstdw No. r (p. 196). 



Rkdgatk, i\o. 2. St. Clekr 



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R<-Uilivr JiOHition of < li«' tw'o AtonCB. 



Suula ij M n ^-f M ^• 



/. 401 



ORNAMENTED CROSSES 401 

shaft Is divided into two panels, each containing remains of double- 
beaded twist-and-ring pattern in a very mutilated condition, and 
which can only be identified in one or two places. 

Back. — The ornament on the head is similar to that on the front, 
but not so well preserved ; and it is much to be deplored that all the 
ornament on the shaft has now disappeared. 



ORNAMENTED CROSS-SHAFTS 

There are altogether five examples of this type, but only four are 
to be seen, that at Gwennap (No. 2) being concealed. They will be 
found at the following places : — 

Cleer, St. . . . . Redgate, No. 2. 

Erth, St., No. 3 . .In churchyard. 

Gwennap, No. 2 . .In church wall (concealed). 

Just-in-Penwith, St., No. 3 In church wall. 

Neot, St., No. 5 . .In churchyard. 

Redgate No. 2 ('The Other Half Stone') St. Cleer 

For locality of St. Cleer and further particulars regarding this 
stone, see ' The Redgate Stones ' (p. Zll)- 

The lower portion of this shaft is extremely rough, and does not 
appear to have been wrought below the plinth, which is similar to 
that on the adjacent monument. 

Dimensions, — Height, 7 ft. ; width, 2 ft. The stone seems to 
have been split down the back, for while at the plinth it is 1 7 in. 
thick, it is only 9 in. thick above it. 

Sculpture now only remains on the front ; and this has upon it a 
fine panel, 3 ft. 3 in. by r ft. 5 in., with a variation or break in the 
regularity of the plait at the top illustrating how the more elaborate 
forms of interlaced work were developed. It will be noticed that it 
commences at the bottom with a regular eight-cord plait, carried 
nearly to the top, where, by joining up the cords in different places 

D D 



402 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



— or ' breaking ' the plait, as it is termed — an entirely different effect 
is produced. Between this panel and the plinth is a plain panel 
about 1 6 in. square. On comparing the top of the panel on the 
Redgate No. 2 stone with the top of the panel on the St. Just-in- 
Penwith No. 3 stone, it appears that they correspond exactly, thus 
showing how a simple break of this kind in an eight-cord plait leads 
on at once to a pattern composed of interlaced rings. 



St. Erth, No. 3, In the Churchyard 

St. Erth, in the Deanery of Penwith, is situated two miles south 
of Hayle, and about one mile south-east of St. Erth railway-station. 
The fragments of this shaft now stand in the churchyard against 

the south aisle wall of the church. 
Nothing is known about them 
beyond the fact that they were 
taken out of a wall of the church 
during renovation in 1875. They 
are supposed to have been found 
in the south wall, as this was 
entirely rebuilt at the time. I 
am indebted to Mr. J. Vivian, 
of Meadowside, Hayle, for the 
above particulars. 

This is the smallest Hibcrno- 

Saxon cross-shaft in Cornwall, 

and consists of two dilapidated 

parts, which are placed one on 

1 top of the other on a modern 

^^^^^ -^^^mmA^ granite base. Most of the cross- 
head is gone, for the circular por- 
tion, which projected beyond the 
sides, has been trimmed off to the same width as the shaft, in order, 
probably, to utilise the stone for some purpose. A closer examination 
of the fragments discloses the important fact that there is another 






te 






ft. 



ORNAMENTED CROSSES 403 

portion still wanting in the middle, since the patterns, where the 
fractures occur, are not carried on continuously. A large piece has 
also been chipped off the top of the left side of the lower fragment. 

The angles are beaded to within nineteen inches of the bottom, 
and the greater part of the plain portion below them in all likelihood 
formed the tenon, or was, rather, that part of the stone which was in- 
serted in a base, for it is slightly tapered towards the end in the 
usual manner ; but, like the shaft in the church of St. Just (No. 3, 
on the next page), the shoulder of the tenon is omitted. 

Dimensions. — Height of the two pieces, 5 ft. 10 in. The shaft is 
\o\ in. square at its widest part, and tapers slightly. 

The ornament which remains on this shaft is as follows : — 

Right Side. — On each piece is a diagonal key pattern similar to 
that on the Sancreed crosses. No. 3 (p. 362) and No. 4 (p. 365). 

Front. — This was probably the front of the cross, for on the 
remnant of the head is part of the figure of our Lord. The head, 
hands, and most of the arms were chipped off with the projecting 
portion of the head, already referred to ; but the body, legs, and part 
of the arms remain. Beneath the figure on the upper piece is part 
of a panel containing double-beaded, irregular figure-of-eight ^ knot 
work, in single row, placed vertically. The panel on the lower 
fragment contains the termination of the pattern. 

Left Side. — The ornament is not now distinguishable. 

Back. — This is placed close against the wall, and is, therefore, 
not visible. 

Gwennap, No. 2. In the Church Wall (concealed) 

Gwennap, in the Deanery of Carnmarth, is situated three miles 
south-east of Redruth town and railway-station. 

The Rev. Saltren Rogers has given me the following particulars 
relating to an ornamented cross-shaft which was discovered during 
the restoration of Gwennap church. 

In his letter, dated September 9, 1890, he says : — 

' See note on construction of this knot, p. 388. 

D D 2 



404 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



' In the course of the restoration of our church, about thirty years 
ago, a portion of the shaft of a granite cross was found, ornamented 
[on the front] with the Keltic plaited cord-work, fairly regular and 
well executed, not deeply cut, and perhaps somewhat worn. I forget 
whether it was similarly ornamented on the back and sides. When 
the foundations of a new vestry were being built, it was, unfortunately, 
taken and used by the masons ; but when I noticed its removal they 
were not able to tell me in what part of the vestry it had been built 
in, and so it remains to be discovered, perhaps in some future age.' 



St. Just-in-Penwith, No. 3. In the Church Wall 

St. Just-in-Penwith,^ in the Deanery of Penwith, is situated seven 
miles west of Penzance. 

The shaft will be found inside the church, built horizontally into 
the wall of the north aisle, and on the eastern side 
of one of the windows, of which it forms the bottom 
jamb stone. 

I am unable to give any particulars regarding the 
previous history of this shaft, either as to its original 
site or the circumstances under which it came to 
occupy its present position. 

Instances are so numerous in this county of crosses 
being found built into church walls, especially in the 
later edifices or in the additions to the older ones, 
that no sur[)risc is felt at seeing this shaft used as a 
mere building-stone. After the wall was built it was 
plastered over, and consequently the shaft was lost 
sight of until the renovation of the church in 1865, when it was 
ffiund beneath the plaster, and has since been left uncovered. 

Although the Rev. J. Duller mentions the inscribed stone in this 
church, and also the missing cross with tlic Chi Rho monogram 
which was form(;rly here, he .says nothing of the cross-shaft, which, 







' 'I'licrc arc two parishes in Cornwall named St. Just ; llic other is in the Deanery of I'owdcr, 
and is (ailed St. Just-in-Roseland. 



ORNAMENTED CROSSES 405 

we may therefore assume, was still concealed when he wrote his 
book.^ 

It is much to be desired that this shaft may one day be taken 
out, and erected in a suitable place, thus enabling the sides, so long 
concealed, to be examined, and the remainder of the ornament — and 
possible inscription — added to the list of Cornish antiquities. 

It is a curious instance of a granite shaft whereon some of the 
ornament remains unfinished. The angles are beaded to within twelve 
inches of what was the bottom; and this lower portion is unornamented, 
being probably so left to allow the insertion of part of it into a base. 
An example corresponding to this is found on the cross-shaft at 
St. Erth (No. 3), where the lower portion of the shaft is left in a 
similar condition, no shoulder for the tenon being formed. 

Dimensions. — Length, 4 ft, 8^ in. ; width : at the bottom \\\ in., 
at the top 14 in. ; thickness, about 8 in. 

The exposed side is divided into two panels of unequal length 
by a wide horizontal bead running into that on the edges. At what 
would be the lower part of the stone were it erected, and above the 
plain portion already alluded to, is a square panel, containing an ex- 
cellent piece of interlaced work, which consists of two oval rings, 
placed diagonally, combined with two concentric circular rings — a 
design exactly similar to that on the north side of the cross- shaft at 
St. Neot (No. 5), in the churchyard. Above this is a much longer 
panel, part of the ornament on which is unfinished, the upper portion 
only having been commenced with what appears to be S-shaped - 
knotwork, while the intermediate space has been marked out with 
holes at regular intervals. 

St. Neot, No. 5. In the Churchyard 

St. Neot, in the West Deanery, is situated six miles north-west 
of Liskeard, and three miles north-west of Doublebois railway-station. 

For several years this beautiful granite shaft lay outside the 
church, against the south aisle wall, but in July 1889 it was moved, 

' A Statistical Account of the Parish of St. Just-in- Penwith, Rev. John Buller, LL.B., 
Vicar, Penzance, 1842. * See ne.xt page. 



4o6 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 

and erected on St. Neot's Stone/ in the churchyard. This stone is 
situated opposite to the south porch, and thirty feet from it, and 
appears to be part of a cross-base, as there is a portion of the mortice 
remaining on the south side, the rest of that side being broken off 

In plan the shaft is irregular, each face varying in width. It has 
an entasis, and is beaded on the angles. Each face is divided into 
three panels by horizontal beads, which are on the same level all 
round. The bottom panels on the front and back are square, but as 
the shaft is much narrower on the sides, it causes the panels on the 
latter to be elongated. The middle panels are now the longest, but, 
the top of the shaft having been broken, it is impossible to say what 
was the original height of those above. A large piece may be mis- 
sing, or perhaps only a small portion has been knocked off, in order 
to make the stone suitable for some purpose. The same reason would 
probably account also for the loss of the tenon. 

This is the best example of interlaced work on a granite cross to 
be found in Cornwall. The patterns are well designed and well 
executed, the stone itself being in an excellent state of preservation. 
As a proof of the superiority in workmanship of this stone compared 
with others, it will be noticed that all the interlaced cords lap regularly 
over and under each other, as is always the case in the best work of 
this kind. 

Dimensions. — Height, 6 ft. 9 in. ; width on the front : at the 
bottom I ft. 8 in., at the top i ft. 7| in. ; and the other three sides 
respectively are: right side, 16 in. and 15 in. ; left side, 16 in. and 
17 in. ; back, i ft. 9|in. and i ft. 7 in. 

N.B. — The shaft is widest in the middle. 

All four sides are ornamented with deeply sculptured, interlaced 
work, as follows : — 

Right Side. — The design in the upper panel is very curious. It 
consists of a short piece of six-cord plaitwork with breaks made at 
regular intervals. In the middle panel is an instance of S-shaped 
knotwork developed out of a six-cord phiit. The diagonal treat- 

* Tradition says that St. Neot was so very short in stature that he was unable to reach 
up to the keyhole of the door, and that it was upon this stone he used to stand and throw the 
key into the keyhole, whereupon the door opened ! 








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ORNAMENTED CROSSES 407 

ment of the middle band in this beautiful example is, as far as I 
have been able to ascertain, unique. On the lower panel is irregular 
six-cord, broken plaitwork, in the upper portion of which two elliptical 
rings occur, filling up the corners. 

Front. — The surface here called the front faces north. In the 
upper panel is the only example in Cornwall of the pattern known 
as * plaits and rings,' which can be developed from an eight-cord 
plait. There is an instance of this in Devonshire, on the north-west 
face of the well-known Copplestone Cross, near Crediton, a monument 
which is mentioned in a charter of King Edgar dated a,d. 974, now 
in H.M, Record Office, In the middle panel is a fine specimen of 
irregular plaitwork developed out of an eight-cord plait. In the 
lower panel is a knot formed by two elliptical rings crossing 
diagonally, combined with two concentric circles, all interlaced ; this 
design also occurs on the cross-shaft in the church of St Just-in- 
Penwith (p. 404). 

Left Side. — All three panels are filled with a regular eight-cord 
plait. 

Back. — The upper panel contains broken plaitwork ; and although 
somewhat similar to that on the reverse side, and developed from a plait 
of the same number of cords, it will be seen that the rings in this 
case are not separated, but are joined together like the figure 8 in a 
horizontal position (oo ). In the middle panel is another very good ex- 
ample of broken plaitwork developed from an eight-cord plait. At 
the bottom is a panel with breaks made in an irregular manner, pro- 
ducing an elliptical ring at the left lower corner. 



PART OF A CROSS-SHAFT IN ITS BASE 
Padstow, No, 4. In the Churchyard 

Padstow, anciently Petrocstow, in the Deanery of Pyder, is situ- 
ated eleven ^ miles north-west of Bodmin, and eight miles north-west 
of Wadebridge railway-station. 

' See footnote, p. 396. 



4o8 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 

The remains of this monument now stand in the extreme south- 
east corner of the churchyard, close to the entrance. 

A few yards north-west of this entrance, on the right-hand side 
of the path, is a tombstone recording that one Prudence Sowden 
departed this Hfe June 19, 1850. Her husband died on March 8, 
1 869, and while digging the grave for him beside that of his wife, 
the sexton came upon the cross- base. He at first thought it was 
merely some large stone of no particular interest ; but on clearing 
away the surrounding earth in order to remove it, he came upon the 
shaft, the top of which was about eighteen inches below the surface. 

The late Mrs. Mary Prideaux-Brune, who happened to be passing 
through the churchyard at the time, caused the shaft and base to be 
raised, and placed them for preservation in the position mentioned 
above. Her nephew, Mr. Charles G. Prideaux-Brune, thinks that 
this monument was thrown down during the Commonwealth,^ and 
hidden in the ground. His theory is likely to be correct, as tradition 
states that the other part of the shaft and the head - still lie buried 
in the churchyard. Should this be the case, there is some hope that 
eventually the missing portions of this once fine monument may be 
brought to light. 

The fact of the cross being found on the south side of the church 
may be taken as almost conclusive evidence of its being then in situ, 
since most of the churchyard crosses are found in this position. Its 
depth below the surface is accounted for by the gradual elevation of the 
soil during a period of some hundreds of years, which is partly due 
to the numerous interments, and partly to other causes, which it is 
unnecessary here to particularise. 

If we may judge by the massiveness of the remaining portion of 
the shaft, and also of the base, this cross must have been of unusual 
dimensions, since there is no other in the county that can be compared 
in size with what we may assume this one originally to have been. 

Before proceeding with a description of the ornament it should 
be mentioned that, in an article on ' Two Cornish Crosses' which ap- 

' 'I here are three chstinct marks of wedges near the fracture, showing tliat tlie destruc- 
tion was intentional. 

'' Mention of a buried cross-head in this duirchyard will be found on p. 229. 





'^. 







Padstow, No. 4. In Churchyard 









Pl««ll. 








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/• 409 



ORNAMENTED CROSSES 409 

peared in the 'Antiquarian Magazine' for August 1883, an attempt 
was made to show that the part of a shaft and the cross-head form- 
ing No. 3 cross, Padstow, in Prideaux Place, ^ are portions belonging 
to the monument now under consideration. The writer of the article 
states that ' when all the parts are brought together it cannot be less, 
and may be more, than twenty-three feet high.' He arrives at this 
opinion by assuming, from the inclination of the sides, that two 
pieces of the shaft, respectively 8 ft. 8 in. and 3 ft. 8 in. long, are 
missing. But considering that, although the stump of the shaft is 
3 ft. wide at the bottom, it is only 13^ in. thick, it seems clear that 
a stone of such proportions would not have sufficient stability. 
True, the kind of granite in each case, and the size of the base, are 
apt to be misleading, as the latter certainly suggests a cross of no 
mean size ; but in the absence of reliable evidence in favour of this 
theory, coupled with its impracticability. It cannot reasonably be 
entertained. The safest course to pursue, therefore, is to deal with 
the monuments as two separate crosses."- 

Dimensions. — Height of shaft, 3 ft. 6 in. ; width : at the bottom 
3 ft., at the top 2 ft. 6 in. ; thickness: at the bottom 13^ in., at the 
top 13 in. The base is 8 ft. 2 in. long, 5 ft. wide, and 13 in. thick. 

All four sides of the shaft are ornamented, as follows : the west, 
south, and east with interlaced work, and the north with incised and 
miscellaneous decoration combined. 

Right Side. — A twist, combined with a figure-of-eight distorted, 
or it may be derived from a plait by making T-shaped breaks. 

Front. — A splendid example of interlaced work formed out of 
eight-cord plaitwork, further particulars of which will be found at 
the end of this description. 

Left Side. — A piece of twist-and-ring ornament, containing now 
two rings, and having the termination of the pattern shown at the 
bottom. 

' See p. 396. 

'^ The above remarks have only been inserted with the object of removing an idea which, 
for want of sufficient evidence, is obviously an assumption, and also with a desire to give only 
such information as may be considered reliable, or accepted as reasonable. In the present 
case it is especially needful, since many persons are still of opinion that these monuments 
are both parts of one and the same cross. 



410 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 

Back. — A curious design, resembling a kind o{ xud.^ fleiLV-de-lis, 
produced partly by incised lines and partly by sunk spaces. 

The ornament on the front of this monument is of so uncommon 
and interesting a nature that a fuller description than usual will be 
necessary to make the reader acquainted with its characteristic 
points. To accomplish this a diagram accompanying the Plate of 
the cross is given, showing the formation of the pattern and how it 
would be continued. 

So far as can be gathered at present there are five other instances 
which resemble this design, though in some cases the arrangement 
of the outside cords is different. These examples will be found : 
(i) On across found at Wakefield, which is now preserved in the 
York Museum. In this example the ornament consists of a repeti- 
tion of the central knotwork, the terminations being formed by 
joining up the cords as shown in the diagram at the side of the Plate. 
(2) On a cross found at Ilkley, and now preserved in the Leeds 
Museum. The central knotwork is again employed, but there is a 
difference in the arrangement of the outside bands, though the termi- 
nations of the pattern are similar. It will be seen, therefore, that 
the lower portion of the design on the Padstow cross is different to 
both the foregoing. (3) On an impost of the doorway to the church 
at Kirkby Hill, Yorkshire. (4) On a cross at Meigle, Perthshire. 
(5) On a cross at Rosemarkie, Ross-shire. Three instances of this 
pattern are also found in ancient manuscripts, viz. : (t) In a com- 
mentary on the Psalms by Cassiodorus (Durham);^ (2) in Ves- 
pasian, A I (British Museum) ; (3) ' Codex Aureus,' Harl. 2788 
(British Museum). 

' The pattern is illustrated in Wcstwood's Mimatinrs, p. i8. 



CLASS C 

MISCELLANEOUS MONUMENTS 

In this class are placed recumbent sepulchral monuments with 
Hiberno-Saxon ornament ; cross-slabs ; bases of crosses of various 
dates, and Gothic crosses of the post-Conquest period. 

The monuments will be arranged in the following four divisions: — 

1. Coped Stones. 

2. Early Cross-slabs. 

3. Cross-bases. 

4. Gothic Crosses. 

COPED STONES 

The Coped Stones in Cornwall have already been fully illus- 
trated and described in one of my papers contributed to the British 
Archaeological Association.^ With the exception of the introductory 
portion of the paper, which relates to this class of monument gene- 
rally, the following descriptions are substantially the same as those 
contained in the paper. 

My thanks are due to the Council of the British Archaeological 
Association for their courtesy in allowing me to use the blocks which 
illustrated the original paper. 

Up to the present four specimens of coped stones have been 
found in Cornwall, only two of which are, however, perfect, viz. 
those at Lanivet and St. Tudy. 

' Journal^ \ol. xlix. p. 274. 



412 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



Geographical Distribution 



Buryan, St. 

In church}-ard. 
Lanivet. 

In churchyard. 



Phittack. 

In churchyard. 
Tudy, St. 

In churchyard. 



The two perfect specimens will be described first. 

Lanivet. In the Churchyard 

Lanivet, in the Deanery of Bodmin, is situated three miles south 
west of the town of that name, and about three and a half miles from 
the railway-station. 

This monument will be found on the south side of the church, near 
the porch, and, like nearly all others in Cornwall, is made of granite. 

It was discovered in 1864, during the renovation of the church. 
The particulars relating thereto were given me by the man who 
found it. He stated that part of the work to the church consisted in 
fixing new rainwater pipes, and it was while digging a trench on the 
south side, to connect a branch from one of the down pipes to the 
main rainwater drain, that they came across the stone. It was 
then beneath the surface, and, being in the way, was taken up, 
and shifted a few feet eastward of what we may suppose was its 
original site. 

The Lanivet coped stone belongs to the boat-shaped ^ type, and 
has the somewhat uncommon feature of hipped ends. The lower 
portions of the sides — which are usually vertical — are here sloped in- 
wards at the top, but considerably more so on one side than on the 
other, and the pitch of the coped portion is steeper on the north than 
on the south side. None of the surfaces are flat, all being slightly 
convex ; the same rule aj)plying to the ridge-line, which is highest in 
the middle. 

' 'Fho term 'boat-shaped' has been applied to a certain ty])c of coped stones wliich 
resemble a Imal turned upside down. 



Coped Stone in Lanivet Churchyard 




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A '113 



MISCELLANEOUS MONUMENTS 413 

Diniensions. — Length, 7 ft. 7 in. ; width in the middle, 2 ft. ; 
height in the middle, i ft. 6 in. 

The ridge is formed by a bold cable moulding, stopped against 
the heads of animals. These animals resemble dogs in a sitting pos- 
ture, and are very curious; the clever manner of working them is clearly 
displayed in the bird's-eye view of the top, or developed plan (see 
Plate), taken from the rubbing, a drawing of which is given here 
because, being on the flat, it shows the ornamentation much more 
distinctly than where it is of necessity projected, and therefore fore- 
shortened, on the elevations. It will be seen from this plan that the 
heads and shoulders of the beasts are joined — though they appear 
separately in the side-views, as do also the legs and tails — while 
their backs form the hips of the stone. Surrounding the bottom of 
the coped, or upper, portion of the monument — the corners of which 
are rounded — is a wide, flat bead. 

With the exception of the ends, where interlaced work is used, the 
stone is ornamented with diagonal key patterns, the entire decoration 
being as follows : — 

West End. — On the triangul?r slope is a large triquetra knot, 
and on the square end beneath are two double-beaded, oval rings, 
placed crosswise and interlaced. 

South Side. — The upper, or sloped portion between the animals at 
the ends is filled with a very good diagonal key pattern. On the 
lower portion is a single panel, enclosed on three sides by incised 
lines. It is also decorated with a diagonal key pattern, but entirely 
different in design from that above. The principal feature of its 
composition consists in reversed figures resembling Z's, with T- or L- 
shaped lines between them. Both of these patterns occur on a cross 
at Penally, South Wales, but I believe are not found elsewhere. 

East End. — On the triangular slope is a triquetra knot, rather 
smaller than that on the opposite end. The ornament on the square 
portion below is much mutilated, but from what remains, it appears 
to be a knot similar to that in the corresponding position on the 
west end. 

North Side. — This is similar in all respects to the south side, 



414 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 

except that in the lower portion there is one more compartment — if 
it may be so termed — of the Z's, L's, and T's in the panel, which is, 
however, the same length as the other. 

St. Tudy. In the Churchyard 

St. Tudy, in the Deanery of Bodmin, is situated seven miles north 
of Bodmin town, and two and a half miles north-east of St. Kew 
Highway railway-station. 

This stone, which is of surface granite, now lies on the north side 
of the churchyard, near the chancel. For the greater part of the 
following particulars relating to its discovery I am indebted to the 
Rev, H. Lines, curate of St, Tudy. 

It appears that about the time when the restoration of St. Tudy 
church was completed, in 1873, some workmen, while removing the 
rubbish, laid bare the top of the stone. No further examination 
seems to have been made until the spring of 1889, when the Rev. 
C. Bridgewater (rector) had the whole of it uncovered. Further 
excavations beneath disclosed the remains of two small skeletons, 
very much decayed, and one or two pieces of iron coffin furniture, 
the latter being considered of no great antiquity. Having completed 
these investigations, the pit in which the stone had lain for so long a 
period was filled up to the present surface of the churchyard, and 
the stone was then carefully replaced over the exact spot, and about 
eighteen inches above its former level, so that the whole of it is now 
exposed. It is a well-known fact that the ground of a churchyard 
is gradually raised in course of time, principally through the numerous 
interments which take place, and partly by accumulated worm-casts, 
which will probably account for the monument being so deeply em- 
bedded in the earth when discovered. It does not, however, appear 
likely that the place where the stone was found is its original site, as 
in all likclihr)od it lay nearer the church, and was moved northwards 
when the north chancel aisle was added in the fifteenth century. 

Unlike that at Lanivet, this example is wedge-shaped, a form 
much less common than that just described ; indeed, it is the only 



Coped Stone in St. Tudy Churchyard 



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MISCELLANEOUS MONUMENTS 415 

one of this kind which I have met with. There is nothing like it in 
the illustrations contained in the books to which I have had an oppor- 
tunity of referring, since all those which are similar in general shape 
have gable ends. Owing to the peculiarity of its form, the ridge is 
higher at the wider than at the narrower end, and is in this instance 
formed of a plain bead, widest in the middle. At the apex, at either 
end, the bead divides and slopes outward towards the angles of the 
stone, running into and joining that which surrounds the coped 
portion. The panels on the upper part are also wider at one end than 
at the other, the decoration being artfully contrived to fill them. 

Dimensions. — Length, 7 ft. i in. ; width : at the wide end 17^ in., 
at the narrow end 14 in. ; height: at the wide end 18 in., at the 
narrow end 14^ in. 

The ornament upon this monument is as follows : — 

West End. — On the triangular slope is a bold triquetra knot, and 
the perpendicular space beneath is ornamented by two beads, one 
outside the other, so arranged that at the sides they are vertical and 
at the top they are horizontal, forming three sides of a rectangle, the 
corners of which are slightly rounded ; while the ends of the beads 
simply run out at the bottom. 

South Side. — On the upper, or coped portion is a continuous 
panel of debased, foliated scrollwork of that particular kind so com- 
mon on the sculptured Cornish crosses, instances of which will be 
found in the churchyards of Cardynham (No. 3, p. 354), Lanhydrock 
(p. 382), Lanivet (No. 2, p. 383), Ouethiock (p. 398), and St. Teath 
(p. 391), on the ' Four-holed Cross,' St. Neot (p. 386), and also on the 
cross-shaft at Waterpit Down, Minster (p. 374). 

The lower portion is ornamented by very bold and rudely executed 
arcading, formed by wide beads placed one beyond another. There 
are six bays, varying more or less in size and shape. Between each, 
and springing from the bottom, is what appears to be the stalk of a 
plant, the rude foliage of which fills the spandrils, a slight variation 
taking place in that between the fifth and sixth bays. 

East End. — The triangular portion is here unornamented, the 
smallness of the space and the nature of the material probably not 



4i6 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 

admitting of it. The square end beneath is ornamented in a manner 
similar to the corresponding end, but owing to this portion of the 
stone being narrower the figure is proportionately elongated. 

North Side. — On the sloped portion is an extremely interesting 
design. This commences at the narrow end with a square key 
pattern, resembling a flat twist, exactly like those found on the crosses 
at Cardynham (No. 2) and Gulval, and on the cross-shaft on Waterpit 
Down. The ends of this twist are carried forward, and then, com- 
bining with two other cords, form a piece of four-cord plaitwork with 
breaks, for in the middle of the panel two of the cords are joined up, 
thus forming the break. On the lower portion is arcading similar 
to that on the opposite side, but altogether coarser in execution, and 
consisting of five bays instead of six. The arcades are most irregular, 
each varying somewhat in form from one another. Only two com- 
plete stalks, with foliage, are here introduced, viz. between the second 
and third and fourth and fifth bays. A mistake in this detail of the 
ornament seems to have occurred between the third and fourth bays, 
since the portion which should have formed the stalk follows the 
curved line of the adjoining bay to the top, instead of being 
perpendicular. The small spandril thus resulting is filled with inde- 
pendent foliage, like that between the first and second bays, where 
the stalk is omitted. 

St. Buryan. In the Churchyard 

St. Buryan, in the Deanery of Penwith, is situated six miles 
south-west of Penzance. 

Heaped against the southern side of the church-tower is a 
miscellaneous collection of architectural fragments, consisting of 
pieces of tracery, bits of carved stones, fonts, &c., which formerly 
belonged to the church, and were, I believe, placed where they now 
are after its restoration. When examining these in June 1890, I 
was fortunate enough to discover amongst them part of a coped stone, 
of which, after the removal of sufficient dc^bris, I was enabled to take 
a rubbing and measurements. 



MISCELLANEOUS MONUMENTS 



417 



Dimensions. — Length, 2 ft. 7 in. ; height, 1 1 in. ; average width, 
16 in. 

It is somewhat difficult to determine which part of the original 
monument is represented by this mutilated remnant. Obviously it 
is not the middle, because it tapers in one direction only; neither is it 
one of the extremities, for both ends are ragged from fractures. If, 
however, we may judge by the length of the two examples already 
described, it seems likely that this stone was broken into four pieces, 
and the portion now remaining was probably one of those next the 




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centre. This monument belongs to the boat-shaped type. There 
are remains of the ridge roll, and the horizontal beads at the bottom 
of the coped portion are quite plain. But of the ornament only a 
small piece of diagonal key pattern is now distinguishable on one 
of the sloped sides, and is of similar design to that found on the 
Sancreed crosses, Nos. 3 and 4. With regard to the opposite side, 
it is almost impossible to suggest what the ornament on it may 
have been, though it seems probable, from the slight indications still 
remaining, that foliated work of some kind was used. 



E E 



4i8 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



Phillack, In the Churchyard 

Phillack, or St. Felack, in the Deanery of Penwith, is situated 
one mile north of Hayle railway-station. 

This portion of a coped stone is of a hard, coarse granite, and 
now lies in the churchyard, near the south side of the tower. From 
the length of other monuments of the same character, it would seem 
that about one-third of the entire stone is missing, since only one end 
is intact, while the other is unevenly fractured. 




I have to thank Canon Hockin, rector of Phillack, for particulars 
regarding the discovery of this stone. 

The different uses to which this stone has been put deserve 
notice. When discovered, in 1856, it formed a step in the church 
porch ; for which purpose it had been turned upside down and a 
hole drilled, into which the bolt of the gate dropped. The Canon 
directed the mason to take special care of it ; but during his tem- 
porary absence his instructions were disregarded, and the stone was 
again turned upside down, and used as one of the supports for a 



MISCELLANEOUS MONUMENTS 419 

large slate that covered part of the heating chamber. Finally, it 
was again rescued and placed in the position already mentioned. 

Dimensions. — Length along the ridge, 3 ft. lojin. ; width at 
widest part of base, i ft. 5 in. 

From its extreme rudeness and the entire absence of ornament 
this coped stone appears to be much older than those already 
described. It is of the boat-shaped form, with a gable end. The 
sloping angles of this portion are beaded, and a rude cable ^ mould- 
ing runs along the ridge. 

The accom.panying drawing is taken from a photograph kindly 
sent me by Canon Hockin. 



EARLY CROSS-SLABS 

Monuments of this type are very rare in Cornwall, but there 
appear to be five examples which may be safely placed under this 
heading. 

Geographical Distribution 



Lanivet. 

In churchyard. 
Temple (2) 

In churchyard. 



Towednack. 

In churchyard. 
Wendron, St. 

In churchyard. 



With the exception of that at Lanivet, all have incised crosses 
upon them of very early forms, quite different in character from the 
floriated cross-slabs of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. 

Lanivet. In the Churchyard 

Lanivet, in the Deanery of Bodmin, is situated three miles south- 
west of Bodmin town. 

This stone now lies near the south side of the church tower. It 
is said to have been found built into the church wall during the 
restoration in 1864. 

It is somewhat mutilated : one of the corners at the wide end is 
broken off, as well as a large piece at the other end of the stone. 

' See p. 28. 

E E 2 



420 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 

Di7nensions. — Length, 6 ft. 6 In. ; average width, 2 ft. 6 in. ; 
thickness, 1 1 in. 

The cross upon it extends from end to end of the stone, and is a 
very curious example. It is rudely formed, and is executed partly in 




relief, and partly by incised lines. The undulating shaft is formed of 
three beads side by side, and has a remarkable foot, or step, at the 
bottom. A written description of the head would not convey a 
proper idea of its peculiarities ; the reader is therefore referred to the 
drawing. 

Temple. In the Churchyard 

Temple, in the Deanery of Bodmin, is situated six miles north- 
east of Bodmin town. 

The two fragments of cross-shafts in Temple churchyard have 
been illustrated by the Rev. W. lago, of Bodmin, in a pamphlet 
referred to on p. 205, and from which the following particulars have 
been taken : — 

Cross-slab, No. i. — This is a wedge-shaped stone, 2 ft. long, 
18 in. wide at one end, and 13 in. wide at the other. Near 
the wide end is an incised cross ; the upper limb is the shortest, 
the other three being: of about the same leng^th. Below the cross 
is a horizontal incised line, with the ends turned downward. 

Cross-slab, No. 2. — This is only a small fragment, about 8 in. 
long by 10 in. wide. Down the centre is an incised line with two 
cross-bars. Mention of this slab is made on p. 148, in connection 
with the cross at Trevease, Constantine. 



MISCELLANEOUS MONUMENTS 421 



Towednack. In the Church Porch 

Towednack, in the Deanery of Penwith, is situated six miles 
north-east of Penzance, and two and a half miles south-west of St. 
Ives railway-station. 







J, <7 -i 



This stone now forms the eastern bench in the church porch, 
the cross upon it facing outwards. 

Dimensions. — Length, 6 ft. 3 in. ; average width, about i ft, 7 in. ; 
thickness, 10 in. 

The cross on the outer surface is very remarkable. It is widely 
incised, and is irregularly executed, and has a double set of arms, all 
of which are expanded at the ends. 

It is not at all improbable that an inscription may exist on one of 
the concealed sides of this stone, and it is to be hoped that some day 
it will be taken out and examined. 

St. Wendron. In the Church 

St. Wendron, in the Deanery of Kerrier, is situated two and a 
half miles north of Helston. 




This slab was formerly in the floor of the church, but now forms a 
step between the church and vestry, and was placed in its present 
position when the vestry was added. 



422 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



It is probably the earliest example in Cornwall of a monument of 
this kind. 

Dimensions. — The stone is built into the wall at either end, so 
that its correct length cannot be given ; but its greatest length in the 
opening is 4 ft. 3 in. ; width at wide end, i ft. 7 in., and at the narrow 
end, 16 in. 

On the surface is an incised Latin cross, the upper limbs of which 
are enclosed by an incised circle, the whole resembling those on 
the crosses at Trevenning (No. 3, p. 249) and at Manhay-vean, 
St. Wendron (p. 250). 



CROSS-BASES 

A great number of cross-bases are still to be seen in Cornwall, 
though the crosses belonging to them have long since disappeared 
and the memory of their existence in most cases is lost. Some few 
remain in sitti, others are built into stiles, but most, perhaps, into 
hedges. A list of their localities will be interesting, if only to prove 
still further how thickly dotted Cornwall once was with crosses. 

Geographical Distribntion 

Note. — The page number following the name of a place shows 
where reference has been made to that particular base. 



Altarnon. 

Trevvint. 
B reward, St. 

Cargelly. 

Deaconstovv (p. 243). 

Moor Lane. 

Lank (near). 

Gamm Bridge (p. 229). 

Row (near). 

West Rose Farm (near). 
Budock. 

Nangitha (p. 84). 
Buryan, St. (2) 

Pendray. 

Trevorrian (p. 38), 



Camborne. 

In churchyard, south-west of 
tower. 

CardynJiam. 

Near Holy Well (p. 425). 

Colianb Mi?wr, St. 
In village. 
Penhallow. 
Penrose. 
Tolcarn. 

Crantock. 

At cross-roads, near Trevem- 
per. 



MISCELLANEOUS MONUMENTS 



423 



Croivnn, 

Cattebedron (pp. 132, 228). 

Gunwalloe. 

In churchyard. 
Penrose (p. 70). 

Lanhydrock. 

Tredinnick Cross. 
Re-Perry (p. 227). 

Linkinhorne. 

Sturt's Corner. 

North Coombe (p. 89) (parts 
of broken base). 

Luxulyan. 

Trevellan Lane End. 

Mary Magdalen, St. {Launceston). 
Badash. 

Merryn. 

In churchyard, on south side. 
(A circular base.) 

Michael's Mount, St. 

In road across sands to St. 
Michael's Mount, at Chapel 
Rock. 



! Micha^elstoio. 

Tregawn Gate Tp. 184). 
Trevenning (p. 67). 
Neot, St. 

In churchyard, St. Xeot's stone 

(p. 405). 

Wenmouth. 
Paul, St. 

Near vicarage (p. 103). 
Sancreed. 

Sellan, in a stile. 

Trenuggo Hill. 

Treganhoe (p. 361). 
Sithney. 

Truthall. 
Teath, St. 

In churchyard. 
Veep, St. 

In vicarage garden. 
Wendron, St. 

Boderwennack (p. 248). 

(This base is broken in two.) 
Wlt/nW. 

In church path, near church. 
Zennor. 

In a path on the way to Wlccas. 



GOTHIC CROSSES 

Although not strictly connected with the title of this book, the 
space necessary for a list of the Gothic crosses in Cornwall is so small 
that — perhaps chiefly for those interested in this particular kind of 
monument — I have appended the following list. 

It might, indeed, be claimed that a list of this kind is actually 
necessary, if only to show that the crosses included in it are not early, 
and have, therefore, not been noticed in previous pages. 

Blight ^ is the only author who has done anything towards forming 
an illustrated series of these crosses. Most of the following notes 
have been taken from his book, and I have added particulars of 
others which I have happened to come across. 

' J. T. Blight, Ancient Crosses and Anfiqififies of Cornwall. 



424 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



These monuments will be broadly divided into three sections : — 

1. Transition Crosses. 

2. Unornamented Gothic Crosses. 

3. Gothic Crosses with Figure Sculpture. 



TRANSITION CROSSES 

On p. 151 the transition from the early to the Gothic crosses 
has been pointed out in connection with two wheel crosses having 
the figure of our Lord in relief upon them. Being transitional, they 
must be arain mentioned here. 



Erth, St. 

Trevean. 
Feock, St. 

In churchyard. 



Described on p. 151. 
Described on p. 153, 



UNORNAMENTED GOTHIC CROSSES 

Note. — This section includes Latin crosses, or portions of sup- 
posed Latin crosses, cross-shafts, and fragments of late crosses. 



Austell, St. 

In Moor Cottage garden. 

Blazey, St. 

Near Par railway-station. 
Ewe, St.^ 

In churchtovvn. 
Granipound? 

In Market-place. 

Gwinear. 

In churchyard. 
Lamorran. 

In churchyard. 
Lanteglos-by- Fowey? 

Polruan Cross. 



This is the only example of a Latin cross 

with head, shaft, and base complete. 

Total height, 6 ft. 8 in. 
Lower part of cross-shaft with stopped 

chamfers on angles. 
Lower part of cross-shaft in base of two 

steps. 
Stands ' near the ancient chapel of St. 

Naunter.' Height, including steps and 

pedestal, 1 2 ft. 3 in. 
A rude geometrical cross-head. 

A beautiful example, complete, but fine 
foliated head broken. See p. 198. 

Lower part of shaft in base, both having 
stopped chamfers to their angles. 



* Illustrated by J. T. Blight, Ancicfit Crosses and Antiquities of Cornivall., p. 65. 
■' Ibid. p. 63. 3 //,/,/ p 57, 



MISCELLANEOUS MONUMENTS 



42s 



Lewannick. 

Cross Hill. 
LinkinJiorne. 

Upton Cross. 
Mary Magdalen^ St. {Launceston) 

In churchyard, east end. 

In Museum. 
Merryn, St. 

Tresallan. 
Michael Penkivel, St. ' 

Malpas (near). 



Mullyon. 

In churchyard. 
Paul, St. 

Kerris. 

Mousehole Lane. 

Stephen! s-by- Launceston, St. 
Newport. 



Shaft on a base of three steps. 

Cross-shaft with stop-chamfered angles and 
tenon on top. Height, 4 ft. 9 in. 

Similar to last, but better example. Height, 
5 ft. 2 in. 

Rude foliated head, found at Tresmarrow. 

A Latin cross with cusps in the angles. 
See p. 198. 

A Latin cross in square ; base appears to 
have been made up. Shaft looks like 
part of an old mullion of a window. See 
p. 198. 

The Latin head only of this monument is 
ancient. 

Both are varieties of Latin cross-heads with 
hollow moulding on angles, and the por- 
tion between the upper and lower limbs 
not cut out. See p. 198. 

Stump of cross-shaft in base, both having 
stop-chamfered angles. 



GOTHIC CROSSES WITH FIGURE SCULPTURE 



Bodmin? 

In church. 



Breage, St. 

Trewavas. 
Calling ton.^ 

In churchyard. 

Cardynham.* 

Near Holy Well. 



The head of this cross is ' preserved in 
Bodmin Church.' A cross-shaft in the 
churchyard, at west end of church, is said 
to belong to it. 

Plain gabled head, containing three figures. 
Mutilated. See p. 22. 

A tall cross with lantern head and plain, 
octagonal shaft. It is much dilapidated 
and worn. Height, 8 ft. 3 in. 

Rescued in 1895. Formed part of cover- 
ing to a watercourse. Now lies in a 
field. Head square, with coped top, but 
carving (if any) gone. Base in hedge by 
roadside. Height, 6 ft. 6 in. ; thickness, 
14 in. 



^ Illustrated by J. T. Blight, Ancient Crosses and Antiquities of Cornwall, p. 52, 
'' Ibid. p. 65. ^ Ibid. p. 62. 

* Ibid. Probably the cross referred to on p. 84. 



426 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



Gulval} 

In churchyard. 
He Is ton} 

In garden, Cross Street. 

Ives, St} 

In churchyard. 

Lanteglos-by-Fozvey !" 
In churchyard. 



Lostwithiel. 

In churchyard. 

Mabyn, St.^ 

Tredethy. 
Mary Magdalen, St. {Launces- 
ton)? 

In churchyard. 
M azvgan-in- Pyder , No. 2} 

In churchyard. 

Wurdwan. 



Parts of two crosses, one over the other. 

Lantern ^ cross-head. Found at Trewane, 
St. Kew ; formerly in vicarage garden 
at Luxulyan. 

Lantern head and octagonal shaft. Height, 
10 ft. 6 in. Found buried in churchyard 
in 1832. Erected in 1852. 

Fine lantern cross. Found deeply buried 
in trench round the church wall. Octa- 
gonal shaft, panelled on four faces with 
rude tracery. Height, 10 ft. 

Lantern cross-head, similar to that at 
Launceston (see below) referred to on 
p. 24. 

Lantern cross-head. Found at Lancarfe. 

Lantern cross-head. Found in vicarage 
garden. Similar to that at Lostwithiel 
referred to on p. 24. 

A lantern cross. Probably the best example 
in Cornwall, and does not seem to have 
ever been disturbed. Height, 5 ft. 2 in. 

A lantern cross-head mounted on a modern 
shaft. This is perhaps the finest speci- 
men of this type in the county. 

A lantern cross-head, which appears once 
to have been a fine specimen. 

Probably part of a cross. Has Crucifixion 
with a figure on either side. 

Found near the quay, Penzance. Height, 
3 ft. 10 in. 

An ornate example. 



MichaeVs Mount, St? 

In courtyard. 
Mylor}"" 

In church wall. 
Penzance}^ 

In churchyard. 
Stephen' s-by-Saltash, St. 

In rectory garden, 

' Illustrated by J. T. Blight, Ancient Crosses and Antiquities of Cornwall, p. 51. 

"^ Ibid. p. 56. 

^ By 'lantern 'crosses are meant those in which the four sides of the head are filled with 
figures, and as a rule have a canopied head with pinnacles and crockets. 

^ Ibid. pp. 53, 54. •'' Ibid. p. 61. ^ Ibid. p. 60. ' Ibid. p. 64. 

® Lysons's Magna Britannia, vol. iii. (Cornwall), 18 14. See Plate after p. ccxliv 
• Ancient Crosses in Cornwall,' No. 6. Also F. W. L. Stockdale, iG'.ir«r.f/<?/7j in Cornwall 
1824, p. 84 ; J. T. lilight, Ancient Crosses and Antiquities of Cornwall, p. 59. 

" Illustrated by J. T. Blight, Ancient Crosses and Antiquities of Cornwall, p. 52. 

'^" Journal, Royal Institution of Cornwall, No. XI. April 1870, p. 162. .See Plate. 

" I hid. p. 55. 



INDEX 



Note. — For Locality of Crosses^ see ' Index of Crosses^' pp. xv.~xx. 
See also ' List of Crosses arranged in Parishes,' pp. xxi.-xxviii. 



Ad EL Museum, near Leeds, 76, 106, 165 

yElnat, Cross of, 367, 370 

Agnus Dei, 18 

Aldroen, 372 

Allen, J. Romilly, F.S.A. (Scot.). Gallery for 
casts of Celtic Monuments, 21, 22 

Inscribed Stones in Corn- 
wall, 4 

Knotwork, 388 

Notes on the Ornament 

of the Early Christian Monuments in Corn- 
wall, 348 

Preservation of ancient 



monuments, 20 



Trevena Cross, 368 

• Ways of representing 

Christ on cross, 18 
Alma Villa, Crosses at, loi, 11 1 
Almshouses, Croswin, 80 
Alroron, Cross of, 370, 371 
Altarnon, Font at, 335 
America, a King of, 372 
Amory, Rev. Thos., breaks up cross, 392 
Anderson, Dr. Joseph, 11, 17 
Anderton Mill, Cross from, 86 
Andrews, St., Ornament at, 357 
Anglesea, Penmon, Crosses at, 171, 350, 

351 

Anglo-Scotic Style of Ornament, 349 

• Anne's, St.,' St. Agnes, "]•] 

' Antiquarian Magazine,' The, 34, 392, 409 

Antiquaries, Proceedings of Society of, 
London, 32 

' Archasologia Cambrensis,' Cornish Crosses 
described in, 32 

' Archaeological Journal,' Cornish Crosses de- 
scribed in, 7, 32 

Archer, The late Colonel, of Trelaske, 166 

Charles, of Trelaske, 185 

Architectural Mouldings. See Mouldings 

Arthi, Cross of, 355 

Ashland, 223 

Athelstan, King, 3, 17 



Auldran, 372 

Aycliffe, Durham, Cross at, 352, 365 

Baddeley, W. C, of Helston, Crosses in 
garden of, 104, 331 

Bake, The late Col. S. G., of Camelford, 
restores cross-shaft, 21, 375 

Baker, W. K., 118 

Barlandew, Manor of, 172 

Barningham, Stone with dragons like Cor- 
nish examples, 352 

Bartinney, Manor of, 225 

Basil, Crosses on Barton of, 157 

Bastard, J., of Trevenning, removes crosses, 
67, 244, 249 

Beadwork Ornament, 342 

Beating the Bounds, 74 

Bench-ends, Gothic, in Cornwall, 361 

Bennet-Johns, Resolution signed by, 316 

Benvie, 357 

Berry, Barn at, 46 

Bevan, Charles Dacres, 127 

Bexhill, Sussex, Coped Stone at, 352, 365 

Bibliography of the Monuments, 29 

Bickford-Smith, W., of Trevarno, 317, 329 

Bicknell, Rev. Norman L., of Linkinhorne, 89 

Binner, 131 

Binnerton Cross, 131 

Farm, 131 

Mine, 132 

Bird's-nest in cross-head, 343 

Blazey Gate, St., 369 

Blight, J. T., 'Ancient Crosses and Anti- 
quities of Cornwall,' 31 

Blisland Moors, Crosses from, 44, 239, 254 

Boase, of Burnt House, 269 

Zennor, 146 

' Boat-shaped ' Coped Stones, 412 

Boconnion, Cross used as doorstep at, 66 

Bodmin, Priory of, 338 

Bold Gate, Cross from, 130 

Bolliet, The Pipers at, 126, 319 

Boraston, Rev. G. B., 188, 315 



428 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



Borlase, Dr. W., 30 

St. Blazey Shaft, 371, 372 

St. Cleer Stones, 378, 379 

The late Rev. \Vm., \'icar of Zen- 

nor, 135, 146 
— Mrs., 136 



Boscastle, 
Bosent, North, 214 

South, 214 

Boskenna Mansion-house, 127 

Boswarthen, 1 15 

Bract, as applied to Ornament, 356 

Bradoc Down, 228 

Brahane = Brane, 269 

Breton Saints, 2 

Bridge Cottage, Zennor, Cross moved from 

floor of, 1 46 
Bridgewater, Rev. C.,of St. Tudy, 414 
Brill or Brilleigh, Cross found at, 262 
British Archseological Association, Journal 

of, 32, 411 

Church, 3 

Museum, Vase Room, No. i, 357 

Brittany, Inscribed Stones in, 4 
Britton, John, F.S.A., 228, 301 
Broadley, Rev. W., 267 
Bronze Age, 327 

Image found, 286 

' Broom Park,' field, 65 

Brown, Rev. J. R., Rector of Helland, 205 

Brown Willy, 239 

Brune. See Prideaux-Brune 

Brunian, Brunion, Brunnion, 102 

Buckfastleigh, Cross taken to, 274 

' Builder,' newspaper. The, 34 

Bull Hall, Oxford, 8 

Bujler, Rev. J., 271, 404 

Burhos, village, 315 

Burns, T. B., 104 

Burnt House, Sancreed, Cross near, 269 

Buryas Bridge, Cross near, 325 

Byzantine Method of showing Christ alive on 

the Cross, 18, 12 1 

C-SHAPED device, 292 

Calvary, a, 8 

Cambridge, St. Mary's Church, moulding 

from, 328 
Camden, ' Magna Britannia,' 29, 301 

Gibson's Additions to, 29 

Gough's Additions to, 29 

Camel, river, 194 

Camelford Workhouse, Cross found near, 64 

Canada, Cross taken to, 230 

Canterbury Cathedral, moulding from, 328 

See of, British Church subject to, 3 

Cape Cornwall, 5, 271 
Carah, William, of Praze, 129 
Carbilly, Cross formerly near, 44 
Carborrow, Cross moved from, 109 
Carcvv, ' Survey of Cornwall,' 29 
Carilley, village, 315 



Carlovingian MS., 351 

Scribes, 349 

Carnglaze, Manor of, 225 
Carnhell Green, 134, 228 
Carraton Down, Cross on, 301 
Cassiodorus, Psalms of, 410 
Castle Canyke, 31 1 

Horneck, 136 

Street Hill, Cross from, 74 

Castle-an-dinas, ancient Earthwork, 94 
Castledor, Inscribed Stone, 6 

' Catholic Miscellany,' 30, 202 
Cattebedron, Cross-base from, 132 
Caudwell, Rev. F., erects cross, 280 
Cawrse, Chas., of St. Neot, 202 
Celtic Church, 10 

Interlaced Ornament, 357 

Pattern Late Ornament, 349 

Patterns in Cornwall, 4 

developed, 4 

-Tumulus, 333 



Chapel Close, Cross from, 357 

Field, Cross from, 82 

Ruan Minor, Cross in, 91 

Meadow, 230 

Moor, field, cross from, 149 



Charlemagne, 349 

Cheesewring, 44 

Cheshire Patterns like Cornish, 351 

Chevron Pattern, Double, described, 326 

Chi Rho Monogram, 271,404 

Diagrams and Remarks 

on, 5, 6 

Christ alive on the Cross, Byzantine method 
of showing, 18, 121 

Clothed in tunic, 121 

Christian Art in Ireland, Early, 348 

Inscribed Stones in Brittany, 4 

Monuments in Cornwall, Age of, 3 

Church Dedications in Cornwall, 2, 3 

'Church House,' Cross from, 118 

' Churchtown,' term explained, xxiii 

Churchyard, well-kept, 191 

Chytodden, Cross from, 252 

Cider-press as part of cross-base, 128 

Clare, St., 377 

Clark, Thos., of Truro, 218, 220, 222 

Classification of Crosses, 1 1 

Clere, St., 377 

Clinton, Lord, 287 

Clowance Down, 130 

Park, 130 

Codex Aureus, 410 

Coldharbour, Cross from house at, 118 

Colerne, Wilts, Cross at, 4 

Collins, late Captain, R.N.,of Trewardale, 45 

Rev. Chas. M. Ed., rescues cross- 
head, 56 

Mrs. Ed., of Trewardale, 45, 56 

of Lankc, 58, 75 

J. R., of Bodmin, 63, 184; erects 

cross, 219, 243, 252 



INDEX 



429 



Commonwealth, 408 

Comyn, Rev. Henry, late of Sancreed, sends 

cross to Enys, 47 
Conan-Merodac, 372 
Concense, 64 

Constantinople, Council held at, 18 
Coped Stones, 41 1 
Copperhouse, 221 

Copplestone Cross, Devon, 351, 407 
Cornwall, Age of Christian Monuments in, 3 

Church Dedications in, 23 

Early Christianity in, 2 

Erect Crosses in, i 

Council of Aries, 12 

Quinisext, 18 

Crediton, Cross near, 351, 407 

Creed, Rector of, 8 

Cross, St. Andrew's, 243, 274, 282, 283, 296, 

324 

and Ring Sculpture, 340 

Ball, field, Cross from, 335 

Christ alive on the, Byzantine method 

of showing, 18, 121 

Close, St. Columb Minor, 35 

Madron, 313 

Qoxv^x^^ par excellence^ 155 

Field, St. Columb Minor, 39 

' Grick,' 191 

' Meruny,' 264 

Notice of Sales read from, 271 

Park, field, 61 

The, 216 

Parks, fields, 243 

Patriarchal, 148 

Short, 43 

Stations of the, 8 

Street, Helston, Crosses in garden, 

104, 331 

■ ' Stump,' 215 

Tau, 5, 301, 305 

Wayside, 8 

Cross-bases, 422 

Crosses, Age, Probable, of some, 3, 17 

Classification of, 1 1 

Cumberland, in, 356 

Dated Specimens of, 17 

Different Purposes for which re- 
used, 20 

Difficulty of Finding, 14 



Forms of the, on the Monuments, 16 

Gothic, 423 

Greek, 16, 191, 283 

Inscribed Stones, on, 6 

Latin, 16, 283 

Material of, 15 

Method of dealing with, 13 

Northumbrian, 349 

Number of, in Cornwall, i 

Types of, 9 

Various forms of See Contents 

Croswin Almshouses, 80 
Crow's Pound,' Cross from, 202 



Crusaders, 148 

Crylla Farm, 260 

Cumberland, Crosses in, 356 

Cummings, Rev. A. H., 69 

Cusps in four-holed Cross-heads, 193 

Cylindrical Pillars, 370 



D-SHAPED figure, 291 

Danish Saints, Cornish Churches dedicated 

to, 3 
Dated Crosses, 17 
Davey, Albert, of Trebehor, 139 
Davidstow Moor, 160 
Dawns Men, j)"] 
Deeping St. James Church, Lincolnshire, 

moulding from, 327 
Denbeighshire, Monuments like Redgate 

No. I, 379 
Derbyshire, 370 

Devonshire. See Copplestone, Crediton 
Dinham's Bridge, 48 
' Dives et Pauper,' 7 
Domesday Book, 294 
Doney & Evans, 82 
Doniert, Cross of, 371, 378 
Double Chevron Pattern described, 326 
Doydon, Inscribed Stone at, 5, 6 
Dragon sculptured on crosses, 352, 359, 364 
Drift, 35 
Duloe, 214 
' Dundagell,' 366 

Dundas, Ontario, Cross taken to, 230 
Dungerth = Doniert, 378, 379 
Dunmere Wood, Crosses said to have been 

found in, 60, 338, m, 378 
Dunstan, G. R., 287 
Durham. See Aycliffe, Cassiodorus 



Early Christian Art in Ireland (M. Stokes), 

348 

— Cross-slabs, 419 

Eastbourne, Sussex, Cross from, 303 

Edgar, King, 407 

Edstaston Church, moulding from, 328 

Eid, Cross of, 358, 359 

Ellenglaze Lane, Cross from, 96 

Ellicombe, Colonel, 303 

Elvan, local stone, 15, 16 

Crosses of, 197, 304, 366 

England, South of, Crosses in, 351 

West of. Crosses in, 4, 351 

Enys, Francis Gilbert, of Enys, 47 

John Davies, 47, 130, 177,267, 272, 

277, 303 

St. Hilary, 61 

Erect Crosses, Number of, in Cornwall, i 
Eururon, 372 

Evangelists, names of Four, on cross, 368 
Exeter Diocesan Architectural Society, 

Transactions of, i^^, 377 



430 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



Farms Common Hill, 315 

Fa)Ter, Rev. Joseph, 392 

Ferrers, Family of, 332 

Fifeshire. See Leuchars 

Figure of Our Lord, Remarks on, 120 

Eight Knots, Formation of, 388, 389 

Examples in Corn- 



wall, 389 



177 



Fish Market, Penryn, Cross from, 

Five Lanes, 200 

Fleur-de-lis, 86, 337, 338, 361, 409 

' Flint, Something bigger in the world than,' 

304 
Foliated Scrollwork, 18 
Fonts, Mouldings on, 328 ; 335 
Forms of Crosses, 16 
Fortescue, C. D., of Boconnoc Park, 291 

Hon. S. M., 291 

' Four-holes Cross,' 387 



G, Cross marked with, 172 

Gallican Saints, Cornish Churches dedicated 
to, 2 

'Ganges,' H.M.S., Crew raise cross, 342 

Geach, Edward, finds cross, 253 

' Gentleman's Magazine,' Crosses mentioned 
in, 30, 202, 227 

Geon = Giant, 379 

Germanus, St., of Auxerre, 2 

' Giant's Stone,' Sennen, 92 

Gibson's 'Additions to Camden,' 29 

on the Long- 
stone, 301 

Giddy, John, 303 

(Gilbert) Davies, 303 

Gilbert, Carew Davies, of Trelissick, 277 

John Davies, of Tredrea, removes 

cross, 277 

J., of St. Erth, 133 

Mary Ann, 303 

Glencross, Rev. J. H., late Rector of Helland, 
66 

Mrs., of Colquite, 66 

Gloucester, Cross at, 4 

Godolphin Hill, Traditional Battle at, 380 

Golant, 300 

Gonger, St., 52 

Cross, 52 

Gonzion Down, 202 

Gorham, Mr., 271 

Gothic Crosses, 423 

Gough's ' Additions to Camden,' 30 

Great Bovetown, field, 53 

Lank, 243 

Grecian Pottery, Patterns on, 357 

Greek Cross, 16, 283 

'Green Hill,' field, 62 

Green Market, site of cross, 308 

Gregg, R. A., of Truro, 33, 222 

Grenfell, G. H., of Penzance, 102, iii, J12 

' Grick Cross,' 191 



Grylls, Glynn, moves cross, 331 

Gunger, St., 52 

Gweal Mayow, 331 

Gweek, 250 

Gwendron, St., 188, 250, 346 

Gwilt, ' Encyclopedia of Architecture,' 314 



Half-way House, 2,2>2> 

Hallworthy, 158 

Halsetown Hotel, 1 1 1 

Hal win, 316 

Hamilton, Canada, 230 

Hangman Barrow, Cross as gatepost, 329 

Hants, Crosses in, 4 

Hare Nicholas, the late, of Liskeard, 138, 
j 247, 256, 258, 398, 399 
I Harvey, S., erects cross, 108 
I Haslam, Rev. W., 7 
I Heads, Human, Sculptured, 335 
j Heart, Sculptured, 338 
I Hel, river, 147 

'. Helen's Chapel, St., Cross from, 271 
I Hendra Hill, Cross from, 340 
I Hext, F. J., the late, of Tredethy, erects 
I cross, 76 
1 Hiberno-Saxon Ornament, 232, 348 

High Hall, Cross near, 163 

Hingston, 273, 377 

Hockin, Rev. Canon F., of Phillack, 135, 161, 
219, 221, 222, 242, 303, 390, 418, 419 

Holland's, Philemon, Translation of Camden, 
29 

Holy Cross, Chapel of the, 46 

Rood, Church of the, Stirling, 245 

Well, Blisland, Cross at, 171 

Trelill, Cross from, 331 

Horseshoe Device, 332, 334 

Horsford, T. M. A., of Bosvathick, 261 

Hospital of St. John, 148 

Hour-glass device, 294, 330 

Hiibner, /E., ' Inscriptiones Christianas Bri- 
tanniae,' 31 

Huelva. See Rio Tinto 

Hurlers, The, Stone circle, 301 

Hyde-Smith, Rev. G., erects crosses, 354 



I AGO, Dr. James, F.R.S., 85 

Rev. W., of Bodmin, 5, 31, 183, 205, 

226, 253, 295, 342, 354, 355, 359, 365, 367, 

368, 376, 420 

the Misses Darell, give cross-base, 361 

Icon, 371 

Ilkley, Cross found at, 410 

Imah, Cross of, 358, 359 

Inburga, Cross of, 376 

Inney River, Crosses near, 157, 159 

Inscribed Crosses in Cornwall, Number of, i 

— Pillar-stones in Cornwall, Number 

of, I 
Slabs in Cornwall, Number of, i 



INDEX 



431 



Inscribed Stones, Forms of crosses on, 6 

— in Brittany, 4 

Saxon, in Cornwall, Number 

of, I 
Invergowrie, 357 
lona, Maclean's Cross at, 171 
Ireland, Early Christian Art in, 348 
Irish Saints, Cornish Churches dedicated to, 3 
I slay. Cross at Kilchoman, 171 
Isle of Man, 351, 356, 402 



James, Mrs., Crosses in garden of, loi, in 
Jenkin, Charles, moves cross, 128 

Henry, 316 

Jewry Wall Street, Leicester, Roman pave- 
ment, 370 
Johns, J. H., of St. Buryan, 125, 126 
John's, St., Hospital, Endowment of, 148 
'Jumping,' 279 



Kayar Beslasek, 8 

Kensey, river, 93 

Kent. See Walmer 

' Keps and posses,' 259 

Kerris, Cross removed to, 202 

Kestle, 80 

Kew Highway, St., "]"] 

Key Bridge, 252 

Patterns, 349, 351, 356, 357, 374, 376, 

413 
Kilchoman, Cross at, 171 
Kilkerran, 357 

Killavose, supposed site of cross, 138 
Killbury Castle, 180 
King Harry Passage, 277 
King's Arms, St. Buryan, 125, 126 
Kirk Michael, Cross at, 402 
Kirkby Hill, Yorkshire, moulding from, 410 

Wharfe, 357 

Knaresborough, Yorkshire, moulding from, 

328 
Knight, Richard, of Lanivet, 62 
Konken, King of Powis, 379 



L-SHAPED Lines, 413 

Sinking, or rebate, 106 

Lach-Szyrma, Rev. W. S., 212 

Lamb, Symbolical, 18 

Lampen, 258 

Lan-Dines, 294 

Langdon, 349 

Lanhydrock Park, Cross in, 183 

Lank Great, 243 

Lanke, Lower, 56 

Lanlivery, Three Crosses removed from, 167, 

291, 300 
Lanner, Cross as doorstep at, 218 
Lanuah, 80 
Lanyon, 134 



' La Tcne ' Ornament, 349 

Lead Letters, Inscription inserted in ancient 

base, 21 
Leedstown, 131 
Leek, 370 

Le Grice, C. D. N., 212 
Leicester, 370 
Lcland, 'Itinerary,' 29 
Lelant Ferry, 161 
Lescjuite Farm, Cross from, 58 
Leswidden, Manor of, 225 
Leuchars, moulding from, 327 
Levan, St., Lord, 152 ; removes cross, 335 
Lhwyd, Edward, 30 
Libcrton, 357 

Lincolnshire. See Deeping St. James 
Lindisfarne Gospels, 349 
Lines, Rev. H., of St. Tudy, 414 
Littlewood, 48 

Lombardo-Byzantine Ornament, 349 
' Long Tom,' 301 
Longstone (St. Cleer), mentioned by Camden, 

29, 301 

(St. Mabyn), 65 

Looe, 257 

Lord. See Figure of Our Lord 

Lupus, St., of Troyes, 2 

Lysons, Samuel, ' Magna Britannia,' 30 



Maclean, Sir John, ' Deanery of Trigg 

Minor,' 31 
Maclean's Cross, lona, 171 
Maen (Sennen), Cross from, 102 
Manning, Rev. G. W., erects cross, 86 
Manor House, 303 
Manx chain of rings pattern, 351 
Margam, Cross at, 246 
Marley, Dr., of Padstow, 196 
Mary, Blessed Virgin, Emblem of, 338, 361 
Mary's Church, St., Cambridge, moulding 

from, 328 
' Meadows,' 65 
Meath, Co. See Newgrange 
Medrose, 65 

Meigle, Crosses at, 327, 410 
Mertherderwa, Dr. R., 7 
' Meruny Cross,' 264 
' Mid Moor Post,' 239 
' Middle Moor Post,' 67 
Militia Corps damage cross, 387 
Miller, W., 243 
Milltown (Lostwithiel), 274 

(Tywardreath), 300 

Molesworth, Lady, 194, 195 
Monasterboice, Cross at, 194 
Monogram, Chi Rho, 5, 6, 271, 404 
Monument, The, Crosses called, 167, 399 
Moore, of Trevalis and Hendra, 340 
Morshead, Captain W., R.X., of Lavethan, 

205, 238, 254 
Mrs., of Treniffle, buys cross, 1S6 



432 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



Morshead, Sir Warwick, Bart., 252 
Mortices in rude Pillar-stones, 6 
Mouldings, Architectural, 17 

Early English, 328 

Hatchet, 328 

Norman, 327-328 

Saxon, 328 

Mousehole, 103 

Moyle, W., finds and erects cross, 317 

Museum, Adel. See Adel Museum 

British, 357, 410 

Leeds, 410 

Meigle, 327 

York, 410 

Mylor, Grave of St., 343 



Nangitha Lane, 85 

Nansmeelyn, Manor of, 220 

National School, St. Breward, Cross from, 395 

Neot, St., Legend as to Crows, 202 

his Stature, 405 

Stone, 406 

Newgrange, Chambered Tumulus at, 327 

Newlyn, 38 

NichoUs, F. H., finds and erects Ogam 

Stone, 21 
Nine Maidens Down, 329 
North Bosent, 214 

J-, 36 

Street, Penzance, 308 

Northumbrian Crosses, 349 
Norway, Capt., R.N., 57 
Nunnery Grounds, Cross in, 357 
Nursery, 70 



Ogam Stone, 16, 21, 32 

Oliver, Richard, of Trescowe, finds cross, 

194, 226 
O'Neill, H., on Irish Monuments, 348 
Ontario, Cross taken to, 230 
Ornament, Article on the, 348 

Beadwork, 342 

■ Celtic Interlaced, 357 

Spectacle, 342 

Zoomorphic, 352, 359 

Osier, Rev. F. L., 230 
Other Half Stone, The, 377 



Park, Egloshayle, 172 
Parker, Rev. R. G., 160, 206 
Patterns, Key. See Key Patterns 

Manx, 35 

Scandinavian, 351, 356 

Spiral, 349 

Paul Down, 204 

Pelagian Heresy, Suppression of, 2 

Pemberthy Copse, 61 

Penally, South Wales, Crosses at, 413 

Pencarrow Deer Park, 194 



Pendarves, Cross said to have been moved 

to, 138 

William Cole, of, 137, 138, 244 

Pengreep, 273 

Penmon, Anglesea, Crosses at, 171, 350, 351 

Pennant Field, 377 

Penpont, 56, 243 

Penrose, 70 

Pentaly, Cross near, 98 

Pentewan, Crosses of, 161, 357 

local stone, 16 

' Persent Cross, Duloe,' 214 

Petrock, St., 388 

Petrockstow, 196, 396 

Peverell, family of, 172, 195 

Phillpotts, the late Rev. Canon, of Gwennap, 

149 
Pillar-stones, 6 
Pillars, Cylindrical, 370 
Pinwill, Capt. W. S. C., erects cross, 82 
Pipers, The, 319 
Piran, St., Chapel of, 181 

in the Sands, 180 

Poland, Rev. W. H., 90 

Polcrebbo, 330 

Polglaze Hill, Cross on, 264 

Pollard, Edward, erects cross, 180 

Polsue, 387 

Polyphant, local stone. Cross of, 163 

Ponsanooth, 273 

Porloe, Cross found at, 287 

Porthilly, 385 

Pounds Cause, Cross near, 172 

Powis, Konken, King of, 379 

Pradannack, 276, 282 

Praed Arms Inn, Lelant, 220 

Pratt's Well, St., Cross from, 171, 252 

Prideaux-Brune, Charles G., of Padstow, 396, 

408 

Mrs. Mary, 408 

Pridmouth, Stone used as Cross-base from, 

274 
Probus, Cross from parish of, 82 
Protheus, St. See Pratt, St. 
Psalms of Cassiodorus, 410 
Pye, 66 

QUINISEXT Council, 18 

Rail, W., of Helland, finds and erects cross, 

323 
R.'une, tenement, 332 
Ramsbury, Cross at, 4 
Rashleigh, Jonathan, 65, 83 ; moves crosses, 

274, 300 

William, removes cross, 300 

Rawlings, 36 

Rev., former vicar of Padstow, 196 

Rebate, 106 

Recuiiil)ent Monuments, i 

Reedy Marsh, Crosses found at, 67 



INDEX 



433 



Reeve, Rev. J. Andrewcs, rescues cross from 

well, 270 
Releath, 330 
Retallack, estate, 281 
Richards, John, 329 
Rio Tinto, 294 

Robartes, Lord, erects crosses, 183, 311 
Roberts, W., finds cross and bronze image, 

286 
Rodd, Francis Rashleigh, of Trebartha, 259 

Rev. H. T., removes cross, 134 

Roe, Rev. R. J., of Sennen, erects cross, 108 

S. H. Farvvell, of Zennor, 135 

Rogers, Rev. R. Basset, Vicar of Sancreed, 

49 ; finds cross, 225, 360; finds cross-shaft, 

363 

J. J,, of Penrose, 70 

Rev. Canon Saltren, of Gwennap, 149, 

267, 403 
Roman mosaic pavement, 370 

road in Cornwall, 286 

Rose-an-Beagle, Cross from, 208 

Rosemarkie, Cross at, 410 

Roseveare, Stephen, blind, points out old site 

of cross, 75 
Roseworthy, Cross from, 357 
Roskrudge, T., erects cross, 285 
Ross-shire. See Rosemarkie 
Rough Tor, Crosses moved from near, 67, 

170, 239, 244 
Royal Institution of Cornwall, Journal of, 33 
■ Society, a Cornishman President of, 

303 
Ruan Minor, Font, moulding on, 328 
Rumon St., Oratory of, 91 
Rumon's, St., Cross, 91 
Rundle, Rev. S., of Godolphin, 252 
Ru(n)hol, Cross of, 359 
Runho(l), Cross of, 364 



S-SHAPED Knotwork, 351, 40;, 406 

St. Aubyn, Rev. St. A. H. M., of Clowance, 

130, 132, 328, 329 
St. Levan, Lord. See Lord St. Levan 
Saints, names of various, 2, 3 
San Creed"! xt r- j 

Sancreet ) Now Sancreed, 359 

Sand, action of, on stones, 182 

Sandstone, cross of, 16, 380 

Savage, Rev. F. Forbes, of Flushing, finds 

cross, 287 
Saxon Saints, Cornish Churches dedicated 

to, 3 

Stele or Inscribed Stone, i, 169 

Scale of Crosses illustrated, 353 
Scrollwork, Foliated, 18, 349, 351 
Sellan, Cross from, 70 
' Semmenward,' 239, 240 
Sewrah Estate, 145 

Moor, 145 

Corn Mill, 145 



Shaw, Byam, 190, 343 

Sheffield, village, 279 

Shield, Incised, 298 

' Short Cross,' 43 

Shropshire. See Edstaston 

Silvester, of Gweal Mayow, moves cross, 331 

Rev. Paul D'O., of St. Levan, 229 

Simonward = St. Breward, 239 

Sithney, 317 

'Six Months in the Apennines' (Miss M. 

Stokes), 348 
Slate, cross of, 16, 159 
Smith, G. J., of Trevu, loi, 286 

Hyde-. See Hyde-Smith 

Somerset, Crosses in, 4 

South Bosent, 214 

Southill, 36 

Sowden, Prudence, grave of, 408 

Spain. See Rio Tinto 

Spectacle Ornament, 233 

Spiral Patterns, 349 

Spring Gardens Sketching Club, 34 

Stafford Knot, 352 

Staffordshire. See Leek 

Stations of the Cross, 8 

Stephens, J., 251 

N., of Trevia, 64 

Stephen's, St., church, moulding on font, 328 

Stirling, 245 

Stokes, Miss M., 348 

Stuart, Dr. J., on Scotch Monuments, 348 

' Stump Cross,' 215 

Sussex. See Bexhill and Eastbourne 

Swallock, 229, 239 

Symbolism, supposed, on the crosses, 25 

Symons, J., of Penzance, 308 



T-SHAPED Breaks, 409 

Figures, 305 

Key Pattern, 356 

Lines, 413 

Tau Cross, 301, 305 

Temple Moor, Cross on, 386 

' The Other Half Stone,' 377 

Thomas, St., Font at, 335 

' Three-holes-Cross,' 180 

' Three Styles,' Cross from, 64 

Tolcarn Wartha Mill, Cross found near, 280 

Tonkin, Rev. John, 126 

Trannack, Cross found at, 49 

Treave, 107 

Trebartha Hall, 259 

Trebasil or Basil, 157 

Tredinnic, 228 

Tredrea, Cross from, 277 

Davies Giddy, of, 303 

Tregada Farm, Cross from, 1 86 
Tregadgwith, 128 
Treganhoe, Cross-base from, 361 
Tregarrick, 260 
Tregarthen, 136 

F F 



434 



OLD CORNISH CROSSES 



Tregavvn Gate, Cross-base from, 184 

Tregellas, Cross from, 82 

Tregenna, 175 

Tiegenza, J. S., finds cross, 203 

Treglines Farm, Cross from, 201 

Tregonebris, 91 

Trehane, John, 89 

— — Probus, 82 

Trehudreth Down, 172 

Manor of, 172 

Trekeek farm. Cross-shaft used at, 374 

Trelav, 206 

TreHli Holy Well, 331 

Trelowarren, Ferrers family of, 332 

Trenance Chapel, 284 

Treneague, Cross from, 82 

Trerice water. Cross near, 218 

Tresarret, 175 

Bridge, 45 

Trescowe, 194 

Treslay, 174 

Tresprison, Cross from, 104 

Trevane Cross, 215 

Trevarno, 317 

Trevear Farmhouse, 107 

Treveddow, Cross moved from near, 109 

Trevedran, 126 

Trevellians Gate, 158, 170 

Trevenna, icxd 

Trevennen, 248, 250 

Trevenning, 284 

Treverbyn, Cross found at, 253 

Trevescan, 289 

Trevillet, Cross from, 366 

Trevorgance, 128 

Trevorrian, 211 

Trewardreva, 284 

Trewheal, 131 

Trcwonnard, 51 

' Trim-tram,' 61 

'Tripey Corner,' 311 

Triquetra Knot, diagram of, 26 ; 351 

Truro, See of, constituted, 31 

Tunic, Christ clothed in, 121 

' Twelve-o'clock Meadow,' 222 

' Two Cornish Crosses,' article on, 408 

Tyacke, John, of Merthen, 262, 317 

Rev. R., of Padstow, 196 

Types of Crosses, 9 



U-SHAPED Figures, 345 
Ullici, Cross of, 371 
Under Lanes, field, 62 
Unui, Cross of, 373 
Uny Lelant, 102, 346 

Redruth, 346 

St., Irish Saint, 346 

St., Well, 346 

Uren, J., 92 



Valley Truckle, Cross from, 164 
Venning, E. J. K., erects cross, 159, 160 

J. J. E., removes cross, 366 

Vespasian, Ai, Brit. Mus., 410 

Virgin Mary, Emblem of Blessed, 338, 361 

Vivian, J., 402 



Wakefield, Cross from, 410 

Wales. See Penally 

Walmer, Kent, moulding from, 327 

Waters, Molly, burial of, 229 

'Week at the Land's End' (J. T. Blight), 34 

Welsh Saints, Cornish Churches dedicated 

to, 3 
' Wendron God,' 315 
Wesleyan Meetmg-house, St. Erth, Cross, 

near, 1 5 c 

Stythians, 340 

West Fambro', Canada, Cross taken to, 230 

Highland Crosses, 171 

Westminster Hall, moulding from, 328 
Westwood, Prof J. O., 348 
Wharncliffe Arms Hotel, Cross at, 366 

Lord, 366 

Wheathall, Tympanum at, 328 

' White-e-Cross,' 45 

Williams, George, of Scorrier, 141, 332 

John Mitchell, 333 

Nicholas, 333 

William, of Trenethick, 316 

Sir R. William, Bart., of Tregullow, 



176, 272 



Mrs. Grace, 333 



Willmott, Rev. Wm., of Quethiock, erects 
cross, 398 

Wills, S. J., the late, of St. Wendron, 91, 
130, 131, 134, 138, 148, 188, 212, 220, 228, 
229, 248, 250, 264, 280, 283, 315, 329, 331, 

332, 340, 346 
Wilts. See Colerne 
Wingfield, Rev. W. W.,of Gulval, 372 
Woodchurch, 76 
Worthington, Rev. Thos., erects cross, 

392 
Wyken de Worde, 7 
Wyndam, Wm., Lord Grenville, 292 



X-SHAPED, or St. Andrew's Cross, 282. See 
Cross, St. Andrew's 



Yorkshire. See Bamingham, Knares- 
borough, Wakefield 

Z-SHAPED Key Pattern, diagrams of, 356, 

357 ; 374, 376, 413 
Zelah, 222 
Zoomorphic Ornament, 349, 352, 359 



LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS 



Allen, J. H., lo Norton, Tenby, Pembrokeshire. 

Allen, J. Romilly, F.S.A. (Scot), 28 Great Ormond Street, London, W.C. 

Allen, Mrs., 42 Connaught Square, Hyde Park, London, W. 

Anderson, J., LL.D., Assist. Sec. of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, Queen 

Street, Edinburgh. 
Anderson, Rev. Irvine K., Mary Tavy Rectory, Tavistock. 
Andrew, Dr. William, Castle Street, Launceston. 
Attwood, G. H., Westwell Street, Plymouth. 



Baily, W. E., Porth Enys Museum, Penzance. 

Battley, W. E., I East Bank, Stamford Hill, N. 

Bennett, Ellery A., 17 Courtenay Street, Plymouth. 

Bennett, W. S., Escot, Penzance. 

BiCKNELL, Rev. Norman L., B.A., Linkinhorne. 

Birmingham, W., Plymouth (4 copies). 

BoLiTHO, Captain Edward A., R.N., Rockvean House, Exeter. 

Bolitho, Richard Foster, Ponsandane, Penzance. 

BoLiTHO, T. R., Penalverne, Penzance. 

BoNYTHON, J. Langdon, King William Street, Adelaide, South Australia. 

Bowlby, C. C, 17 Fairfax Road, London, N.W. 

BoYSON, Ambrose P., Manor House, Limpsfield (2 copies). 

Brindley, W., Pergola House, Denmark Hill, London. 

Burnard, Robert, 3 Hillsborough, Plymouth. 



Carah, Rev. J. Sims, Newlyn, Penzance. 

Cardiff Free Library (J. Ballinger, Librarian). 

Cazenove, C. D., 26 Henrietta Street, Covent Garden, London. 

Chadwick, S. J., Lyndhurst, Dewsbury. 

Cheney, George, F.S.A., 48 Grosvenor Road, London, S.W 

Ching, Captain Lawrence, R.N., i Tamar Terrace, Launceston 



436 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 

Ching, The Misses, Longridge Mansions, Earl's Court, London. 

Collins, J. R., Bodmin. 

CoRNWA.'.", Library (Major Parkyn, F.G.S., Hon. Sec), 

Coward F. G., 31 Great James Street, Bedford Row, London, W.C 

CowL.^HD, C. L., Madford, Launceston. 

Crawford, F. W., B.A., The Admiralty. 



Daltry, Rev. Thomas W., M.A., F.L.S., &c., Madeley. 

Daubuz, J. C, Killiow. 

Dickinson, W. Howship, M.D., 9 Chesterfield Street, Mayfair, W. 

DoiDGE, J., Devon and Cornwall Bank, Truro. 

DoNEY & Evans, Francis Street, Truro (2 copies). 

DuNKiN, E. H. W., 5 Therapia Road, Honor Oak, S.E. 



Enys, John Davies, Enys, Penryn. 

Evans, Vaughan, F.R.LB.A., Lowther Arcade, Strand (2 copies). 

Exeter, the Very Rev. the Dean of, The Deanery, Exeter. 



Fisher, Edward, Ahbotsbury, Newton Abbot. 

Fortescue, J. B., Boconnoc, Lostwithiel. 

F-QSTER, Richard, M.A., Lanwithan, Lostwithiel. 

Fox, Robert, Grove Hill, Falmouth. 

Fox, Wilson Lloyd, Carmino, Falmouth. 

Freeman, John A., Penryn. 

Fry, K. a., St. Catharine's College, Cambridge. 



Graham, Rev. M. R., North Rode Vicarage, Congleton. 

(iREAVES, Rev. J. H., 2 Cavendisli Road, Harringay, London, N 

Greenway, E. W., Grosvenor Club, London, W. 

(}regor, F. G., Trewarthenick, Grampound Road. 

Guildhall Library, London, E.C. (Charles Welch, F.S.A., Lil)rarian), 



Hancock, H. Sydney, Sydney Place, St. Austell. 

Harper, S. J., 'I'own Hall, Rcdruih. 

Harkiss, Rev. LIadkian, Coalbrookdalc Vicarage, Shropshire. 

Hems, Harry, Fair Park, Kxetcr. 

HocKiN, Rev. Canon, Phillack Rectory, Hayle. 

Hooper, Rev. G. B., St. Just, R.S.O. (2 copies). 



LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS 437 

Iago, Rev. William, Wcstheath, Bodmin. 



Jackson, VV. C, 2 Vicarage Gate, Kensington, W. 
James, Charles Russell, 17 Basset Street, Camborne. 
James, C. R., 4 New Court, Lincoln's Inn, London, VV.C. 
James, Hamilton, Lemon Street, Truro. 
Jennings, Rev. H. R., The Hostel, Truro. 
Jones, Rev. Canon, St. Ives, Cornwall. 



Kelly, Reginald, Kelly House, Lifton, Devonshire. 
Kennedy, James, 31 Great James Street, Bedford Row, W.C. 
Kerby, W., St. John's Villa, Truro. 

Kermode, p. C, F.S.A. (Scot.), Hillside, Ramsey, Isle of Man. 
KiTTO, John, West Holm, Dunheved Road, Launceston. 
Knox, Archdeacon, Douglas, Isle of Man. 



Langdon, William, M.Inst.C.E., Calle Fuente 18, Huelva, Spain. 

Langdon, Major T. C. 2nd V.B. D.C.L.I., 2 Tamar Terrace, Launceston. 

Langdon, Rev, Father, Kensey, Launceston. 

Langdon, Dr. J. S., Seville, Spain. 

Langdon, Louis Kossuth, Plane Creek, Mackay, Queensland. 

Leeson, R. J., Beverley Terrace, Newcastle-on-Tyne. '* 

Leeson, Mrs., Clifden House, Twickenham, 

Lightfoot, Harrison G. H., The Deanery, Pontesbury, near Shrewsbury. 

Lillingstone, Mrs. E., Shirley, Penzance. 

Lydall, W. H., Strawberry House, Chiswick Mall, London, W, 



March, Dr. Colley, 2 West Street, Rochdale. 
Marley, Dr. H. F., The Nook, Padstow. 
Millett, George Bown, Penzance. 
Mitham, Miss E., The Elms, Stoke, Devonport. 
Morgan, Colonel, Brynbrialln, Swansea. 



Newcastle-on-Tvne Public Library (Basil Anderton, B.A., Librarian). 

Nield, Walter, Bristol. 

Norman, Dr. George, 12 Brock Street, Bath. 

Norman, Noel, 34 Great George Street, Westminster, S.W. 



438 OLD CORNISH CROSSES 

Osborne, James, M.Inst.C.E., 5 Clifton Villas, Truro. 



Parkyn, Major, F.G.S., Truro. 

Parsons, Rev. George Metford, St. Crantock Vicarage, Grampound Road. 

Pattison, Rev. T. H., Theological Seminary, Rochester, N.Y., U.S.A. 

Penny, Rev. Edward L., D.D., R.N., Coryton, Pentillie Road, Plymouth. 

Penzance Library (G. Bown Millett, Hon. Librarian). 

Peter, Claude H., Town Clerk, Launceston. 

Peter, Otho B., F.R.LB.A., Northenhaye, Launceston. 

Peter, Thurstan C., Town Hall, Redruth. 

Phillpotts, Eden, 29 Gordon Road, Ealing. 

Plymouth Free Public Library (W. H. K. Wright, F.R.H.S., Librarian). 

Preston, R. H., Penzance. 

Prideaux-Brune, C. G., Prideaux Place, Padstow. 

Prior, Rev. Robert, Praze, near Camborne. 



QuiNTON, R., 10 Lisgar Terrace, Kensington, W. 



Rashleigh, Jonathan, Menabilly, Par Station. 

Rashleigh, E. W., Kilmarth, Par Station. 

Rees, Rev. R. Wilkins, 73 Plumstead Common Road, Woolwich, S.E. 

RoBBiNS, A. F., Dunheved, Villa Road, Brixton, S.W. 

Rodd, F. R., Trebartha Hall, Launceston. 

RoDD, Miss, Sandfield, Wellington, Somerset. 

Rodda, F., Incledon Villa, Penzance. 

Rogers, F. B., Felsted School, Essex. 

Rogers, Rev. R. Basset, Sancreed Vicarage, Newbridge, R.S.O., Cornwall. 

Rowe, J. Brooking, F.S.A., Castle Barbican, Plympton. 

Royal Institution of Cornwall (Major Parkyn, F.G.S., Hon. Sec). 

RoYCE, Rev. David, Nether Swell Vicarage, Stow-on-Wold. 

RuNDLE, Rev. S., Godolphin Vicarage, Helston. 



St. Aubyn, Edward, Glynn, Bodmin. 

St. Levan, Lord, St. Michael's Mount, Marazion, R.S.O. 

Shuttleworth, Rev. Professor, St. Nicholas Rectory, Lanil)clh Hill, London, E.C. 

Sidebotham, E. J., Erlesdene, JJowdon, Cheshire. 

Silley, Abraham, 349 Goldhawk Road, Hammersmith, W. 

Silley, George M., 40 Warwick Gardens, Kensington, W. 

Slater, Rev. V. G., Newcjuay. 



LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS 439 

Society of Antiquaries, Burlington House, Piccadilly, London, W. (W. H. St. John 

Hope, Assistant Secretary). 
Stamp, Dr. W. D., Ridgeway, Plympton, Devon. 
Stephens, Darell, Trewornan, Wadebridge. 
Stoker, Lady, Ely House, Dublin. 
Strange, Henry D., 2 Lismore Road, Eastbourne. 

Swansea, The Right Rev. the Bishop of, The Vicarage, Carmarthen, South Wales. 
Symons, John, Brinton House, Penzance. 



Tangye, Sir Richard, Glendorgal, Newquay. 

Thomas, J., Kensington Palace Mansions, De Vere Gardens, London, W. 

Trevail, Silvanus, F.R.LB.A., Truro. 

Triggs, Ernest, Green Market, Penzance. 

Tripp, C. Repton, Penhat, Altarnon. 

Tyley, Henry, 9 St. Augustine's Bank, Bristol. 



Wade, E. R., Penryn. 

Webb, Herbert B., Down House, Ashley Down, Bristol. 

Wilson, James, Hutton House, Birmingham. 

Wilson, Robin, The Battery, Newquay. 

Wood, Cyril J., 19 Pier Park Buildings, Bath. 

Wood, R. H., F.S.A., Penrhos House, Rugby. 



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